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Live here in heaven, and may look on her,
But Romeo may not.—More validity 3,
More honourable state, more courtship lives
In carrion flies, than Romeo: they may seize
On the white wonder of dear Juliet's hand,
And steal immortal blessing from her lips ;
Who, even in pure and vestal modesty,
Still blush, as thinking their own kisses sin ;
But Romeo may not; he is banished:

do this, when I from this must fly:
They are free men, but I am banished.
And say'st thou yet, that exile is not death?
Hadst thou no poison mix’d, no sharp-ground knife,
No sudden mean of death, though ne'er so mean,
But—banished-to kill me; banished ?
O friar, the damned use that word in hell ;
Howlings attend it: How hast thou the heart,
Being a divine, a ghostly confessor,
A sin-absolver, and my friend profess'd,
To mangle me with that word—banishment?

3 Validity is again employed to signify worth, value, in the first scene of King Lear.

By courtship, courtesy, courily behaviour is meant. See vol. ij. p. 136, note 32. As this is one of the words which have escaped the industry of Shakspeare's editors, it may be as well to elucidate its meaning fully. Bullokar defines compliment to be ceremony, court-ship, fine behaviour.' See also Cotgrave in Curtisanie and Curialité; and Florio in Cortegianía. • Would I might never excell a Dutch skipper in courtship, if I did not put distate into my carriage of purpose, I knew I should not please them.'— Sir Giles Goosecap, a Comedy. Again, in the same play:-My lord, my want of courtship makes me fear I should be rude.'

• Whilst the young lord of Telamon, her husband,
Was packeted to France, to study courtship,
Under, forsooth, a colour of employment.'

Ford's Fancies Chaste and Noble. See also Gifford's Massinger, vol. ii. p. 505, where the true meaning of the word has not escaped the acute and able editor. VOL. X.


Fri. Thou fond mad man, hear me but speak a

word. Rom. O, thou wilt speak again of banishment.

Fri. I'll give thee armour to keep off that word;
Adversity's sweet milk, philosophy 4,
To comfort thee, though thou art banished.

Rom. Yet banished ?-Hang up philosophy!
Unless philosophy can make a Juliet,
Displant a town, reverse a prince's doom;
It helps not, it prevails not, talk no more.

Fri. O, then I see that madmen have no ears.
Rom. How should they, when that wise men have

no eyes ? Fri. Let me dispute with thee of thy estate 5. Rom. Thou canst not speak of what thou dost not

feel :

Wert thou as young as I, Juliet thy love,
An hour but married, Tybalt murdered,
Doting like me, and like me banished,
Then might'st thou speak, then might'st thou tear

thy hair,

And fall upon the ground, as I do now,
Taking the measure of an unmade grave.
4 So in the poem of Romeus and Juliet, the Friar says :-

* Virtue is always thrall to troubles and annoy,

But wisdom in adversity finds cause of quiet joy.' See also Lyly's Euphues, 1580:- Thou sayest banishment is bitter to the freeborne. There be many meates which are sowre in the mouth and sharp in the maw; but if thou mingle them with sweet sawces, they yeeld both a pleasant taste and wholesome nourishment.--I speake this to this end, that though thy exile seem grievous to thee, yet guiding thyself with the rules of philosophy it shall be more tolerable.'

5 The same phrase, and with the same meaning, occurs in The Winter's Tale :

can he speak ? hear? Know man from man? dispute his own eslate? i. e. is he able to talk over his own affairs, or the present state he is in ?

Fri. Arise; one knocks; good Romeo, hide thyself.

[Knocking within. Rom. Not I; unless the breath of heart-sick groans, Mistlike, infold me from the search of eyes.

[Knocking. Fri. Hark, how they knock!—Who's there?

Romeo, arise ;
Thou wilt be taken :-Stay awhile: stand up;

[Knocking. Run to my study :-By and by :—God's will! What wilfulness is this?—I come,


[Knocking. Who knocks so hard ? whence come you? what's


your will ?

you shall

Nurse. [Within.] Let me come in, and

know my errand; I come from Lady Juliet. Fri.

Welcome then.

Enter Nurse.
Nurse. O holy friar, O tell me, holy friar,
Where is my lady's lord, where's Romeo?
Fri. There on the ground, with his own tears

made drunk.
Nurse. O, he is even in my mistress' case,
Just in her case !

O woful sympathy!
Piteous predicament!

Even so lies she,
Blubbering and weeping, weeping and blubbering:-


stand up; stand, an you be a man: For Juliet's sake, for her sake, rise and stand; Why should


fall into so deep an 0? Rom. Nurse! Nurse. Ahʼsir! ah sir !-Well, death's the end

of all.

Rom. Spak’st thou of Juliet ? how is it with her ?
Doth 'she not think me an old murderer,
Now I have staind the childhood of our joy
With blood remov'd but little from her own?
Where is she? and how doth she? and what says
My conceald lady to our cancell'd love?
Nurse. O, she says nothing, sir, but weeps and

weeps ;
And now falls on her bed; and then starts up,
And Tybalt calls; and then on Romeo cries,
And then falls down again.

As if that name,
Shot from the deadly level of a gun,
Did murder her; as that name's cursed band
Murder'd her kinsman.-0 tell me, friar, tell

me, In what vile part of this anatomy Doth my name lodge ? tell me, that I may

sack The hateful mansion. [Drawing his Sword. Fri.

Hold thy desperate hand :
Art thou a man? thy form cries out, thou art;
Thy tears are womanish ; thy wild acts denote
The unreasonable fury of a beast?:
Unseemly woman, in a seeming man!
Or ill beseeming beast, in seeming both!
Thou hast amaz’d me : by my holy order,
I thought thy disposition better temper'd.
Hast thou slain Tybalt? wilt thou slay thyself?

6 The epithet concealed is to be understood, not of the person, but of the condition of the lady ; so that the sense is, 'My lady, whose being so, together with our marriage which made her so, is concealed from the world.'

7 Sbakspeare has here followed the poem :· Art thou, quoth he, a-man? thy shape saith, so thou art, Thy crying and thy weeping eyes denote a woman's heart, For manly reason is quite from off thy mind outchased, And in her stead affections lewd, and fancies highly placed; So that I stood in doubt, this hour at the least, If thou a man or woman wert, or else a brutish beast.'

And slay thy lady too that lives in thee,
By doing damned hate upon thyself?
Why rail'st thou on thy birth, the heaven, and earth?
Since birth, and heaven, and earth, all three do meet
In thee at once; which thou at once would'st lose.
Fye, fye! thou sham'st thy shape, thy love, thy wit;
Which, like a usurer, abound'st in all,
And usest none in that true use indeed
Which should bedeck thy shape, thy love, thy wit.
Thy noble shape is but a form of wax,
Digressing from the valour of a man9 :
Thy dear love, sworn, but hollow perjury,
Killing that love which thou hast vow'd to cherish:
Thy wit, that ornament to shape and love,
Misshapen in the conduct of them both,
Like powder in a skill-less soldier's flask 10,
Is set on fire by thine own ignorance,

8 Romeo has not here railed on his birth, &c. though in his interview with the Friar, as described in the poem, be is made to do so. Sbakspeare copied the remonstrance of the Friar, without reviewing the former part of this scene. He has in other places fallen into a similar inaccuracy, by sometimes following and sometimes deserting his original. The lines from Why railst thou on thy birth, &c. to thy own defence, are not in the first copy, they are formed on a passage in the poem. 9 So in King Richard II. Act v. Sc. 3:

. And thy abundant goodness shall excuse

This deadly blot in thy digressing son.' And in Barnabe Riche's Farewell: – Knowing that you should otherwise have used me than you have, you should have digressed and swarved from your kind.'

10 To understand the force of this allusion, it should be remembered that the ancient English soldiers, using match locks, instead of locks with flints, as at present, were obliged to carry a lighted match hanging at their belts, very near to the wooden flask in which they carried their powder. The same allusion occurs in Humor's Ordinary, an old collection of English Epigrams :

• When she his flask and touch-box set on fire,
And till this hour the burning is not out.'

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