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selves under

of Esex for their chief commander, whom some disgraces from the court had made wholly theirs. Him they commissionate to bring the king from his evil counsellors, with power to kill and Nay all such, as opposed them in it. That which served their turns best was a new distinction, which they had coined between the personal and political capacity of the supreme magistrate ; alledging, that the king was present with the houses of parliament in his political capacity, though in his personal at York; that they might fight against the king in his personal capacity, juttify themthough not in his politick, and consequently, the distin&tion might destroy Charles Stuart without hurt- the personal ing the king. This was good presbyterian litical capacity doctrine; but not so edifying at York, as it was at Westminster. For his majesty finding a necessity to defend Charles Stuart, if he desired to save the king, began to'entertain such forces, as repaired unto him, and put himself into a posture of defence against all his adversaries.”

The war was openly carried on with various success; the rebel party pillaged the towns and laid waste the country with unparalleled ferocity, and demolished the churches with more than pagan fury and hatred to religion; but after their succes

Q 92


of acting against

but not the po

of the king

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seemed to fail them, both in the north and
veft, *a no course was found fitter for them,
dan to invite the Scots to their aid and suc.
cour, whole amity they had lately purchased
at fo dear a rate. Hereupon Armin and
forre ochers are parched for Scotland;
szere they applied them elves lo dextroully
to that proud and rebellious people, that
they ccafented at the left to all things, which
tad been defred. But they consented on
fuch terms, as gave them an assurance of one
bonded thouard pound in ready money s
te 2 to be kep: boc with pay and plun-
da; the che proc:25 of the service to be
rewarded with the lands and houses of the
Ex i s, and their commissioners to
hare as great annuence in all counsels both
cf peace and war, as the lords and com-

“Burchs, which proved the strongest temptason to engage them in is, was an assurance of reducing the church of England to an exact conformiy in government and forms of worAip to the kirk of Sect.and; and gratifying - their revenge and malice, by profecuting the

arch-bishop of C ortury to the end of his tragedy. For compafing which ends, a

• Heylin, abi fupra, l. xiii. p. 453.



folemn league and covenant is agreed between them, first taken and subscribed to by the Scots themselves, and afterwards by all the members in both houses of parliament, as also by the principal officers of the army, all the divines of the assembly, almost all those, which lived within the lines of communication, and in the end by all the subjects, which either were within their power, or made subject to it. Now by this The league and covenant the party was to bind himself, amongst other things, first, That he would endeavour in his place and calling to preserve the reformed religion in Scotland, in do&trine, discipline, and government; that he would endeavour, in like manner, the reformation of religion in the kingdoms of England and Ireland, according to the word of God, and the example of the best reformed churches; but more particularly to bring the churches of God in all the three kingdoms to the nearest conjun&tion and uniformity in religion, confession of faith, form of church government, and directory for worship, and catechising. Secondly, That without respeet of persons, they would endeavour to extirpate popery and prelacy ; that is to say, church government by arch-bishops, bishops, their chancellors and commissairs, deans, deans and chapters, arch-deacons, and all other ecclefiaftical


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officers depending on it. And thirdly, That be would endeavour the discovery of such as have been, or shall be incendiaries, malignants, and evil instruments, either in hindering the reformation of religion, or in dividing between the king and bis people, &c. whom they should bring to condign punishment before the fupream judicatories of either kingdom, as their offences should de


It would be impossible to make a just representation of the rebellious tyranny practised by this reforming herd of zealots over the king, clergy, and people, without entering more largely into the history of that disgraceful usurpation, than the intent and bounds of this publication will admit of. By whatever nominal religious distinction or appellation the rebels were then known, whether as presbyterians, puritans, or independents, their actions represent them as raging with that savage luft for levelling, that knew no political medium between the fiercest tyranny, and the most unbridled anarchy. A leveller of the last century was well described by one, who probably was personally acquainted with many of the actors in that bloody scene of our national disgrace.. *He has more ambition in his

Dercmption of
a teveller of tire
last century.

* Secret Hift. of the Calves Head Club, p, 24,



breast, than the most extravagant tyrant in the universe. He is very fearful of being made a Nave, but is very desirous of being a Nave-maker; for whenever he crys out for liberty, he is endeavouring to destroy it; and never thinks himself a compleat free-man, till the nation he lives in, has no religion to guide him, no law to punish him ; for his chief aim is to pull down all, when the mad. ness of the common people gives him a fair opportunity. In all conditions, he is as restless as a froward infant, whilst breeding of his teeth; will please no government, and with no government be pleased. He is as tempestuous as the ocean, that swells into rage with every gale, that happens, and seldom reconciles himself to a calm, till like that he has been the occasion of some remarkable mischief.”

I shall not attempt to wound the feelings of those of my countrymen, whose minds want no conviction, by a painful rehearsal of the tragical catastrophe of our late fove, reign king Charles the First: *“ who was given up to the violent outrages of wicked men, to be despitefully used, and at last murdered by


• Vid. Book of Common Prayer: Form of Prayer for the 30th of January. . Q14


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