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SCENE IV.-"lIe'll make your Paris Louvre

shake for it." According to some writers, the ancient Palace of the Louvre was as old as the seventh century. The obscurity as to the origin of the name is, perhaps, a proof of its antiquity. Some say that it was called after a seigneur of Louvres ; others, that the word signifies l'auvre—the work par excellence. It was originally, no doubt, at once a

palace and a fortress. At the commencement of the sixteenth century the buildings were in a very ruinous state; and Francis I., in ) 528, resolved to build a new palace on the site of the old; but this design was only partially carried into effect till the subsequent reign of Henry II., when what is now called the old Louvre was completed by Pierre Lescot, in 1548. (See Dictionnaire Historique D'Architecture. Par M. Quatremère De Quincy; article Lescot.)

HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATION.

The conspiracy of Cambridge, Scroop, and Grey, against Henry V., is minutely detailed in Holinshed. Shakspere has followed the statement of the Chronicler, that the prisoners confessed that they had received a great sum of money of the French king, to deliver Henry into the hands of his enemies, or to murder him.

It appears, however, by the verdict of the jury (for the conspirators were not summarily executed, as described in the play and the Chronicle), that it was their intention to proclaim Edward Earl of March rightful heir to the crown in case Richard II. was actually dead. The following passage in Holinshed is the foundation of Henry's address to the prisoners in the second Scene: “If you have conspired the death and destruction of me, which am the head of the realm and governor of the people, without doubt 1 must of necessity think, that you likewise have compassed the confusion of all that here be with me. and also

the final destruction of your native country.... Wherefore, seeing that you have enterprised so great a mischief, to the intent that your fautours, being in the army, may abhor so detestable an offence by the punishment of you, haste you to receive the pain that for your demerits you have deserved, and that punishment that by the law for your offences is provided.”

In the fourth Scene of this Act, the Constable only, amongst the French nobles, takes part in the dialogue; but the Duke of Burgundy is mentioned as being present. Shakspere did not find this in the Chronicles ; and it is probable that the Duke of Burgundy was absent from France; as the States of Flanders proclaimed that the duke would render no assistance in the defence of France, unless the Dauphin redressed the injuries which he had heaped upon his wife, the daughter of the duke.

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Cho. Thus with imagin’d wing our swift scene And leave your England, as dead midnight still, flies,

Guarded with grandsires, babies, and old women, In motion of no less celerity

Either past, or not arrived to, pith and puisThan that of thought. Suppose that you have

sance : seen

For who is he, whose chin is but enrich'd The well appointed king at Hampton piera With one appearing hair, that will not follow Embark his royalty; and his brave fleet These culld and choice-drawn cavaliers to With silken streamers the young Phæbus fan

France ? ning.

Work, work, your thoughts, and therein see a Play with your fancies; and in them behold,

siege : Upon the hempen tackle ship-boys climbing : Behold the ordnance on their carriages, Hear the shrill whistle which doth order give With fatal mouths gaping on girded Harfleur. To sounds confus’d: behold the threaden sails, Suppose, the ambassador from the French comes Bome with the invisible and creeping wind,

back; Draw the huge bottoms through the furrow'd Tells Harry, that the king doth offer him sea,

Katharine his daughter ; and with her, to dowry, Breasting the lofty surge: 0, do but think Some petty and unprofitable dukedoms. You stand upon the rivage, and behold The offer likes not: and the nimble gunner A city on the inconstant billows dancing; With linstock now the devilish cannon touches, For so appears this fleet majestical,

[Alarum ; and chambers (small cannon) go off Holding due course to Harfleur

. Follow, follow! And down goes all before them. Still be kind, Grapple your minds to sternage of this navy; And eke out our performance with your mind.

[Erit. • The original text of the folio has Dover; clearly a mistake. (See Historical Illustration.)

b

Rirage-the shore. This is the only instance in which a Linstock is the match—the lint (linen) in a stock (stick). our poet uses this very expressive word. Chaucer, Gower,

Shakspere found the epithet thus Spenser, and Hall and Holinshed, have it frequently.

applied in Spenser: € Sternage. Malone thinks Shakspere wrote steerage. " As when that devilish iron engine, wrought The meaning of the words is the same, but sternage is the In deepest hell, and fram'd by furies' skill, more antique form. Holinshed uses stern as a verb in the With windy nitre and quick sulphur fraught, sense of steer; and Chapman in his Homer has “the sterns. And ramm'd with bullet round, ordain'd to kill, man." The "sternage of this navy" is--the course of this Conceiveth tire," &c.

(Fairy Queen. Book i. canto vii. 13.)

b Devilish cannon.

nary.

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K. Hen. Once more unto the breach, dear

friends, once more; Or close the wall up with our English dead ! In

peace, there's nothing so becomes a man As modest stillness and humility: But when the blast of war blows in our ears, Then imitate the action of the tiger ; Stiffen the sinews, summon up the blood, Disguise fair nature with hard-favour'd rage : Then lend the eye a terrible aspect; Let it pry through the portage of the head, Like the brass cannon; let the brow o’erwhelm it, As fearfully as doth a galled rock

O'erhang and jutty his confounded base,
Swilld with the wild and wasteful ocean.
Now set the teeth, and stretch the nostril wide ;
Hold hard the breath, and bend up every spirit
To his full height !-On, on, you nobless English,
Whose blood is feto from fathers of war-proof!
Fathers that, like so many Alexanders,
Have in these parts from morn till even fought,
And sheath’d their swords for lack of argument.

a O'erhang. In Reed's edition, and in Malone's, this is printed o’erhand, but without authority.

b Julty. The jutting land is a common epithet. Jet and jetty are derived from the same root.

c Confounded. To destroy was one of the senses in which to confound was formerly used.

d Nobless English. The original of 1623 prints Noblisk English. In the second folio Noblish becomes noblest, which Steevens follows. Malone adopts noble. The nobless Eaglish is the English nobility—the barons "whose blood is set fronı fathers of war-proof.”_Henry first addresses the nobless-then the yeomen. There is an analogous position of the adjective in this play. In Act V. Henry says,

" And princes French, and peers, health to you all." And the French king responds with "princes English."

e Fet. Pope changed this into fetch'd, but Steevens properly restored it. The word is not only found in Chaucer and Spenser, but in our present translation of the Bible; although in many cases, some of which Dr. Grey has enumerated, it has been thrust out in some editions to make way for fetch'd. Our Anglo-Saxon language has thus been deteriorated. Fette is the participle of the Anglo-Saxon verb fet-ian, to fetch.

a This scene, as well as the previous chorus, first appears in the folio edition of 1623.

b Summon up. The folio reads commune up. The correction was made by Rowe.

c Portage-the eyes are compared to cannon prying through port-holes.

d

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Dishonour not your mothers; now attest

Boy. As duly, but not as truly, That those whom you call'd fathers did beget

As bird doth sing on bough.“ you! Be copy now to men of grosser blood,

Enter FLUELLEN. And teach them how to war!— And you, good Flu. Up to the preach, you dogs! avaunt, you yeomen,

cullions.

[Driving them forward. Whose limbs were made in England, shew us Pist. Be merciful, great duke, to men of here

mould ! The mettle of your pasture;

let us swear Abate thy rage, abate thy manly rage ! That you are worth your breeding: which I Abate thy rage, great duke ! a doubt not ;

Good bawcock, bate thy rage! use lenity, sweet For there is none of you so mean and base

chuck! That hath not noble lustre in your eyes.

Nym. These be good humours !—your honour
I see you stand like greyhounds in the slips, wins bad humours.
Straining upon the start. The

game
's afoot;

[Exeunt Nym, Pistol, and BARDOLPH, Follow your spirit: and, upon this charge,

followed by FLUELLEN. Cry - God for Harry! England ! and Saint · Boy. As young as I am, I have observed George!

these three swashers. I am boy to them ali [Exeunt. Alarum, and chambers go off three: but all they three, though they would .

serve me, could not be man to me; for, indeed,

three such antics do not amount to a man. For SCENE II.The same.

Bardolph,,he is white-liver'd, and red-faced ; Forces pass over; then enter Nym, BARDOLPH,

by the means whereof 'a faces it out, but fights

not. Pistol, and Boy.

For Pistol,- he hath a killing tongue and

a quiet sword; by the means whereof 'a bre Bard. On, on, on, on, on! to the breach, to

words, and keeps whole weapons. For Nym,the breach!

he hath heard that men of few words are the Nym. 'Pray thee, corporal, stay; the knocks

best men; and therefore he scorns to say his are too hot; and, for mine own part, I have not

prayers, lest ’a should be thought a coward: but a case of lives : 6 the humour of it is too hot,

his few had words are match'd with as few good that is the very plain-song of it.

deeds; for ’a never broke any man's head but Pist. The plain-song is most just; for humours do abound;

his own, and that was against a post, when he Knocks

was drunk. They will steal any thing, and call and go come; God's vassals drop and die;

it--purchase. Bardolph stole a lute-case; bore And sword and shield,

it twelve leagues, and sold it for three halfIn bloody field,

pence. Nym and Bardolph are sworn brothers Doth win immortal fame.

in filching ;o and in Calais they stole a fireBoy. ’Would I were in an alehouse in Lon

shovel : I knew, by that piece of service, the don! I would give all my fame for a pot of ale

men would carry coals. They would have me and safety.

as familiar with men's pockets, as their gloves Pist. And I:

or their handkerchers : which makes much If wishes would prevail with me, My purpose should not fail with me,

a Pistol's snatch of an old song is printed as prose in the But thither would I hie.

folio. The passage does not occur in the quartos. Douce suggested that the words of the Boy were the close of the ditty, we have followed his recommendation to print them as verse. If bough is read bigh we have rhyme. The Saxon verb bigan, to bend, would give us bigh, as bugan

gives us bough ;-and we have still bight to express a bend, a Corporal. Malone says that the variations in Bardolph's title proceeded merely from Shakspere's inattention. b Fluellen is Llewellyn. Is it not rather that Nym, in his fright, forgets his own rank c The scene is completely remodelled in the folio, and yet and Bardolph's also ?

the modern editors here give us two lines of the quarto, A case of lires-several lives—as 'a case of pistols '- entirely different. 'a case of poniards'-expressions in use in Elizabeth's

d Great duke. In Pistol's fustian use of the word duke it

is not necessary to show that the word was properly applied © In the quarto the passage is thus: "Boy. Would I were in London, I'd give all my honour for a pot of ale.” Nym

e Grey suggests that Shaks pere derived the name of Nym has just said, "'Tis honour, and there's the humour of it.”

from nim, an old English word signifying to filch. Thus The whole scene is greatly changed and enlarged in the

in Hudibras, folio. The boy's speech, as it now stands, would seem

“Blank-schemes, to discover nimmers." more appropriate to Nyin or Bardolph.

1 The same expression occurs in Romeo and Juliet, Act I.

such as that of the elbow.

time.

to a commander-dur.

against my manhood, if I should take from another's pocket, to put into mine; for it is plain pocketing up of wrongs. I must leave them, and seek some better service: their villainy goes against my weak stomach, and therefore I must cast it up.

[Exit Boy.

Re-enter FLUELLEN, Gower following. Gow. Captain Fluellen, you must come presently to the mines; the duke of Gloster would speak with you.

Flu. To the mines ! tell you the duke it is not so good to come to the mines: For, look you, the mines is not according to the disciplines of the war; the concavities of it is not sufficient; for, look you, th' athversary (you may discuss unto the duke, look you,) is digged himself four yards under the countermines ;a by Cheshu, I think ’a will plow up all, if there is not better directions.

Gow. The duke of Gloster, to whom the order of the siege is given, is altogether directed by an Irisliman; a very valiant gentleman, i 'faith.

Flu. It is captain Macmorris, is it not ?
Gow. I think it be.

Flu. By Cheshu, he is an ass as in the 'orld : I will verify as much in his peard : he has no more directions in the true disciplines of the wars, look you, of the Roman disciplines, than is a puppy-dog.

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ish give over, the trumpet sound the retreat. By my hand I swear, and my father's soul, the work ish ill done ; it ish give over; I would have blowed up the town, so Chrish save me, la, in an hour. O, tish ill done, tish ill done; by my hand, tish ill done!

Flu. Captain Macmorris, I peseech you now, will you voutsafe me, look you, a few disputations with you, as partly touching or concerning the disciplines of the war, the Roman wars, in the way of argument, look you, and friendly communication ; partly to satisfy my opinion, and partly for the satisfaction, look you, of my mind, as touching the direction of the military discipline; that is the point.!

Jamy. It sall be very gud, gud feith, gud captains bath ; and I sall quit youa with gud leve, as I may pick occasion, that sall I, marry.

Mac. It is no time to discourse, so Chrish save me; the day is hot, and the weather, and the wars, and the king, and the dukes : it is no time to discourse. The town is beseeched, and the trumpet calls us to the breach ; and we talk, and, by Chrish, do nothing: 'tis shame for us all: so God sa’ me, 't is shame to stand still; it is shame, by my hand : and there is throats to be cut, and works to be done ; and there ish nothing done, so Chrish sa' me, la.

Jamy. By the mess, ere these eyes of mine take themselves to slumber, aile do gude service, or aile ligge i’the grund for it; ay, or go to death; and aile pay it as valorously as I may, that sal I surely do, that is the breff and the long : Mary, I wad full fain heard some question 'tween you tway.

Flu. Captain Macmorris, I think, look you, under your correction, there is not many of your nation Mac. Of my nation! What ish

my

nation ? What ish my nation? Who talks of my nation, ish a villain, and a bastard, and a knave, and a rascal." Flu. Look

take the matter otherwise than is meant, captain Macmorris, peradventure I shall think you do not use me with

:

Enter MACMORRIS and Jamy, at a distance."

Gov. Here 'a comes; and the Scots captain, captain Jamy, with him.

Flu. Captain Jamy is a marvellous falorous gentleman, that is certain ; and of great expedition, and knowledge, in the ancient wars, upon my particular knowledge of his directions : by Cheshu, he will maintain his argument as well as any military man in the 'orld, in the disciplines of the pristine wars of the Romans.

Jamy. I say, gud-day, captain Fluellen.

Flu. God-den to your worship, goot captain Jamy.

Gow. How now, captain Macmorris ? have you quit the mines ? have the pioneers given o'er ?

Mac. By Chrish la, tish ill done : the work

you,

if
you

a Quit you-requite you-answer you."

b Upon the suggestion of a friend we have made a trans. position here. The ordinary reading, as it appears in the folio is, line by line, “0! my nation? What ish iny nation! Ish a

villain, and a bastard, and a knave, and a rascal. What

ish my nation? Who talks of my nation." This is evidently one of the mistakes that often occur in printing. The second and third lines changed places, and ihe “Ish a" of the first line should have been at the end of what is printed as the third, whilst " What" of the second line should have gone at the end of the first.

a Johnson says, “Fluellen means that the enemy had digged himself countermines four yards under the mines," But why not take Fluellen literally? why not countermines under countermines ? and then the enemy “ will plow up all." b Macmorris and Jamy do not appear at all in the quartos.

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