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death in scripture Exod. x. 17.-Intreat the Lord that he may take away
this DEATH. Not only was Adam's soul ruined that day, but his BODY was ruined; it lost its beauty and vigour, and became a poor, dull, decaying, dying thing.
And besides all this, Adam was that day undone in a more dreadful sense; he immediately fell under the curse of the law, and condemnation to eternal perdition. In the language of scripture, he is dead, that is, in a state of condemnation to death ; even as our author often explains this language in his exposition upon Romans. In scripturelanguage, he that believes in Christ immediately receives life. He passes at that time from death to life, and thence. forward (to use the apostle John's phrase) " has eternal life abiding in him.” But yet, he does not then receive eternal life in its highest completion; he has but the beginning of it; and receives it in a vastly greater degree at death. The proper time for the complete fulness, is not till the day of judgment. When the angels sinned, their punishment was immediately executed in a degree ; but their full punishment is not till the end of the world. And there is nothing in God's threatening to Adam that bound him to execute his full punishment at once ; nor any thing which determines that he should have no posterity. The constitution which God established and declared, determined, that if he sinned, and had posterity, he and they should die. But there 'was no constitution determining the actual being of his posterity in this case; what posterity he should have, how many, or whether any at all. All these things God had reserved in his own power: The law and its sanction intermeddled not with the matter.
It may be proper in this place also to take some notice of that objection of Dr. T. against Adam being supposed to be a federal head for his posterity, that it gives him greater honour than Christ, as it supposes that all his posterity would have had eternal life by his obedience, if he had stood ; and so a greater number would have had the benefit of his obedience, than are saved by Christ.* -I think, a very little consideration is sufficient to shew that there is no weight in this objection. For the benefit of Christ's merit may nevertheless be vastly beyond that
which would have been by the obedience of Adam. For those - that are saved by Christ, are not merely advanced to happiness
by his merits, but saved from the infinitely dreadful effects of Adam's sin, and many from immense guilt, pollution, and misery, by personal sins. They are also brought to a holy and a happy state through infinite obstacles ; and exalted to a far greater degree of dignity, felicity, and glory, than would have been due for Adam's obedience; for aught I know, many thousand times so great. And there is enough in the gospel-dispensation, clearly to manifest the sufficiency of Christ's merits for such effects in all mankind. And how great the number will be, that shall actually be the subjects of them, or how great a proportion of the whole race, considering the vast success of the gospel that shall be in that future, extraordinary, and glorious season, often spoken of, none can tell. And the honour of these two federal heads arises not so much from what was proposed to each for his trial, as from their success, and the good actually obtained ; and also the manner of obtaining. Christ obtains the benefits men have through him by proper merit of condignity, and a true purchase by an equivalent; which would not have been the case with Adam if he had obeyed.
* Page 120, &c. S.
I have now particularly considered the account which Moses gives us, in the beginning of the bible, of our first parents, and God's dealings with them; the constitution he established with them, their transgression, and what followed. And on the whole, if we consider the manner in which God apparently speaks to Adam from time to time ; and particularly if we consider how plainly and undeniably his posterity are included in the sentence of death pronounced on him after his fall, founded on the foregoing threatening; and consider the curse denouncon the ground for his sake, for his sorrow, and that of his posterity; and also consider, what is evidently the occasion of his giving his wife the new name of Eve, and his meaning in itand withal consider apparent fact in constant and universal events, with relation to the state of our first parents, and their posterity from that time forward, through all ages of the world
I cannot but think it must appear to every impartial person, that Moses's account does, with sufficient evidence, lead all mankind, to whom his account is communicated, to understand, that God, in his constitution with Adam, dealt with him as a public person-as the head of the human species—and had respect to his posterity, as included in him. And it must appear that this history is given by divine direction, in the beginning of the first written revelation, in order to exhibit to our view the origin of the present sinful, miserable state of mankind, that we might see what that was which first gave occasion for all those consequent wonderful dispensations of divine mercy and grace towards mankind, which are the great subject of the scriptures, both of the Old and New Testament; and that these things are not obscurely and doubtfully pointed forth, but delivered in a plain account of things, which easily and naturally exhibits them to our understandings.
Observations on other Parts of the holy Scriptures, chiefly in the
Old Testament, that prove the doctrine of Original Šin.
ORIGINAL depravity may well be argued, from wickedness being often spoken of in scripture as a thing belonging to the race of mankind, and as if it were a property of the species. So in Psal xiv. 2, 3. The Lord looked down from heaven upon the CHILDREN OF MEN, to see if there were any that did understand and seek God. They are all gone aside; they are altogether become filthy : There is none that doeth good; no, not one, The like we have again, Psal. liii. 2, 3.-Dr. T. says, (p. 104, 105.) “The holy Spirit does not mean this of every individual ; because in the very same psalm, he speaks of some that were righteous, ver. 5. God is in the generation of the righteous." But how little is this observation to the purpose ? For who ever supposed, that no unrighteous men were ever changed by divine grace, and afterwards made righteous ? The psalmist is speaking of what men are as they are the children of men, born of the corrupt human race; and not as born of God, whereby they come to be the children of God, and of the generation of the righteous. The apostle Paul cites this place in Rom. iii. 10—12. to prove the universal corruption of mankind; but yet in the same chapter he supposes the same persons spoken of as wicked may become righteous, through the righteousness and grace of God.
Wickedness is spoken of in other places in the book of psalms, as a thing that belongs to men, as of the human race, as sons of men. Thus, in Psal. iv. 2. O ye sons of men, how long will ye turn my glory into shame? How long will ye
love vanity ? &c. Psal. lvii
. 4. I lie among them that are set on fire, even the sons of men, whose teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword. Psal. lviii. 1, 2. Do ye indeed speak righteousness, 0 congregation? Do ye judge uprightly,
ye sons of men ? Yea, in heart ye work wickedness ; ye weigh out the violence of your hands in the earth. Our author mentioning these places, says, (p. 105, note, “ There was a strong party in Israel disaffected to David's person and government, and sometimes he chooseth to denote them by the sons or children of men.” But it would have been worth his while to have inquired, Why the psalmist should choose to denote the worst men in Israel by this name? Why he should choose thus to disgrace mankind, as if the compellation of sons of men most properly belonged to such as were of the vilest character, and as if all the sons of men, even every one of them, were of such a character, and none of them did good ; no, not one? Is it not strange that the righteous should not be thought worthy to be called sons of men, and ranked with that noble race of beings, who are born into the world wholly right and innocent! It is a good, easy, and natural reason, why he chooseth to call the wicked sons of men, as a proper name for them, That by being of the sons of men, or of the corrupt, ruined race of mankind, they come by their depravity. And the psalmist himself leads us to this very reason, Psal. lviii. Do ye judge uprightly, O YE SONS OF MEN ? yea,
work wickedness, ye weigh out the violence of your hands. The wicked are ESTRANGED FROM THE WOMB, &c. Of which I shall speak more by and by
Agreeable to these places is Prov. xxi. 8. The way of MAN is froward and strange; but as for the PURE, his work is right. He that is perverse in his walk is here called by the name of man, as distinguished from the pure: which I think is absolutely unaccountable, if all mankind by nature are pure and perfectly innocent, and all such as are froward and strange in their ways, therein depart from the native purity of all mankind. The words naturally lead us to suppose the contrary ; that depravity and perverseness properly belong to mankind as they are naturally, and that a being made pure, is by an after-work, by which some are delivered from native pollution, and distinguished from mankind in general : Which is perfectly agreeable to the representation in Rev. xiv. 4. where we have an account of a number that were not defiled, but were pure, and followed the Lamb; of whom it is said, These were REDEEMED FROM AMONG MEN.
To these things agree Jer. xvii. 5, 9. In ver. 5, it is said, Cursed is he that trusteth in man. And in ver. 9. this reason is given, The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked; who can know it? What heart is this so wicked and deceitful? Why, evidently the heart of him, who, it was said before, we must not trust; and that is man. It alters not the case as to the present argument, whether the deceitfulness of the heart here spoken of be its deceitfulness to the man himself, or to others. So Eccl. ix. 3. Madness is in the heart of the sons of men, while they live. And those words of Christ to Peter, Matth. xvi. 23. Get thee behind me, Satan— For thou savourest not the things that be of God, but the things that be of MEN. Signifying plainly, that to be carnal and vain, and opposite to what is spiritual and divine, is what properly belongs to men in their present state. The same thing is supposed in that of the apostle, 1 Cor. iii. 3. For ye are yet carnal. For whereas there is among you envying and strife, are ye not carnal, and walk as MEN? And that in Hos. vi. 7. But they like MEN hare transgressed the corenant. To these places may be added
Matth. vii. 11. If YE BEING EVIL, know how to give good gifts. Jam. iv. 5. Do ye think that the scripture saith in vain, the spirit that DWELLETH IN US, LUSTETH TO ENVY ?-1 Pet. iv. 2. That ke no longer should live the rest of his time in the lusts of MEN, but to the will of God—Yet above all, that in Job xv. 16. How much more abominable and filthy is MAN WHO DRINKETH INIQUITY LIKE WATER? Of which more presently,
Now what account can be given of these things on Dr. T.'s scheme? How strange is it, that we should have such descriptions, all over the bible, of man, and the sons OF MEN! Why should man be so continually spoken of as evil, carnal, perverse, deceitful, and desperately wicked, if all men are by nature as perfectly innocent, and free from any propensity to evil, as Adam was the first moment of his creation, all made right, as our author would have us understand, Eccl. vii. 29 ? Why on the contrary, is it not said, at least as often, and with equal reason, that the heart of man is right and pure; that the way of man is innocent and holy; and that he who savours true virtue and wisdom, savours the things that be of men ? Yea, and why might it not as well have been said, the Lord looked down from heaven on the sons of men, to see if there were any
that did understand, and did seek after God; and they were all right, altogether pure, there was none inclined to do wickedness, no, not one?
Of the like import with the texts mentioned are those which represent wickedness as what properly belongs to the WORLD; and that they who are otherwise are saved from the world, and called out of it. As John vii. 7. The WORLD cannot kate you ; but me it hateth; because I testify of it, that the works thereof are evil. Chap. viii. 23. Ye are of this WORLD: I am not of this world. Chap. xiv. 17. The spirit of truth, whom the WORLD cannot receive : because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: But ye know him. Chap. xv. 18, 19. If the WORLD hate you, ye know that it hated me before it hated you. If ye were of the world, the world would love its own : But because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the WORLD, therefore the world hateth you. Rev. xiv. 3, 4. These are they which were redeemed from the EARTH,-redeemed from among men. John xvii. 9. I pray not for the world, but for them which thou hast given me. ver. 14. I have given them Lhy word; and the world hath hated them, because they are not of the WORLD, even as I am not of the WORLD. 1 John iii. 13. Marvel not, my brethren, if the world hate you. Chap. iv. 5. They are of the WORLD, therefore speak they of the WORLD, and the WORLD heareth them. Chap. v. 19. We are of God, and the whole world lieth in wickedness. It is evident that in these places by the world is meant the world of mankind; not the