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Osiander.-Neither of these matters to their former place. The Proteshowever proved any serious obstacle tants thereupon suddenly recovered to bim, for he returned shortly to their confidence ; and an act was England and was consecrated Arch. passed in Parliament abolishing the bishop of Canterbury, March 30, supremacy of the Pope and decla1533. While, however, he took the ring the King to be the Head of the oath of fidelity to the Pope he Church. This act, to which even openly protested, “ that he took it several of the Popish Bishops accein no sense, but such as was wholly ded, was carried chiefly by the consistent with the laws of God learning and eloquence of Cranmer. the King's prerogative—and he It was the misfortune of the Archstatutes of the realm-that he did bishop not long after 10 be implicanot bind himself from speaking his ted in the tyrannical conduct of the mind freely in matters of religion King towards his Queen, Anne Bo-the government of the church- leyn. On the degradation of that and the rights of the Crown--and Princess, he alone of all her former that he meant on all occasions to adherents still retained his friendship oppose the Pope's illegal authority, for her; and as far as the King's impeand condemn his errors.
tuosity permitted him, endeavoured Very soon after his consecra- to moderate the violent prejudices tion, he was called on to officiate as entertained against her. But his enJudge in the great cause of the deavours were so far unavailing, that royal divorce. Accordingly he pre- sentence of death being passed on sided officially in a Consistory, at her, and the dread of death extorting Dunstable, in which Queen Cathe- from her a pretended confession of rine, in default of her appearance, some lawful impediment to her marin answer to the summons which had riage with the King, he was coinpelled been sent to her, was pronounced to pronoumce her marriage as null contumacious, and a final sentence and invalid on this plea*. of divorce was passed.
The death of Anne Boleyn, who Within a few weeks after the had been regarded as the head of sentence, on the 7th of September, the Protestant interest, was hailed 1533, the Princess Elizabeth was as a triumph by the Papists. Hapborn, and the King ordered the Arch- pily however for the Reformation, bishop to be her Godfather.
Cranmer's influence with the King The Pope had now been openly continued unabated. Among the defied in the matter of divorce. Bishops who favoured a ReformaBut soon the Archbishop and the tion, were Latimer, of Worcester,Protestant party in general, had Shaxton, of Salisbury,—and Barlow, cause of alarm from the vacillating of St. David's—but none of these conduct of the King, who, by the in- were calculated to be active coadtercession of France, had been in- jutors in the cause so that the duced to send a courier with his whole weight of it rested on him. submission to Rome. The Popish self. And as a single leader he party became clamorous for the re- managed it with great wisdom and storation of the Papal authority, and address. He had to cope with the the fanatical imposture of the Maid conflicting opinions of the different of Kent (an instrument in the hands parties into which the Protestants of the party) began to draw the atten- themselves were divided, as well tion of the kingdom. Before however as with the exasperated opposition the King's submission could reach of the Papists, supported by the Rome, the Pope and Cardinals, as- King himself; who sided with them sembled in consistory, had proceeded to declare him excommunicated * Hame's History of England.-Voliv. unless he immediately restored things p. 160.
in religion while he politically translation of Tindal ; sending this in opposed the encroachments of the portions to the Bishops and other Pope. He avoided therefore pro- learned divines for their correction, voking too strong a counteraction by and himself revising the whole. . By premature disclosure of his views, means of the Lord Cromwel, Vicarbut waited until he had fully digest- General, it was licensed by the King, ed his plan. He began with re- and fixed to a desk in all parochial dressing the abuses of his own churches. It was received with incourts; -retrenching his own fees credible ardour by the people; those and those of his officers. He abolish- purchasing it who had the means, ed needless holidays. He then ap- others crowding to the churches to . plied himself to regulate the public read or hear it read. discourses of the Clergy, in order to Soon afterwards, under the sancrender them vehicles of instruction tion of convocation, the Archbishop to the people. But it was not until authorized the Creed, the Lord's some time after, that he adopted Prayer, and the Ten Commandments effectual measures in this depart. to be taught in English, ment, by the publication of the Ho- peared also the treatise, entitled, milies,
“ The Godly and Pious Instiiution His steps in reforming the doc. of a Christian Man * ;" which was trines of the Churh were more gra. at first known by the name of the dual and cautious. Popish ceremo- Bishops' book, but afterwards, being - pies were not abolished *, but only enlarged and published with the explained so as to remove supersti- royal license, was called the King's tion from the practice of them. book. Upon the point of transubstantiation So far the Archbishop appears to the opinion of Cranmer, at this time, have enjoyed the entire favour of the agreed with the belief of the Papists, King, notwithstanding the essential and this doctrine therefore was not difference in their religious opinions. touched. So strong indeed was he The dissolution of the religious still in this delusion, that he assisted houses, was the matter which next in the solemn disputation which that engaged his attention; and here he monarch personally maintained in exposed himself to the risk of the defence of it against the unfortunate royal displeasure, by his strenuous Lambert, who atoned by his cruel opposition to the wanton rapacity execution for his freedom of opinion. of Henry, at a time when fear overHis zeal also for this doctrine was awed even the Parliament into si. shewn by his disapprobation of lence. He did not object to the the denial of it, expressed in a let- seizure of the obnoxious endowments, ter to Vadian, a learned foreigner, but only to the shameful mode of who had written and presented him appropriating them to the benefit of with a treatise against the corporal private individuals. He accordingly presence.
expostulated with the King on the In the year 1538, the Archbishop subject-suggesting the application finished a great work which he had of the funds gained from the suplong had in hand, the printing of an pressed monasteries to the institution English Bible. He adopted as the of colleges of priests in every cathebasis of the new version the former dral, as seminaries for the education
* The decision of the convocation on * It consisted of a declaration of the these points was in exact accordance with Lord's Prayer, and of the Ave Mary, the the wishes of the king ;-80 far as it oppo. Creed, the Ten Commandments and the sed the Pope, gratifying his love of power; Seven Sacraments. It was established by --50 far as it maintained the ancient the Act of Parliament, having been signed by ological tenets, complimenting the contro. the two Archbishops, nineteen Bishops, versial ability, on which he prided himself. eight Archdeacons agd seventeen Doctors See Hume, vol, iy. p. 165.
of parochial clergy. His sugges- used, did not, as was generally expecttions however were entirely disre- ed, occasioned his ruin. Henry's garded.
regard for him was so far from being The Popish party thought this a lessened, that he ordered the Duke favourable opportunity for assailing of Norfolk, with the Lord Cromwel the Protestant cause. Gardiner, now and others, to dine with him the next Bishop of Winchester, was active in day at Lambeth; and “comfort instigating the King to enact laws in him," as he said, "under his disap. favour of the old religion, arguing pointment."-"You, my Lord," ob- . the expediency of convincing the served the Lord Cromwel, “were world, that he had not opposed the born in an happy hour. You can do Church, but only the supremacy of nothing amiss. Let me, or any other the Pope.
A communication ac- of the Council be complained of, his cordingly was made to the Parlia- Grace will most seriously chide and ment, by means of the Duke of Nor- fall out with us." folk, of the King's wishes to this ef- This observation of the Lord Croinfect. The result was, that the cele- wel proved a true prophecy of bis own brated Act of the Six Articles * was fate-for he soon after fell a sacrifice passed, which had been framed by to the fury of the times and the Gardiner, re-establishing some pe- Archbishop, who alone stood by him culiar doctrines of the Papal Church, in his distress, hazarding the displea.
In the midst of this general defec- sure of the King in his generous ention from the Protestant cause, Cran. deavour to save his friend, felt semer stood alone--firm to his princi- verely the loss of his support and ples—and for three days argued † interest. He did not however dethe question with the advocates of Popery. But argument was not Cromwel, in his zeal for the Archbishop, their weapon; and he was obliged had caused a priest who had spoken disreto sink under superior power. Henry spectfully of the Archbishop to be seized in deference to his scruples, wished
and lodged in the Fleet prisonCranmer him to leave the House for a time,
knew nothing of the matter, until some (for safeguard of his conscience) from the priest-apon which he sent for
months after, when he received a petition until the Act should be passed : him. The conference between them diswhich he notwithstanding with hum- plays in an amusing light, the gross ignoble protestation refused to dof. rance which prevailed before the ReformaOn the passing of this act she sent
tion. “I hear," said the archbisliop, “yon his wife into Germany, and this
have accused me of many things, and proof of submission appears to have
among others, of my being a very ignorant
You have now an opportnnity of satisfied the king. For the extraor- setting your veighbours right in this mat: dinary freedom which the Archbishop ter; and may examine me, if yon please.”
The priest in great confusion besought his In the year 1539.
grace to pardon him; he never would of + The king afterwards expressing a wish fend in the same way again. “Well then," to see the arguments which the Archbishop resumed the archbishop, "sioce you will had used in the debate, the Archbishop not examine me, let me examine you"sent them to him written out in a book The priest was thunderstruck, making mawhich being lost by his secretary, from the ny excuses, and owning he was not much upsetting of the boat on the way from learned in book-matters. The archbishop Lambeth, had nearly fallen into the hands told him, he should not then go very deep, of the Papists, but was recovered by the and asked him two or three of the plainest Lord Cromwel.-Gilpin.
questions in the Bible ;— who was David's Fox's Book of Martyrs.
father? and who was Solomon's ?--The Latimer and Shaxton, threw up their priest confused at his own ignorance stood bishoprics on account of the law, and were speechless." You see,” said the archcommitted to prison.-Hume, Vol. iv. bishop, “how your accusation of me rises p. 195. Strype's Cranmer, p. 104. against yourself. You are an admirable
spair. An attempt being made in The Papists in the mean time ex. convocation to revive some Popish erted themselves to suppress the circeremonies, by the introduction of a culation of the translation of the ritual consisting of eighty-eight arti- Bible on the plea of its incorrectcles, Cromwel, without any support, It was the policy of Gardiner opposed the measure, and with such to have it placed, on the pretext of strength of argument as to bring revision, in the hands of the Bishops, over many to his opinion.
that it might thus be brought into He followed up this opposition by his power. Cranmer so far suca bill which he brought into the ceeded against him as to have it House of Lords for mitigating the referred to the two Universities, by penalties of the late act of the six whom a more correct Bible was proarticles*. The Bishops of Rochester duced : but still the opposition was and Hereford, who had promised to so strong, that he could obtain only assist him, shrunk from the task and a limited use of it during the reendeavoured to divert him from pur- mainder of Henry's reign. suing it. But that spirit which he A circumstance now happened had always shewn in the cause of re- which occasioned the Archbishop ligion was not to be daunted, and he great perplexity in another way. Sepersevered, declaring himself careless cret information was given him by of any conséquence.
one Lascelles, of the Queen's * adulHe had the happiness to succeed tery, and the disagreeable errand de. in this exertion beyond his hopes. volved on him of imparting the painThe penalties were entirely removed ful intelligence to the King. It placed from the laity, and the clergy were him in a very perilous situation; either placed out of danger, until after the to conceal the fact, iftrue,or to declare third conviction. He obtained also, it, if false. Having first consulted that no offences should becognizable, with the Lord Chancellor, and Lord after they had lain dormant a year. Hertford, who declined being parties
He further prevailed with the in the communication, he at last deKing to allow the use of a few cided ou making it known to the prayers in English,
King. Henry who was delighted with
his Queen, and regarded himself pejudge of learning and learned men.- Well, culiarly happy in
this marriage, my friend, I had no hand in bringing yon was not disposed to believe the intelhere, and have no desire to keep you. Get ligence: yet, fortunately for Cranlearn at least to be an honest one."-Gil. mer, cousidered him rather the dupe pin's Life of Cranmer, p. 79.
of others than as intending to deIn this law the doctrine of the real ceive. The subsequent examina(corporal) presence was established,—the tion however into the evidence of the communion of one kind,—the perpet- case satisfied the King of the truth ual obligation of vows of chastity,--the of the information, and at the same utility of private masses,- the celibacy time completely exonerated the Archof the clergy,-and the necessity of auricu
bishop. lar confession. The denial of the first article, with regard to the real presence, sub
About this time also, (1541) he jected the person to death by fire, and to was employed in the visitation of the same forfeiture as in cases of treason; All-Souls College, which was then in and admitted not the privilege of abjuring much disordert. Here he acted as The denial of any of the other five articles, even though recanted, was punish- * The King, having repudiated Anne of able by the forfeiture of goods and chat- Cleves, was now married to Catherine tels, and imprisonment during the king's Howard, niece to the Dake of Norfolk, pleasure. An obstinate adherence to er. t Amongst the charges against the Colfor, or a relapse, was adjudged to be felo. lege were, its “compotations, ingurgitaoy, and punishable with death.-Hume, tions, surfeitings, drunkennesses, enormous vol, iv. p. 194.
and excessive comessations,”-Strype.
laden--the refuge for the destitute for your gratification. Use then the and afflicted, for righteousness' sake means appointed for your ultimate where the poor wanderer through good. Make to yourselves friends tais vale of tears shall find a term of the mammon of unrighteousness. to his pilgrimage-where they that Whatever goods you enjoy in this life mourn shall be comforted, and the whether of wealth-of family
of pure in heart shall see God, Can friends of talent-of industry-of we ever err then in securing to our honest reputation,-convert all to the selves such a home as this at all glory of God. Employ them all in such events ? Can any step that we take à way, that they may hereafter be towards it be ever repented? Can your friends, to speak in your behalf any consideration be improperly to the great Judge of all hearts, considered as worthless, in compe- when he shall call you hence, and tition with its claims on our heart say to you, Give an account of thy and our exertions?
stewardship, that thou mayest be no Be then, my brethren, the chil- longer steward. On that dread day dren of light indeed, and carrying be assured you will want friends to along with you the conviction that speak in your behalf, and plead the interest which you have in view your cause with your Lord. No as such, is an interest which holiness man's accountlet him even have of life alone can obtain for you ; done his best-will be şuch altosuffer not yourselves to be surpassed gether as he will wish it to bave been, by the children of this generation, on that day when he shall stand be. the men of the world, in earnestness fore his Judge. We shall all, at and anxiety about the prize of your any rate, fall short of that standard callingbut take a lesson from of correctness, by which we must them: see how they thrive in the be tried. How earnestly then ought world and succeed by thoughtful we all to strive to make to our foresight and caution, and so push selves friends, to help us in that forward your endeavours with the day of need.
A friend indeed we encouraging assurance, that you shall have --and a sure friend, one who obtain a reward far more ample and is both able and willing to save to enduring, than the temporary com. the uttermost--one who, especially forts which the world at best bestows. regards us as his beloved and whose Shall the unjust steward be com- mercy, no less than his justice, we mended by his lord for his clever. may confidently rely on obtaining ness in securing himself a home that Friend who has bought us with against the day of distress ? -and his blood, and died for us in the shall not you, as just stewards, be flesh that we might live to him in the commended by your Master in spirit,- Jesus Christ the Righteous heaven for your corresponding zeal our eternal Advocate with the Fain securing to yourselves an ever- ther. Were it not for this friend, our lasting home, against the day when case would be hopeless indeed. But you will be called upon to give up for his atoning merits and interces. your stewardship, and to render an
sion, we must ever hang our heads account of the manner in which you in shame and despondence.-Able, have used your office? The goods however, and anxious as he is, to of this life have been given into your save to the uttermost-yet will he hands but as means in order to this not saveus indiscriminately, por plead end:--that instinct which directs you the cause of those, who have no to provide for your earthly comfort other friends to recommend them has been implanted in you, in order to bis mercy. These friends then by to turn your thoughts to the future, whom we are to approach his preand by its silent admonition to tell sence,--who are to bid us welcome you, that the present cannot suffice to his mansion of peace, and present