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and Godhead; so that they are with- mary cannot fail of being highly out excuse” who have given the ho- interesting, if its style be suitable nour due unto him to idols. Strange to the subject, and its credibility it is that, although to the Christian, undoubted. An authentic and amon whom the full light of the Gos- ple representation of the past and pel has clearly shone, there is but present state of Religion is, un.
one Lord, one Faith, one Bap- questionably, 10 be framed from tism," there still should be more the writings of ancient historians difference of opinion, more variety and apologists, and of modern di. of profession, and more zeal in up- vines and controversialists; and that holding the most conflicting tenets, such a work would be extremely acthan are 1g be found on any other ceptable to the public may be arsubject on which the intellectual gued from the great demand for the and moral faculties of man have ove very imperfect, and, in many ever been employed. It is neither respects, objectionable “Sketch," a difficult nor a pleasing task to which has, for want of a better, been trace this want of unanimity to its for some time in use. source. Without stopping, low- Broughton's Bibliotheca Histoever, to investigate the cause of the rica-Sucra, or Dictionary of all Reevil, the existence of which we ac- ligions, and the more portable and knowledge and lament, we are ready very admirable work of later date, to admit ihat those who sincerely Robinson's Theological Dictionary, desire to keep themselves stedfast supply nearly all that is required by in the right way, should be aware of desultory readers, who have uot time, the errors into which they are liable or inclination, or capacity, to emto fall if they deviate from it; and brace the whole subject, or to make this caution they cannot better ob- themselves acquainted with the oritain than from an acquaintance with ginal authors, from whom these comthe history, the origin, progress, pilations have been put together. and effects of the various heresies But there is always a primâ facie and modes of faith and practice objection to a dictionary, be it ever which have given rise to so much so good—that it is, at best, only a contention and so much misery on book of reference, and cannot be earth.
read in such a continued and sysTo bring together into one view tematic manner as shall leave an all the shades and degrees of sober useful impression on the mind.sentiments, and all the extravagant In the compact duodecimo of Alexhallucinations and fanatical reveries ander Ross, of which müntion has which have been, from time to time, been made above, a vast stock of adopted as principles of religion, information relative to the motley various as the features of their re- “ Religions," not only of Europe spective authors, and generally not and Asia, but of Africa and America, less indicative of their personal pro• is conveniently, though somewhat pensities—to do this must neces-, awkwardly, compressed: but many, sarily exceed the powers of the most and those no trilling, blemishes are industrious inquirer; for it implies to be detected in the mass; and to a more intimate knowledge of the Episcopalians it is no recommendahuman heart than any human being tion that it has a strong and unconcan possess. Still, it is very prac- . cealed bias to Presbyterian printicable to collect a summary ac- .ciples. That some work of a higher count of the chief religious doctrines character and more comprehensive which have been promulged, and of nature than Dr. Evans's “ Sketch," the ceremonies and institutions not so quaint and more correct than which have obtained, in all ages Ross's, and yet not so voluminous of the world ; and such a sum- as it must needs be, if it entered
largely into all that has been written quo of the author should be asceron the divisions and sub-divisions of tained, our quotations shall be taken the Religious World - that some chiefly from what are denominated such work has been a desideratum, the “ Miscellaneous Remarks," with there can be no doubt.
which he usually closes the account We are happy, therefore, to have of each Church or Sect; as these it in our power to notice a book may be supposed to convey his own which has already passed through one unborrowed sentiments. edition, and is now put forth in
Before we let Mr. Adam speak an altered form, free from the ob- for himself, we have a word or two jections to which we have just to say for ourselves. As we cannot alluded, calculated 10 supply the be persuaded to accede to the flatdeficiency which there has been so tering opinion of Dr. Priestley, that much occasion to regret, and quite “ if we take in every thing relating large enough to furnish as much in. to doctrine, discipline, and method formation upon points of general of worship, there is no sect or denointerest as is necessary to any but mination among us that is not the studious divine, who ought never nearer to the standard of the Gosto rest contented with extracts and pel than the Established Church.” abridgments.
Humbly venturing to differ with Mr. Adam has given us a very this great authority, we feel an houseful survey of the four great sys- nest pride in the conviction, that tems of Religion, Christianity, Ju. whenever our Church is fairly placed daism, Paganism, and Mohammed- under comparison with all other ism; and of the various, or at least churches, true or pretended, or with the chief, modifications of each of the heresies, in the better sense of them. We must however, find fault, the word, by which she is surin limine, with his title-" The Re- rounded, she will stand forth to the ligious World displayed ;" which, judginent of the unprejudiced obnotwithstanding the black letter, server a remarkable, if not a singuunder whose reverend character it lar, example of the happy effects of challenges respect, is really beneath primitive simplicity combined witha the dignity of the work, and leads us a sacred dignity, of temperale conto expect a frontispiece of at least duct in the work of reformation, eight effigies of bearded and wigged and of close adherence to whatever Reformers and Sectarians, if not a was intrinsically good, or obviously dozen plates in as many compart- expedient in tbe doctrines and rites ments, each diminished from the of the much corrupted Church of copies of designs, exhibiting what are Rome, notwithstanding the difficulsaid to be religio:is ceremonies, by ties of the times in which the ReDr. Hurd; the first plate of which, formation was accomplished, and by the by, the said Dr. Hurd has the subsequent opposition which our made his own, by inverting Brough- ecclesiastical constitution has en. ton's subject, and appending an ele- dured. Nothing, we sincerely begant descriptive verse. Barring lieve, can contribute more to the this untasteful title, Mr. Adam's stability and credit of the Estabook is written in a plain, unaffect- blished Church, than that she should ed manner, and in a good spirit, be rigidly scrutinized as to her either impartially, or charitably tenets and ordinances; if the same where partiality must be shown ; scrutiny be carried with equal strictof this the extracts which we shall ness into the real state of the faith submit to our readers will bear the and practice by which those who best testimony. And, as it is im- differ from us are distinguished.portant to the credit of a work of If, indeed, she cannot abide this this description, that the animus trial, if she cannot bear the test of
comparison, she is not what we quivocally what he holds himself to
It has happened be the truth, even though we may hitherto, that the works on the dissent from bis
of thinking various denominations of Religion. But it is time to let Mr. Adam ists have been written by those who himself be heard, and we will take were, ou principle, opposed to the his first paragraph as a favourable Church of England; we may, there- specimen. fore, without imputing any unfair “ Christianity, which is one of the four misrepresentation to others, be glad grand systems of religion, and the only to see a publication, which cer- true religioo, is so called from its Divine tainly has much higher pretensions Author, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, to public favour than its precursors,
and the Saviour of the world. At its first executed by a member of the Esta
commencement, those who embraced it blishment, with moderation, judg. names of disciples, believers, elect, saints,
were known among themselves by the ment, and a seeming conviction of and brethren; but about the year 43, the serious nature of his uuder. when the disciples came to be joined by laking. We by no means, how the uncircumcised at Antioch, and so could ever, regard the chapter on the no longer be distinguished as any particular Church of England as Mr. Adam's class of Jews, they were there called
CHRISTIANS. This pame, though it seems chef d'oeuvre. He is evidently crip- to have been first given to them by the pled by his anxiety to preserve a
world, was yet well received among theinBurnet-like neutrality between those selves, being of the same import with members of it who differ from each the pbrase oi Xploro,' those that are other upon some vital questions. Christ's.'” Vol. I. p. 3. In order to effect this he is obliged
Speaking, in his “general view". to evade the mention of some characteristic doctrines ; and frequent: the Gospel, it is said, ' with much
of Christianity, of the precepts of ly to have recourse to the backnied
truth and energy, quotations from Bishop Horsley, relative to the comprehensive na
" As to the exercise of self-goverment,
Christianity is manifestly designed to corture of our Articles-quotations
rect, to reform, and to improve human which certainly have often, in their nature. It teaches us not only to regulate insulated forn, beep made to speak the outward actions, but the inward afa very different language from that fections and dispositions of the soul: to which their Right Reverend Author labour after real purity of heart, simplicity, would have acknowledged, had he and godly sincerity, as that, without which been alive to see the use that has
no outward appearance can be pleasing in been made of his dicta and supposed the sight of God, whom it describes as of opinions. It, perhaps, would not strikes at the root of all our corruptions
purer eyes than to behold iniquity. It be becoming, and certainly it is not and disorders, by obliging us to correct necessary, that in such a work as that inordinate self-love which causes us this the writer should, on all occa. to centre all our views in our own pleasures, sions, obtrude his own sentiments;
or glory, or interest, and by instructing and still less that he should misrepresent sensual appetites and passions. It is de
enabling us to mortify and subdue our or warp those of others : but there signed to assert the dominion of the rational can be no good reason why, when a and moral powers, over the inferior part fit opportunity does occur, that of our nature, or of the spirit over the flesh, should not be done explicitly which which alone can lay a just foundation for is done in part; (Vol. I. p. 121.) that moral liberty, and that tranquillity of why the author should not freely mind, which it is the design of all irve state what he believes to be the philosophy, and all true religion, to pro
cure and establish. meaning of the Church on all her
“ In short, it includes a morality, not articles of faith. Confidence will only superior to the deductions of human always be reposed in the represen- reason, but enforced on new principles tation of a writer who tells us une- and motives, and strengtiened by fresla
considerations, derived from the highestbers of that Church, it is doubtless applied source, and directed to the noblest end." with justice. But if it is used for imputVol. I. p. 32.
ing to the Church of England any approach
towards the fundamental errors, into which The chapter on " Arians” is thus niany eminent Arminians on the continent well concluded,
have fallen since the Synod of Dort, it is “ According to Trinitarians, it is hard by no means applicable; for their theoloto say which of the two is the most un
gical system underwent a considerable reasonable and unscriptoral :-Socinian- change soou after that period, and emism, which never considers Christ as any
braced many persons wliose opinions rething but a mere man; or Arianism, which specting the person of Chirst, the nenever looks upon him as any thing but cessity of the aid of Divine grace, and a supposititious God, ' a deified creature, other fundamental doctrines of Christianity a visible and inferior Jehovah,' (H.Taylor.) appear to have fallen far below the stanBetween these two, in their opinion, lies dard of the Gospel. So comprehensive is the true Christian faith ; which, as it allows it said to have become, that Christians of Christ to be perfect God and perfect man,
all sects and denominations, whatever is never offended, or put to its shifts, by any
their sentiments and opinions may be, thing that the Scripture may have said Papists excepted, may be found, accord about him, in either capacity. And the ing to it, into one religious body, and doctrine of his divinity, they insist, rests
live together in brotherly love and conon the evidence of prophecy and miracles, cord. Many who do not belong to the Christ's testimony of himself,
and the be- Charch of England, and not a few of those lief of his Apostles." Vol. I. p. 69.
who are within her pale, both clergy and
laity, seemsto believe, and warmly contend, The remarks on Socinian Unita.
on the other hand, that her doctrinal rians are not less pertinent through- articles and confessional are strictly Calout, than the following portion of vinistic: and on this subject, the dispate tbem.
perhaps never ran higher than it has dove “ If we have too often seen professing
of late years." Vol. I, p. 121. Christians disputing de lana caprina- The history, constitution, and about pothing; here we behold them con- ceremonies of the Church of Rome tending pro aris et focis-for every thing: for Trinitarians cannot belp regarding the occupy a considerable space; and opinions now considered to be funda. the subject is wound up with this mentally subversive of what appears to expressive sentence; them to be the peculiarities of the Chris- “ I once more congratulate myself that tian system, so that there can be no com- my duty does not oblige me to close this promise between the two parties.” Vol.l. article with any further remarks on the p. 95.
subject of this scheme of religion, or to In the chapter on “ Arminians” express my real and candid opinion rethe following observations occur,
specting it; siuce at every view I take of
it, its hay and stubble are almost the first which may, in conjunction with some
things that present themselves to the eye others scattered through the volumes, of my mind." Vol. I. p. 335. justify a doubt in the mind of his
In the chapter on the Church of readers, whether Mr. A. bas derived his ideas of the Church of England England, after a brief notice of its from those whom we deen the best
rise and progress, and its distins
guishing tenets, and a somewhat masters.
larger description of its worship, • Ever since the days of Archbishop rites and ceremonies, government Laud-1. e. from the time of King Charles and discipline, its commendation the First-by far the greater part of the clergy of the Establishment in England
is summed up in these words ; have taken this side of the qnestion, and a Whence it must appear, that the the term Arminian is applied by many as United Church of England and Ireland is descriptive of the doctrines of the Church the true mean between superstition and of England, As far as it indicates the fanaticism. Her doctrine is entirely built rejection of the Calvinistic hypothesis of upon the Prophets and Apostles, and predestination, reprobation, and particular therefore evangelical; her governinent is redemption, by the generality of the mem- truly apostolical ; her Liturgy an extract
from the best primitive forms; her cere. Christianity, and its doctrinal dismonies are few, and such as tend only to tinctions with respect to the object decency and true devotion *;, and her of Divine worship, the extent of sacred editices, whilst they are divested of
blessings derived through the gospel, the gandy decorations and puerile orna
and church government. Next folments of Popery, are furnished with those appendages which give dignity to public low the grand divisions of the Chrisworship, and distinguish the functions of tian world into the Greek and Eastern its ministers from ordinary occupations." Churches the church of Rome and Vol. I. p. 419.
Protestantism; under which latter. of the deeply interesting cir- head an account is given of no less cumstances of the Episcopal Church than thirty-six churches and sects. in Scotland, this very just and eulo- Part II, after a general view of the gistic sentiment is inserted ;
rise and progress of the Jewish, re“ Thus does there still exist in Scotland ligion, and Mosaic polity, describes a church as well constituted, and perhaps the existing sects, of which there as near the primitive pattern, as any at are now nominally only four. Part. this day in the world; a church scriptural III. embraces ancient and modern in her doctrine, apostolical in her govern- Heathenism. In this, we think, a ment, primitive and pions in her worship, short sketch of the mythological and decent in her ceremonies ;-a church that has the Scriptures of truth, the ancient scheme of the Greeks and Romans, aud orthodox Creeds, together with the with a brief illustration of its alliance two 'sacraments administered after the with the history and ordinances of decency and solemnity of the purest times; true religion, might be most benea church where religion is supported by no ficially introduced, for the use, esauthority but her own, and has no interests but her own to support;—a church, in the classics. "Part. vi. consists of
pecially of younger students in short, that is redeemed from superstition and idolatry, defended from vanity and
a general view and enumeration of enthusiasın, and governed by men who, the independent sects of Mohamthough not distinguished by titles and medism. And an Appendix conhonours, and riches, yet possess all the es- tains an account of the anomalous sentials of their order, and have Divine and anti-religious tenets of Materialanthority for the exercise of their sacred ism, Necessitarianism, Deism, and ministry, as much as any other bishop
Atheism. either in England or Ireland. For as an ancient father remarks, wberever there It cannot be expected of us to is a' regular and orthodox * bishop, give even a rapid outline of the whether at Rome or Eugubium, at Con- eighty-six distinctions by which stantinople or Rhegium, at Alexandria or the - religious world” is unhappily Tanis,' and it may be added, in England divided. For an able survey of a or Scotland, . ejusdem meriti, cjusdem wide and rugged field ; for a comest et sacerdotiüt:-he is a bishop to all intents and purposes, as far as the ex
modious digest of many, and some istence, the spiritual wants, and the due bulky volumes, properly authengovernment of the church are concerned.” ticated in most instances, by refeVol. I. p. 440.
rences to the original works; for a We are not sure that the arrange- book, in short, inuch wanted, and ment of the subject which Mr. upon the whole well executed, we Adam has adopted, is so natural or beg to offer dur thanks to Mr.Adam ; correct as that of Ross, who begins and though we suspect that we differ with Judaism and ends with Chris- from him in some few, and those tianity. The display of “the re- not immaterial points, yet we shall ligious world,” commences with be glad to see his labours well reSee an able defence of those rites, his book, the faults we have de
quited by a general circulation of ceremonies, and offices of the Church to which the Poritans objected, in the third tected being rather of a negative book of Hooker's “ Eccles. Polity."
than of a positive nature. If how. † S. Hieron. ad Evagrium. eyer, he would render it still more