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us as fit petitioners at the throne of praised-for his thoughtful caution his goodness,—are the testimonies of and foresight in preparing against niseful and active services in this life the time when he should be put out -the good deeds we have done by of his office. In your situation in this means of the blessings which we world, you resemble him as to the have enjoyed—the labour and pains certain prospect of losing your office we have bestowed in holding fast too. You all must fail in like manthe profession of our faith, and at- ner.-Death is the means which tending to the interest of our souls your heavenly Lord employs in reabove every other consideration.- moving you from your post. Watch Seek therefore, to make to your- then, that you be not surprised by selves such friends as these. Let it an untimely dismissal. Now, while be your constant endeavour that you have time, think what is to beyour good works may be seen of come of you, when this most sure Him who seeth in secret, and may event occurs. Take the needful be remembered by Him, to your precautions while you are spared eternal consolation, in the day when secure to yourselves those good works all hearts shall be revealed. Bear -those vouchers to your rewardin mind then for your instruction those necessary friends,—who, when and assistance, the example of this ye fail, shall receive you into everprovident steward described in the lasting habitations. parable. Recollect for what he was

H.

ECCLESIASTICAL LIFE.

ARCHBISHOP CRANMER *.

THOMAS CRANMER was born at did it gracefully. He also attained Aslacton, in Nottinghamshire, on great dexterity in the use of the July 2d, 1489. He was the son of long-bow, and would many times Thomas Cranmer, a gentleman of kill the deer with his cross-bow, ancient family, whose ancestor came though his sight was not perfect. in with the Conqueror :- the stock He lost his father early; but his having continued for a long series mother sent him at the age of fourof time in good wealth and quality, teen to Cambridge. The writings -as well in France as in England. of Erasmus began now to be reHe received his rudiments of in- ceived in England, and to open the struction from a rude parish-clerk, minds of men, hitherto darkened under whom he learnt little, and with the scholastic divinity, to the endured much from the harsh dis- light of scriptural truth. Amongst position of his schoolmaster. At those, who were thus led to the the same time, that he might not be study of the Scriptures, was Cranignorant of gentleman-like exercises, mer. At the age of twenty-two his his father permitted him to hunt attention was first given to the and hawk, and to ride rough horses: reading of Faber and Erasmus. He -80 that even when he was Arch- then, after four or five years debishop, he scrupled not to ride the voted to these and other good au. roughest horse in his stables, and thors, made the Scriptures his ex

Gilpin's Life of Cranmer forms the ground-work of this Life, with the assistance of the narrative by Fox iu his Book of Martyrs, and Strype's Memorials of Cranmer.

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a composer of differences; and re. nothing effectual could be consulted viewing the statutes of the college, about religion, so long as the Arch. added some regulations to them, to bishop sat in council --they prevailed obviate the recurrence of such evils. with him, now yielding to age and

The next year, 1542 after the de- infirmity, to consent to the committal feat of the Scottish army at Solway, of the Archbishop to the Tower. the Earl of Cassilis was committed Henry, the evening of the same to the care of the Archbishop at day, as it grew dark, sent for CranLambeth-which proved afterwards mer to Whitehall, to intimate to him a most favourable circumstance for what had passed. Cranmer immethe reformation in Scotland. For at diately expressed his readiness to Lambeth the Earl became attracted obey the order. The King, astoby the gentleness and benevolence nished at his simplicity, hinted to of the Archbishop, and from begin- him the danger of once entering the ving to think well of the Reformers, Tower, and directing him as to his became a thorough convert to their behaviour before the Council gave principles, which he afterwards on him a ring to produce as a token from his return was mainly instrumental himself, in case of their proceeding in establishing in Scotland.

to extremities against him. A conspiracy about that time was At eight the next morning, Cranformed against him by the Popish mer was accordingly called before party under Gardiner.

He was un- the Council ; and was kept some time, expectedly summoned before the standing at the door among the serKing, who lay off Lambeth in his vants. When he was at last ad. barge, and as he went on board was mitted, he was told that they had accosted by Henry with a charge of determined to send him to the Tower. heresy; as preferred against him by He then appealed to the King, aud several ministers of his own diocese. finding his appeal disregarded, proThe King, however, soon relieved duced the ring which Henry had him of any perplexity, saying that he given him. The Council were conviewed the matter entirely as a con- founded, and immediately adjourned spiracy on the part of the Arch- to the presence of the King; who, as bishop's enemies.

soon as they came before him, reCommissioners were soon after proved them in the severest terms appointed to examine the evidence for their uncourteous treatment of against him - and by placing the Cranmer, whose merits, he told them, Archbishop'at the head of the com- he knew to be the greatest—and mission, the King made it sufficiently towards whom he expected that reunderstood how far he intended to gard would be shewn by all who act upon the accusations.

loved himself. In conclusion he Gardiner, finding Cranmer thus obliged them all to embrace the supported by the King, wrote him a Archbishop, as a sigu of their cordial most abject letter of apology; which, reconciliation. though a mere artifice, so far succeed- While he was thus summoped ed that Cranmer interceded with the before the Council a motion was King to prevent his laying Gardiner's made in Parliament by Sir John Gosletters before the House of Lords. wick, accusing him of having in

But the death of Charles Brandon, fected the county of Kent with hereDuke of Suffolk, about two years tical opinions. Here also the ma. after, deprived the Archbishop of lice of his enemies was thwarted by the most sincere and powerful friend the forward interest of the King in that he now possessed at court, and his behalf. his enemies availed themselves of the Nor could they ever afterwards opportunity for renewing their at- carry their point against him so long tacks. Representing to the King that as the King lived, though they en

The se

deavoured to work his ruin by at- ses were amended and irregularities tacks on his character, accusing him restrained. Preaching, which was of want of hospitality, and parsimo- become a mere jargon, was susnious use of the Church revenues. pended; and Homilies published

He was, however, far from shewing and ordered to be read in the a vindictive spirit towards them. On Churches; the use of the Scriptures the contrary, at the impeachment of was permitted, and for explanation the Duke of Norfolk, who had been of them the Commentary of Eras. one of his most inveterate enemies, mus was authorized. instead of concurring in the bill of These proceedings naturally called attainder against the Duke, he op- forth the jealousy of the Popish party, posed it with all his might in the which was expressed indeed in a reHouse of Lords, as an act of cruel in- monstrance by the Bishop of Winjustice, though it originated with the chester. The work of reformation King: and on his opposition proving however still gradually proceeded fruitless, he retired in disgust to his during the reign of Edward, under seat at Croydon.

the guidance of Cranmer, In the year 1547 happened the vere enactments of the last reign were death of Henry VIII. Cranmer was soon repealed, both in parliament and sent for at that solemn moment, but convocation. The Catechism was arrived too late. He could only re- now framed, the Liturgy, and the quest the King to give some token Canon-law, were new-modelled, prinof his dying in the faith of Christ ; cipally by Cranmer himself. The upon which the King, now bereft of office of Confirmation he began to speech, wrung hard the Archbishop's restrict to adults; and introduced hand, and soon after expired. many other changes of less import;

By the will of Henry he was placed all with his customary caution and at the head of the regency of Six- prudence *. teen *. He rarely, however, inter- His attention was also directed to fered with state matters, taking the the superstitious processions, which lead in ecclesiastical affairs alone. by the pomp and display with which

His first object now was to settle they were accompanied so much enthe supremacy--as the foundation of grossed the attention of the people. all subsequent proceedings. With a A bill being brought into parlia. view to this he set the example of ment for granting some collegiate obtaining a new license for himself lands to the King's use, he exerted to exercise his functions, from the himself (though ineffectually,) to young King Edward.

prevent this measure t. A general visitation was then con- At the same time he endeavoured menced, by which many Popish abu- to introduce a more liberal spirit of

learning into the Universities, which * Their names were Archbishop Cran- now began to be directed chiefly by mer, Lord Wriothesley, Chancellor ; Lord him in all their proceedings. St. Jolin, Great Master ; Lord Russel,

In the midst however of these temPrivy Seal; the Earl of Hertford, Chamberlain ; Viscount Lisle, Admiral; Ton, perate and beneficial measures, the stal, Bishop of Durham; Sir Anthony Brown, Master of Horse; Sir William Pa- His prudence was too great for the zeal get, Secretary of State ; Sir Edward of Calvin, who endeavoured by writing to North, Chancellor of the Court of Aug. him to burry bim into more precipitate mentations; Sir Edward Montague, Chief measures; but Cranmer replied to him Justice of the Common Pleas; Judge with great kindness, and justified to him Bromley ; Sir Anthony Denny and Sirliis mode of proceeding. William Herbert, Chief Gentlemen of the + It was remarkable that on this occaPrivy Chamber; Sir Edward Wotton, sjon he appeared at the head of the Popish Treasurer of Calais ; Dr. Wotton, Dean of Bishops and Lords against the Protestant Canterbury.

party.

Reformers, not excepting even Crans pression of the monasteries, and the mer himself, acted on two occasions Popish party seizing the opportuwith an infatuation and a bigotry ut- nity for instigating the people to deterly irreconcileable with their gene- mand a restoration of the Papal sys. ral conduct: in the execution of a tem,--the Archbishop was employed woman, named Joan Bocher, or Joan in composing an answer to the peti. of Kent; and that of a Dutchman, tions of the disaffected. In this an. Van Paris, for holding heretical opi- swer he admirably reasoned to the nions. Cranmer appears to have capacities of the lower orders, anderjustified his interference in these in- posed the absurdity of their claims. stances, by asserting a distinction He afterwards proceeded under between errors in other points of di- direction from the Council, to that vinity, and those contradictory to the work which is itself sufficient to imApostles Creed. We cannot, how- mortalize his memory, the composiever, but feel hurt, to find such a tion of the Articles of the Church of man, as lie was, acting the part, England *. which history attributes to him, in Nor were his cares employed only these shocking executions.

about the general welfare of the The palace at Lambeth was now Church. He made himself acquaintthe refuge of persecuted Reform- ed with the characters of the Clergy ers from various parts of Europe. in his diocese and the state of their Amongst those who found an asylum parishes. In collating to benefices with Cranmer were, Peter Martyr, he endeavoured to adapt the Pastor Bucer, Aless, and Fagius. Martyr to the flock t. He was very exact he settled at Oxford, as King's Pro- in the residence of the Clergy and fessor of Divinity. Bucer and Fa- granted dispensations with caution. gius in professorships at Cambridge. He had a strict eye also on their He also patronized John A'lasco, the doctrine. To some he recommended exiled Polish nobleman, with the the Homilies, and to others proper congregation attached to him---John topics for their sermons. Sleidan, the bistorian of the Refore He preached also himself often, mation-Leland the antiquarian— wherever he visited. In his sermons and Bishop Latimer, who, after the re. to the people he was very plain signation of his Bishopric, spent the and instructive, insisting chiefly chief part of his life with the Arch. on the essentials of Christianity. In bishop.

his sermons at Court, or on public In addition to his patronage of the occasions, he would declaim, with learned and the worthy, he was en- great freedom and spirit, against the gaged in correspondence with Eras- reigning vices of the times. mus, with Osiander, Melancthon, On the

vacancy

of

any See, he Calvin, and Herman, Archbishop was very watchful to prevent any and Elector of Cologne.

meditated encroachment on its temIn the course of his extensive cor

poralities. respondence, one point which was

His advice, indeed, was generally much pressed by him was, a general taken in filling up vacant Sees in his union of the different Protestant province, as well as in appointing to Churches, The leading Reformers Bishoprics in Ireland.

To the on the Continent however, while Bishops under his jurisdiction, with some of them applauded his inten.. tion, could not be brought to take The number of the Articles as they any steps in order to this object.

were now drawn up by Cranmer was fortyin the year 1549, insurrections

+ After his death was found, among his taking place in different parts of the country, in consequence of the dis. dorsed. Memorandum; these towns to

papers, a list of several towns, thus intress which followed the suddeu sup- have learned ministers.

two.

whom he lived on the most harmo. Lady Jane Grey. At last, however, nious terms, he was earnest in re- he yielded in compliance with the commending, to examine candidates earnest and pathetic entreaties of for holy orders with the greatest care, the young King himself. following the Apostle's advice, in With the death of Edward and laying hands suddenly on no man. the consequent accession of Mary in

He also took under his protection the year 1553 began the troubles of the reformed congregations of fo- the 'Archbishop. Anticipating in. reigners who fled to England to avoid deed the turn of affairs, he lost no persecutions ;-procuring churches time in ordering his steward to liand establishments for them; and al- quidate all his debts, saying ; " In lowing them the choice of their own a short time perhaps we may not be pastors, and the free exercise of able;" when the accounts and retheir religion.

ceipts were brought to him, adding; In the year 1552, Cranmer lost “ I thank God, I am now mine own his most effectual present support man; and with God's help am able in the death of the Protector, the to answer all the world and all Duke of Somerset. It is much to worldly adversities.” his honour, that he almost singly re- He was first assaulted with ca. sisted the malicious ambition of the lumny. This in general he thought Duke of Northumberland, which it sufficient to refute by the tenor brought that distinguished individual of his life and actions. But where most upworthily to the scaffold. the interests of religion were in

Nor was this his only act of resist. volved, he could not be content to ance to Northumberland. Tonstal, remain silent.--A rumour had been Bishop of Durham, a Papist in his spread abroad, soon after King Edprinciples, but of exemplary life, ward's death, that the Archbishop had been imprisoned by the Duke, had offered to sing the mass and and was in danger of being deprived requiem at the burial of that King, by a bill of attainder; on this oc- either before the Queen, or at St. casion, Cranmer gave proof of that Paul's Church, or any where else; sincere friendship which had sub- and that he had said, or restored sisted between Tonstal and himself, mass already in Canterbury. This by joining with Lord Stourton, a indeed the Suffragan Bishop of zealous Roman Catholie, in opposition to the bill, against the united Strype informs us that an Aet of Parstrength of the rest of the House of liament was passed in the 26th of Henry

VIII. for furnishing the diocese with twentyLords.

six Suffragans, for the better aid and comIt now grieved him to see the fort of the Diocesans. He further oblittle care that was taken in sup- serves that, before this Act of Parliament, plying the vacant Sees, and other Suffragans were not unusual in the realm great benefices of the Church. whom the Diocesan Bishops, either for their Among all the old ministers Cecil own ease, or because of their necessary alone had access to the King, and absence from their dioceses in embassies the Archbishop could only direct abroad, or attendance npon the Court, or

civil affairs, procured to be consecrated to any appointments by employing him reside in their steads. Sometimes the as a medium of communication. Suffragans bore foreign titles, as we meet

The last public act of Craumer with the name of " Christopher Sidon," during the reiga of Edward regarded an assistant Bishop to Archbishop Cran. the succession to the Crown. In mer at ordinations ; Episcopus Na

Episcopus Roannensis," this matter he was influenced by the vatensis,” oath which he had already taken rinensis," and another assistant of Cranmer

“ Episcopus Negropont," “ Episcopus Syin favour of the Princess Mary, and at ordinations by the title of “ Bisliop of he would not therefore readily con- Hippolitanum." Sometimes they had no sent to her exclusion in favour of the title at all to any place, but were Bishops REMEMBRANCER, No. 71.

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