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will not receive more ; and that matter must remain in our bodies, and occasion diseases : but it gives some previous notice of its being about to be hurtful, by producing certain uneasinesses, slight indeed at first, such as, with regard to the lungs, is a trifling sensation, and to the pores of the skin a kind of restlessness which is difficult to describe, and few that feel it know the cause of it. But we may recollect that sometimes, on waking in the night, we have, if warmly covered, found it difficult to get to sleep again. We turn often, without finding repose in any position. This fidgetiness, to use a vulgar expression for want of a better, is occasioned wholly by an uneasiness in the skin, owing to the retention of the perspirable inatter—the bed-clothes having received their quantity, and, being saturated, refusing to take any
To become sensible of this by an experiment, let a person keep his position in the bed, but throw off the bedclothes, and suffer fresh air to approach the part uncovered of his body; he will then feel that part suddenly refreshed: for the air will immediately relieve the skin, by receiving, licking up, and carrying off, the load of perspirable matter that incommoded it. For every portion of cool air that approaches the warm skin, in receiving its part of that vapour, receives therewith a degree of heat, that rarefies and renders it lighter, when it will be pushed away, with its burden, by couler and therefore heavier fresh air ; which, for a moment supplies its place, and then, being likewise changed, and warmed, gives way to a succeeding quantity. This is the order of nature, to prevent animals being infected by their own perspiration. He will now be sensible of the difference between the part exposed to the air, and that which, remaining sunk in the bed, denies the air access : for this part now inanifests its uneasiness more distinctly by the comparison, and the seat of the uneasiness is more plainly perceived, than when the whole surface of the body was affected by it.
Here then is one great and general cause of unpleasing dreams. For when the body is uneasy, the mind will be disturbed by it, and disagreeable ideas of various kinds will, in sleep, be the natural consequences. The remedies, preventive and curative, follow:
1. By eating moderately (as before advised for health's sake) less. perspirable matter is produced in a given tiine ; hence the bed-clothes receive it longer before they are satu
and we may, therefore, sleep longer, before we are made uneasy by their refusing to receive any more.
2. By using thinner and more porous bed-clothes, which
will suffer the perspirable matter more easily to pass through them, we are less incommoded, such being longer tolerable.
3. When you are awakened by this uneasiness, and find you cannot easily sleep again, get out of bed, beat up and turn your pillow, shake the będ-clothes well, with at least twenty shakes, then throw the bed open, and leave it to cool ; in the meanwhile, continuing undrest, walk about your chamber, till your skin has had time to discharge its load, which it will do sooner as the air may be drier and colder. When you begin to feel the cold air unpleasant, then return to your bed ; and you will soon fall asleep, and your sleep will be sweet and pleasant. All the scenes presented to your fancy will be of the pleasing kind. I am often as agreeably entertained with them, as by the scenery of an opera. If you happen to be too indolent to get out of bed, you may, instead of it, lift up your bed-clothes with one arm and leg, so as to draw in a good deal of fresh air, and, by letting them fall, force it out again ; this, repeated twenty times, will so clear them of the perspirable matter they have imbibed, as to permit your sleeping well for some time afterwards. But this latter inethod is not equal to the former.
Those who do not love trouble, and can afford to have two beds, will find great luxury in rising, when they wake in a hot bed, and going into the cool one. Such shifting of beds would also be of great service to persons ill of a fever, as it refreshes and frequently procures sleep. A very large bed, that will admit a removal so distant from the first situation as to be cool and sweet, may in a degree answer the same end.
One or two observations more will conclude this little piece. Care must be taken, when you lie down, to dispose your pillow so as to suit your manner of placing your head, and to be perfectly easy ; then place your limbs so as not to bear inconveniently hard upon one another; as for instance, the joints of your ancles : for though a bad position may at first give but little pain, and be hardly noticed, yet a continuance will render it less tolerable, and the uneasiness may come on wbile you are asleep, and disturb your imagination.
These are the rules of the art. But though they will generally prove effectual in producing the end intended, there is a case in which the inost punctual observance of them will be totally fruitless. I need not mention the case to you, my dear friend ; but my account of the art would be imperfect without it. The case is, when the person who
desires to have the pleasant dreams has not taken care to preserve, what is necessary above all things,
A GOOD CONSCIENCE.
Written, anno 1748.
TO MY FRIEND, A. B.
As you have desired it of me, I write the following hints,
which have been of service to me, and may, if observed,
be so to you. REMEMBER that time is money. He that can earn ten shillings a-day by his labour, and goes abroad, or sits idle one half of that day, though he spends but sixpence during his diversion or idleness, ought not to reckon that the only expense ; he has really spent, or rather thrown away, five shillings besides.
Remember that credit is money. If a man let his money lie in my hands after it is due, he gives me the interest, or so much as I can make of it during that time. This amounts to a considerable sum where a man has good and large credit, and makes good use of it.
Remember that money is of a prolific, generating nature. Money can beget money, and its offspring can beget more, and so on. Five shillings turned is six ; turned again it is seven and threepence; and so on till it becomes an hundred pounds. The more there is of it, the more it produces every turning, so that the profits rise quicker and quicker. He that kills a breeding sow, destroys all her offspring to the thousandth generation. He that murders a crown, destroys all that it might have produced, even scores of pounds.
Remember that six pounds a-year is but a groat a-day. For this little sum, (which may be daily wasted, either in time or expense, unperceived) a man of credit may, on his own security, have the constant possession and use of an hundred pounds. So much in stock, briskly turned by an industrious man, produces great advantage.
Remember this saying, “The good pay-master is lord of another man's purse."
He that is known to pay punctually and exactly to the time he promises, may at any time, and on any occasion, raise all the money his friends can spare. This is sometimes of great use. After industry and frugality, nothing contributes more to the raising of a young man in the world, than punctuality and justice in all his dealings : therefore never keep borrowed money an hour beyond the time you promised, lest a disappointment shut up your
friend's purse for ever. The most trifling actions that affect a man's credit are to be regarded. The sound of your hammer at five in the morning, or nine at night, heard by a creditor, makes him easy six months longer; but if he see you at a billiard-table, or hear your voice at a tavern, when you should be at work, he sends for his money the next day ; demands it before he can receive it in a lump.
It shews, besides, that you are mindful of what you owe; it makes you appear a careful, as well as an honest man, and that still increases your credit.
Beware of thinking all your own that you possess, and of living accordingly. It is a mistake that many people who have credit fall into. To prevent this, keep an exact account, for some time, both of your expenses and your in
If you take the pains at first to mention particulars, it will have this good effect; you will discover how wonderfully small trifling expenses mount up to large sums, and will discern what might have been, and may for the future be saved, without occasioning any great inconveniences.
In short, the way to wealth, if you desire it, is as plain as the way to market. It depends chiefly on two words, industry and frugality; that is, waste neither time nor money, but make the best use of both. Without industry and frugality nothing will do, and with them everything. He that gets all he can honestly, and saves all he gets (necessary expenses excepted) will certainly become rich-if that Being, who governs the world, to whom all should look for a blessing on their honest endeavours, do not, in his wise providence, otherwise determine.
AN OLD TRADESMAN.
NECESSARY HINTS TO THOSE THAT WOULD
Written anno 1736.)
The use of money is all the advantage there is in having money.
For six pounds a-year you may have the use of one hundred pounds, provided you are a man of known prudence and honesty.
He that spends a groat a-day idly, spends idly above six pounds a-year, which is the price for the use of one hundred pounds.
He that wastes idly a groat's worth of his time per day, one day with another, wastes the privilege of using one hundred pounds each day.
He that idly loses five shillings worth of time, loses five shillings, and might as prudently throw five shillings into
He that loses five shillings, not only loses that sum, but all the advantages that might be made by turning it in dealing; which, by the time that a young man becomes old, will amount to a considerable sum of money.
Again ; he that sells upon credit, asks a price for what he sells equivalent the principal and interest of his money for the time he is to be kept out of it; therefore, he that buys upon credit, pays interest for what he buys ; and he that pays ready money, might let that money out to use ; so that he that possesses anything he has bought, pays interest for the use of it.
Yct, in buying goods, it is best to pay ready money, because, he that sells upon credit, expects to lose five per cent. by bad debts ; therefore he charges, on all he sells upon credit, an advance that shall make up that deficiency.
Those who pay for wliat they buy upon credit, pay their share of this advance.
He that pays ready money, escapes, or may escape that charge.
A penuy sav'd is two-pence clear,