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« The founders of this famous society Against the conciliatory system adapted their institution with excellent

which Elizabeth herself, and the wisdom to the circumstances of their age ;

rulers of the church, were disposed but they took the principles of the Romish Charch as they found them, and thus en

to adopt towards those who held gaged in the support and furtherance of a erroneous doctrines, “a fiercer opbad cause by wicked means. The whole position was made by fanatical Proodium of those means fell upon the Jesuits, testants, than by the Papists them. not because they were the more guilty, selves.” The rise of Puritanism is but because they were the most conspi

ably and impressively described. cuous, the Protestants, and especially the English, looking only at that order “The founders of the English Church which produced their busiest and ablest were not basty reformers who did their enemies; and the Ronjanists dexteroasly work in the heat of enthusiasm ; they were shifting upon an envied, and therefore a men of mature judgment and consummate hated, community, the reproach which prudence, as well as of sound learning, and properly belongs to their Popes, their sincere piety; their aim was in the form Councils, and their universal Church. In and constitution of the Church never to England, indeed, no other religioners were depart unvecessarily from what had been so active; and this was because the cele- long established ; that thus the great body brity of the order, as had been the case of the Romanists might more easily be rewith every monastic order in its first age, conciled to the transition: and in their arattracted to it the most ardent and ambi- ticles to use sach comprehensive words, as tious spirits. Young English Catholics of might leave a latitude for different opinithis temper eagerly took the fourth and

ons upon contentious points. There had peculiar vow, which placed them as Mis. been a dispute among the emigrants at sionaries, at the absolute disposal of their Frankfort, during Mary's reign; it had Old Man of the Mountain. The Popes, been mischievously begun, and upwarrantat that time, had richly merited this title. ably prosecuted, and its consequences were For the principle of assassination was lamentably felt in England; whither some sanctioned by the two most powerful of of the parties brought back with them a the Catholic Kings, and by the bead of predilection for the discipline of the Calthe Catholic Church. It was acted upon vinists, and a rooted aversion for whatever in France and in Holland : rewards were Catholic forms were retained in the Engpublicly offered for the marder of the lish Church. In this, indeed, they went Prince of Orange; and the fanatics, who beyond Calvin himself; refusing to tolerate undertook to murder Elizabeth, were en- what he had pronounced to be tolerable couraged by a plenary remission of sins, fooleries.' The objects of their abhorgranted for this special service." Vol. II. rence were the square cap, the tippet, and P. 283,

the surplice, which they called conjuring

garments of popery. The Roman Catholics (we wish

“Great forbearance was shewn toward Mr. Southey would not call them

the first generation of men, who were disCatholics) are accustomed to retort quieted with these pitiful scruples. Reupon the Protestant English Church gard was had to their otherwise exemplary the charge of persecution ; but, lives, to their former sufferings, and to

the signal services which some of them “That Church, and the Queen, its re- had rendered to the Protestant cause, for founder, are clear of persecution, as re- Coverdale, Lever, and Father Fox, were gards the Catholics. No Church, no sect, among them. These, who neither sought no individual, even, had yet professed the to disturb the order, nor insult the prac principle of toleration; insomuch that tice of the Church, were connived at for when the English Bishops proposed that inobservancies, which in them were harmcertain incorrigible Arians and Pelagians less, because they did not proceed from a should be confined in some castle in North principle of insubordination. It was not Wales, where they were to be secluded till several years had elapsed, and strong from all intercourse with others, and to provocation had repeatedly been given, live by their own labour, till they should be that any person was silenced for noncon. found to repent their errors, ihis was an formity. Bishop Grindal entreated Sampapproach to it which the age was not pre- son, the Dean of Christ Church, even with pared to bear." Vol. II. p. 296.

tears, that he would only so far conform

as sometimes to wear the cap at public ed, deserved, and were contented with it. meetings in the University; and the Dean But there were others in whom the spirit refused as determioately, as if he had been of insubordination was at work; and who, called upon to bow the knee to Baal. He if their first demands had been conceded, was encouraged in this, by Leicester's pro- would then have protested against the tection. That unprincipled minion fa- weathercock, made war upon steeples, voured the Puritans, because he was de- and required that all churches should be sirous of stripping the bishoprics, and se- built north and south, in opposition to the caring to himself a portion of the spoils; superstitious usage of placing them east a design, which he could hope to accom- and west. The habits at first had been plish by no other means, than by the tri- the only, or chief, matter of contention, all umph of this levelling faction. Even a the rites of tbe Church were soon attackfouler motive may be suspected. At one ed; and, finally, its whole form and structime, he entertained a project of marrying ture. The first questions were, as Hooker the Queen of Scots; and afterwards was excellently said, such silly things, that in hope of obtaining the hand of Elizabeth very easiness made them hard to be dispuherself. This latter hope, he communica- ted of in serious manner;' but he added, ted to the Spanish Embassador, request- with his admirable and characteristic wising that the King of Spain would use his dom, if any marvelled how a thing in itinfluence to proinote the match; and self so weak, could import any great dan. pledging himself, if it were effected, to re- ger, they must consider not so much how store the Catholic religion in this king small the spark is that fieth up, as how apt dom. If he seriously entertained this things abont it are to take fire.'" Vol. II, project, no better course of preparation p. 299. could be followed, than that of weakening « The tyrannical disposition of these and distracting the Church of England. people, who demanded to be set free

“ The proceedings of Elizabeth's govern. from all restraint themselves, was even ment, both toward Papists and Puritans, more intolerable than their presumption. were grounded upon these principles, that As far as was in their power they separatconscience is not to be constrained, buted themselves from the members of the won by force of truth, with the aid of time, Church, and refused to hold any commuand use of all good means of persuasion; nion with them, Instances occurred, and that cases of conscience, when they where they were strong enough, of their exceed their bounds, and grow to be mat. thrusting the Clergy out of their own ter of faction, lose their nature : and, churches, if they wore the surplice, and however, they may be coloured with the taking away the bread from the commupretence of religion, are then to be re- nion-table, because it was in the wafer strained and punished. When the Puri. form. Some fanatics spit in the face of tans inveighed against pluralities and non- their old aequaintance, to testify their residence, though the circumstances of the utter abborrence of conformity. There church, and its extreme impoverishment, were refractory Clergy who refused to rendered inevitable what would otherwise baptize by any names which were not to have been an abuse, their zeal was not be found in the Scriptures; and as one condemned; and they were long tolerated folly leads to another, the scriptural names in their refusal of the habits, and some of themselves were laid aside, for such signithe ceremonies, with an indulgence, which, ficant appellations as Deliverance, Disciif the personal qualities of the first Non- pline, From above, More trial, More fruit, conformists had not been considered, would Joy again, Earth, Dust, Ashes, Kill sin, appear to bave been carried too far, and and Fight the good fight of faith. But it used too long. "There are some sins,' is not in such follies that the spirit of fanasays Jeremy Taylor, 'whose malignity is ticism rests contented. They boasted in accidently increased by the "lightness of the division which they occasioned, and the subject matter; to despise authority,' said it was an especial token, that the when the obedience is so easy as the wear- work came from God, because Christ had ing of a garment, or doing of a posture, is declared he came not to send peace into a greater and more iinpudent contempt, the world, but a sword. That sword, it than to despise authority imposing a great was their evident belief, was to be inburden of a more considerable pressure, trusted to their hands. Their first prayer when human infirmity may tempt to a dis- had been, that the Church might be swept obedience, and lessen the crime. The men clean; this was sufficiently significant ; for whose sake this indulgence was allow- but when they found that they were not

allowed to perform the task of sweeping, · Reynolds desired that learned mi. they prayed that God would strike througte nisters might be planted in every the sides of all who went about to deprive parish," (in the several parishes.) his ministers of the liberty which He granted them." Vol. II. p. 306.

The Bishop of Winchester remark“ The Church was right in exacting ed, that lay patrons were a great conformity from its ministers; its error cause of the evil complained of; for was in not permitting men of narrow if the Bishop refused to admit inminds and ricketty consciences to associ- competent clerks, presented by them, ate and worship after their own way. But he was presently served with a Quare the malcontents would not have been satisfied with this. It was not for tolera

impedit. tion that they contended, but for the esta

“ Bancroft then knelt, and begged that blishment of their own system, under

as it was a time of moving petitions he which no toleration would liave been allowed. Their demands were founded might move two or three to his Majesty:

and first he requested that there might be upon the assumption that they themselves

a praying ministry, it being now come to were infallible, and that the system of the

pass, that men thought it was the only duty established Church was intolerable." Vol.

of ministers to spend their time in the II. p. 310. « Some of the men concerned in the

pulpit. I like your motion exceeding libels against the Church, suffered under well, replied the King, and dislike the

hypocrisy of our times, who place all their this statute. More traculent libels never issued from the press; but the pupishment

religion in the ear, while prayer (so requiexceeded the offence, and therefore in-. site and acceptable if duly performed,) is

accounted as the least part of religion." flamed in others the spirit which it was in

Vol. II. p. 324. tended to abate. The error of understanding, the presumptuousness of youth, jected to plaralities, saying he wished some

“ The Chancellor, Lord Ellesmere, obthe heat of mind in which such writings might have single coats, before others had originated, time would have corrected ; and, where there was any generosity of doublets. Bancroft admitted the general heart , merciful asage would have produced principle, but said a doublet was necessary

in cold weather." Vol. II. p. 325. contrition. This effect was, in fact, pro

“ Reynolds then desired that the clergy duced upon Cartwright, who, more than any other individual, bad contributed to might bave meetings every three weeks,

first in rural deaneries, where he wished to excite and diffuse the spirit of resistance

have those discussions of scriptural and and dissension. Age sobered him, clemency softened him, experience made him

theological questions by way of exercise, wise, and bis latter days were passed in

called prophesyings, which Elizabeth had dutiful and peaceful conformity.

wisely suppressed, as being schools of discontroversies of this kind,' says Faller, putation, and seminaries of schism : such men, when they consult with their gray things as could not be resolved there, he hairs, begin to abate of their violence proposed should be referred to the ArchAt his death he lamented the troubles

deacon's visitations, and so by a farther which he had raised in the Church, by

appeal, if needed, to the Episcopal

Synod.” Vol. II. p. 329, promoting an unnecessary schism, and wished be could begin his life again, that

When Mr. Knewstubs desired that he might testify how deeply he disapproved his former ways.” Vol. II. p. 312.

“ some honest ministers in Suffolk

might be excused from wearing the The Conference at Hampton Court, surplice, and using the cross in bapof which Mr. Southey gives a good tism", the King replied very truly, account in Chapter XVI. afforded a striking proof of the insincerity of Sir, you shew yourself an uncharitable the Puritans, and of the captious man ! We have here taken pains, and in nature of their objections to the doc- the end, have concluded on unity and unitrines of the English church, which formity; and you, forsoothi, must prefer

the credits of a few private men before the were only a cover to hide their dislike of her discipline. Some remarks Scotch argument when any thing was con

peace of the church. This is just the which were made at that Confe- cluded which disliked some humours." rence deserve to be remembered. Vol. II. p. 335.

. In

One good result of this celebrate upon all who were not with them, as the ed Conference was

reprobate; and presuming that heaven

was theirs by sure inheritance, they were “ A new translation of the Bible, upon ready on the first opportunity to claim the which seven and forty of the most learned earth also by the same title. men in England were employed, Rey. “ If few men have been betrayed into nolds and one of his colleagues being of greater faults than James by mere facility, the number. They were instructed to of temper, there are few whom posterity keep as close to the version then in use, as has so unjustly depreciated. His talents was consistent with fidelity to the origi. were quick and lively, bis understanding nal. A truly admirable translation was sound, and his acquirements such as fairly thus completed, wherein, after the great entitled him to a place among the learned advances which have been made in oriental men of his age. As he grew older he perand biblical learning, no error of main ceived wherein his opinions had been erimportance has been discovered. Minor roneous, and he was not ashamed to acones inevitably there are ; and whenever

koowledge and act npon the conviction of it may be deemed expedient, after this his maturer mind. He had written a treaexample, to correct them, we may trust tise upon demonology; and yet in consethat ihe diction will be preserved in all quence of what he afterwards observed, other parts with scrupulous veneration, and the discovery of many impostures and that no attempt will be made to alter which were detected by his sagacity, he what it is impossible to improve." Vol. was perhaps the first person who shook off II. p. 337.

the superstitious belief of witchcraft, and The following judicious account been bred up in Calvinism, and therefore

openly proclaimed its falsehood. He had of James, and of the leading contro

at one time, regarded the Arminian opiversy of the Protestant Church in nions with abhorrence: upon this point his time, deserves to be extracted. also, ḥis, niind underwent a salutary

change: and perceiving that the discus“ James was, indeed, sincerely desirous sion tended to promote any thing, rather of promoting the welfare of the Church. than devotion and charity, he enjoined all Through his means F. Paolo Sarpi's ad- preachers to abstain from such perilous mirable History of the Council of Trent and unprofitable questions; but in this was composed and given to the world; in instance bis authority proved as ineffi. which the intrigues and secret springs of cient as that of the Papacy, when it was that assembly were laid open by one of exerted afterwards with the same intent. the best and wisest members of the Ro. He had been taught, like all his contemmish communion. And when the first poraries, to believe that heresy was high general synod of the Protestants was held

treason against the Almighty, and thereat Dort, it was owing to the influence of fore to be punished with death. But when the English divines, that its sanction was a Socinian had suffered martyrdom in not given to the monstrous doctrine of the Smithfield, and one, who seems rather to Supralapsarians. The proceedings of the have been crazed than heretical, at Lich synod were sufficiently disgraceful with- field, James perceived that such execuout coming to such a conclusion; never- tions were impolitic, and though his abtheless the abominable doctrine that the horrepce of the offence was not abated, Almighty has placed the greater part of felt also that they outraged the heart of mankind under a fatal necessity of com- man, A Spanish Arian, therefore, who mitting the offences, for which he has pre- had been condemned to the same dreadful determined eternally to punish them, from death, was left in prison as long as he that time lost ground. But it became the lived; and if other cases of the like kind distinguishing tenet of the non-conform

had occurred, it was the King's intention ists; it iocreased their strength, because

never to make another martyr.” Vol. II. those clergy who agreed with them at first in this poiut alone, gradually became political, as well as doctrinal, puritans; and

The injudicious rigour of Banit exasperated the implacable spirit of croft, and the counter policy of his dissent, by filling them with a spiritual pride as intolerant as it was intolerable ;

successor Abbot, were equally injufor fancying that they were the favourites rious to the cause of conformity. and elect of the Almighty, they looked Lord Keeper Williams, Bishop of

P. 337.

common sense.


Lincoln, who was certainly a very would not have imposed upon men of boacute man, although a very secular nest minds and sober understanding, when churchman, pursued a much wiser they examined it at leisure by the test of

The nature of public course towards the Puritans; he la- worship was better understood by the boured to convince them, and if in founders of the English Church. They vain "he protracted the hearing of knew that public instruction is only a part their causes,” says Bishop Hacket, of it, and not the most important; and if de die in diem, that he might in the morning, there was a sermon or mollifie their refractory apprehen- homily for the edification of the elder, they sions." “ They were not imperious.

thought that in the afternoon the minister ly commanded to be silent; but ing and examining the younger members of

was not less usefully enıployed in catechizenough was spoken wisely to their his flock. faces, to put their folly to silence. “ In maintaining that preaching was the Men that are sound in their morals, first duty of the clergy, the Puritans foland in minutes imperfect in their in- lowed the Lollards; it was one of those tellectuals, are best reclaimed when errors which Bishop Pecock withstood.

But it accorded with the temper of the they are mignarized, and stroked

people. Crowds were attracted not less gently*.”

surely by a sermon than by a pageants, The artful and mischievous pro- delight which would be unaccountable,

and they listened to long discourses with a ceedings of the Puritans during the

did we not know that the pulpit possessed reigu of the unfortunate Charles, are

over the public mind in those days, the indelineated in a rapid but masterly finence which in these is exercised by the sketch :

press. When Elizabeth wished to prepare

the nation for any of her measures, she " During this contention the Puritans began by what she called tuning the pulhad greatly increased in tunibers and in pits. The enemies of the monarchy and audacity. Under Abbot's fåtal protection of the church had learnt this policy too; they had got possession of too many and they perverted to the furtherance of churches both in town and country; and their porpose, what in its origin lad been the preachers who had thuis entered the

an excellent design." Vol. II. p. 350. church with the desire, if not the design, * At length an association was forined of betraying it, were powerfully aided by for the purpose of parchasing lay improlecturers in London and most other popii. priations, and re-annexing thein to the imlar places. Becanse of the superstition poverished livings from wliich they bad connected with the mass, the Puritans, been severed. Large sums were raised falling into an opposite extreme, disparag- by voluntary contributions, and intrusted. ed social prayer and thanksgiving, and to a self-constituted corporation of feof. attached as much importance to sermoos fees, consisting of four clergymen, four as the Romanists to what they deemed the lawyers, and four citizens, with a treasurer, sacrifice of the altar. They maintained wlio, if the others should be balanced in the extravagant and pernicions opinion opinion, possessed the casting voice. The that the scripture had no efficacy unless it persous wlio bestired themselves with most were expounded in sermons, the word no

activity in the object, and ohtained the vital operation, unless it were preached management of it, were leading men from the pulpit; that prayers and sacra- among the Puritars ; and it soon appeared ments without sermons, were not merely what insidious intentions were covered naprofitable, but tended to farther con- under this specious pretext. Instead of demnation, and that sermons themselves restoring to the parish church the impromust be heard, not read, for it was through priations which they purchased, they emthe ear only that they could reach the played the revenue in establishing lecheart. There was some reason for this turers, (removable at pleasure, and thereassertion; the heavy hand of power might fore dependent on them,) in market towns have reached the preacher if he printed and especially in such as sent members to his inflammatory harangues, and the empty Parliament: in supporting school-masters oratory by which itching ears were tickled to train up youth in puritanical opinions,

granting exhibitions at the University to * Life of Archbishop Williams, p. 95. the pupils thus trained, pensioning minisREMEMBRANCER, No. 65.


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