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both of refinement and barbarism. The wholesale transportation of masses of the population is a feat performed by such unstable powers as those of Assyria and Babylonia. The insane Nebuchadnezzar might be guilty of such an enormity as carrying away the population of a whole country, but the sagacious Napoleon never resorted to an expedient which can only be adopted by an individual who laughs to scorn the most sacred rights of man, who is utterly indifferent to the appalling misery and agonising horrors inflicted at his behest. It is true, this is not the charge brought against the Jews in justification of the gross violation, on the part of the Emperor, of the most sensitive feelings, and of the most sacred and warmest affections, which the Creator implanted in the human breast. ...

“But, alas! we argue amidst a constitutional people, wont to discuss and base its laws upon historical and rational foundations. We have no hope whatever that our voice will reach the Muscovite despot, or that our arguments will produce any impression upon his self-will. We write to give vent to our feelings; we write to place the most melancholy position of our unfortunate brethren in its proper light; and lastly, we write to show how deeply interested we, as Jews, are in the struggle now agitating the East, and that if as Englishmen it be our duty to assist in carrying out the line of policy now pursued by the Western Powers — as Jews we should strain every nerve to prevent Russia from extending her influence still

wider, and from thus preparing for our Eastern brethren the same trammels which now chain those whom an inscrutable Providence has placed under the yoke of the despot in the North.”

During the action of the Sixth Vial, while the stream of the Euphrates evaporates, and the Jews are rising and beginning to seek the land of their fathers, three unclean spirits, like frogs, go out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet — spirits of devils, working miracles. All of them go forth unto the kings of the earth, and of the whole world, to gather them together to the battle of Armageddon, the great day of Almighty God. I may observe that these spirits have gone forth since the year 1820, when the Mahometan power began to wane, to deceive the nations. What are these unclean spirits? We understand their nature from their origin. The first is from the dragon — the Infidel spirit, which is now commonly called Secularism. The second is from the wild beast of the abyss, which (I need not explain to you) is evidently Romanism. The third, from the false prophet, that looks like a lamb, but speaks like a dragon, is the spirit of Priesthood, called, rudely, Puseyism, and, courteously, Tractarianism. I appeal to every reader, if the last ten years do not afford irresistible evidence of the action of these unclean spirits.

In Germany, in France, and even in England and America, and in every part of the globe, the Infidel spirit, in various disguises, is actively at work. I do not pause to adduce the evidence. Much of the revolutionary spirit in Italy and in Austria is really infidel. : It is a reaction from the revolting superstition and despotism by which they were crushed. The Romish spirit, again, so justly represented by the unclean frog, has been croaking over the length and breadth of our country, and, indeed, over Christendom, making proselytes in every rank, swelling its battalions only for its more terrific overthrow, and finishing its triumphs by the marvellous blunder of 1850, when it snatched at a gem in the diadem of England's crown, and lost its best footing; and the Pope dreamed, in his folly, that the Romish pulse at a well-known western bishop's wrist was the beat in the heart of Old England. The third unclean spirit is clearly shown by Mr. Elliot to be what I have called Tractarianism, or the recent Anglican assumption of priestly power. This is in many quarters the predominant spirit of the age. And what is its character? It is Popery, minus Pio Nino. It has all the apostasy, without the honesty of them that subscribe to the Canons of Trent. The minister is merged in the priest—the glory of the Master in the pretensions of the messenger-personal worth in official claims—the glory in the altar—and men's souls are bowed down by ceremony, instead of their hearts being captivated by love. In the New Testament, ministers of the Gospel are called ambassadors. In this system they are priests. If a. man be an ambassador, he cannot, by the very necessity of the thing, be a priest. A priest is one who carries my cause to God, and deals for me with God; an ambassador is one that brings God's mind to me, and deals with me from God. If, therefore, a minister be a priest, he cannot be an ambassador; if he be an ambassador, he cannot be a priest. Let Dr. Pusey take which horn of the dilemma he pleases; impaled on one or the other he must be, and there he must remain miserably perched, until he fully renounces or fully accepts his error.*

Now, these unclean spirits, whose names and nature I have briefly touched upon, are at this moment inspiring the kings and princes and rulers of the earth, secular and ecclesiastical, having emerged under the Sixth Vial, but continuing under the seventh. Russia, driven on from the East-Turkey, roused against her will — the Czar and the Sultan in mortal conflict - France and England, in spite of skilful diplomacy, precipitating the conflict they dread and cannot avert - Austria and Prussia standing by, vainly attempting neutrality - are the shadows of coming events, the tokens of a terrible inspiration. New dispositions may stave off or arrest for a day; but the urging force of the stream is too strong, and the venomous

* In a recent leading article of the Times, it was stated that Dr. Cumming regards the Bishop of Oxford as “the son of perdition." I hold the Pope to be the wearer of this brand, and the Tractarians to have “the mark" of Antichrist,

spirits that impel it too active and powerful, to be permanently and effectually repressed. Their influence is extended to, and in action under, the last — called, in the Apocalypse, the Seventh Vial. These unclean spirits come out under the sixth ; they do not retire under it, however, but continue their action during the seventh; and it is during their action, under the pouring out of the seventh vial, that the last and greatest struggle takes place. Look across the sea, and behold what is now the condition of Europe. The nations are heaving to their centres — infidel, democratical, and priestly elements fermenting and generating, in the subterranean depths of society, those terrific elements which are destined to explode and shatter thrones,

rend shrines, and overturn altars. · After the rise of the angel of the everlasting Gospel, which occurred at the end of the French Revolution, and was embodied in the various Bible and Missionary Societies that then arose in brilliant and beneficent succession, another angel is seen to spread his pinion, and to proclaim war against the errors of Babylon. This was fulfilled in the various Protestant societies, and especially in that earnest and universal protest that still sounds from thousands of pulpits and platforms throughout the land. These shall grow louder as Babylon grows feebler, and finally mingle with her knell.*

* I look on the Society for Irish Church Missions, and the Protestant Reformation Society's Special Mission to Romanists in England, as the two Societies having the most pressing and peculiar claims on the age.

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