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Line 231. -take the hatch ;] To take the hatch, is to leap the hatch. To take a hedge or a ditch is the hunter's phrase.

STEEVENS. Line 250.

Their neelds to lances,] i. e, needles.

ACT V. SCENE IV. Line 341. -rated treachery,] It were easy to change rated to hated for an easier meaning, but rated suits better with fine. The dauphin has rated your treachery, and set upon it a fine which your

JOHNSON. Line 364. Right in thine eye.] This is the old reading. Right signifies immediate.

STEEVENS. Line 366. -happy newness, &c.] Happy innovation, that purposed the restoration of the ancient rightful government.

JOHNSON.

lives must pay.

ACT V. SCENE VI. Line 410. -thou, and eyeless night;] Thus Pindar calls the moon, the eye of night.

WARBURTON.

ACT V. SCENE VII.

Line 449. Is touch'd corruptibly;] i.e. corruptively. MALONE.

-470. in their throng and press to that last hold,] In their tumult and hurry of resorting to the last tenable part. Johns.

Line 511. And all the shrouds,] Shakspeare here uses the word shrouds in its true sense.

The shrouds are the great ropes, which come from each side of the mast. In modern poetry the word frequently signifies the sails of a ship.

MALOne. Line 521. Were in the washes, all unwarily, &c.] This untoward accident really happened to king John himself. As he passed from Lynn to Lincolnshire, he lost by an inundation all his treasure, carriages, baggage, and regalia.

MALONE.

END OF THE ANNOTATIONS ON KING JOHN.

ANNOTATIONS

ON THE

LIFE AND DEATH

OP

KING RICHARD II.

ACT I. SCENE I.

LINE 3.

thy oath and band,] Band and bond were formerly synonymous.

MALONE. Line 52. -right-drawn--] Drawn in a right or just cause.

JOHNSON. -73. -inhabitable,] That is, not habitable, uninhabitable.

JOHNSON, - 112. the duke of Gloster's death;] Thomas of Woodstock, the youngest son of Edward III.; who was murdered at Calais, in 1397.

MALONE. Line 132. my scepter's awe- -] The reverence due to my scepter.

JOHNSON. Line 182. -no boot.] That is, no advantage, no use, in delay or refusal.

JOHNSON. Line 185. my fair name, &c.] That is, my name that lites on my grave in despight of death. This easy passage most of the editors seem to have mistaken.

JOHNSON. Line 215. The slavish motive-) Motive, for instrument.

WARBURTON. Rather that which fear puts in motion.

JOHNSON.

ACT I. SCENE II. Line 229.

-the part I had-] That is, my relation of consanguinity to Gloucester.

HANMER. Line 286. A caitiff recreant--] Caitiff originally signified a prisoner ; next a slave, from the condition of prisoners; then a scoundrel, from the qualities of a slave.

Ημισυ της αρετής αποαίνυλαι δελιον ήμαρ. In this passage it partakes of all these significations. JOHNSON.

ACT I. SCENE III.

..

Line 312. Norfolk.] Mr. Edwards, in his MSS. notes, observes, both from Matthew Paris and Holinshed, that the duke of Hereford, appellant, entered the lists first : and this indeed must have been the regular method of the combat; for the natural order of things requires, that the accuser or challenger should be at the place of appointment first.

Steevens. Line 334. my succeeding issue,] The reading of the first folio is, his succeeding issue ; the later editions read my issue. Mowbray's issue was, by this accusation, in danger of an attainder, and therefore he might come, among other reasons, for their sake; but the old reading is more just and grammatical. JOHNSON,

Line 418. As gentle and as jocund, as to jest,] Not so neither. We should read, to just; i. e. to tilt or tournay, which was a kind of sport too.

WARBURTON. The sense would perhaps have been better if the author had written what his commentator substitutes ; but the rhyme, to which sense is too often enslaved, obliged Shakspeare to write jest, and obliges us to read it.

JOHNSON. Line 445. hath thrown his warder down.) A warder was a truncheon carried by him who presided at these combats. Line 461. To wake our peace

Which so rous'd up

Might -fright fair peace,] To wake peace is to introduce discord. Peace asleep, is peace exerting its natural influence, from which it would be frighted by the clamours of war.

STEEVENS. Line 487. A deurer merit, not so deep a maim,

Huve I deserved -] To deserve a merit is a pbrase

of which I know not any example. I wish some copy would exbibit,

A dearer mede, and not so deep a maim. To deserve a mede or reward, is regular and easy.

JOHNSON Line 506. -compassionate ;] For plaintive. WARBURTON.

515. (Our part, &c.)] It is a question much debated amongst the writers of the law of nations, whether a banished man may be still tied in allegiance to the state which sent him into exile. Tully and lord chancellor Clarendon declare for the affirmative: Hobbs and Puffendorf hold the negative. Our author, by this line, seems to be of the same opinion.

WARBURTON. Line 527. Norfolk, so fur, &c.] i. e. Norfolk, so far I have addressed myself to thee as to mine enemy, I now utter my last words with kindness and tenderness, Confess thy treasons. JOHNSON.

Line 541. all the world's my way.] Perhaps Milton had this in his mind when he wrote these lines,

The world was all before them, where to chuse

Their place of rest, and Providence their guide. Johns. Line 566. And pluck nights from me, but not lend a morrow.] It is matter of very melancholy consideration, that all human advantages confer more power of doing evil than good. JOHNSON. Line 571. -upon good advice,] Upon great consideration.

MALONE. 572. -a party-verdict gave ;] i. e. you had yourself a part or share in the verdict that I

MALONE. Line 580. A partial slander-] That is, the reproach of partiality. This is a just picture of the struggle between principle and affection.

JOHNSON, Line 620. -journeyman to grief ?] I am afraid our author in this place designed a very poor quibble, as journey signifies both travel and a day's work. However, he is not to be censured for what he himself rejected.

JOHNSON. Line 621. All places that the eye of heaven visits, &c.] The fourteen verses that follow are found in the first edition.

Pope. I am inclined to believe, that what Mr. Theobald and Mr. Pope have restored were expunged in the revision by the author : if the lines inclosed in crochets are omitted, the sense is more coherent. Nothing is more frequent among dramatic writers, than to shorten their dialogues for the stage.

JOHNSON.

pronounced.

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