Implementation: How Great Expectations in Washington Are Dashed in Oakland; Or, Why It's Amazing that Federal Programs Work at All, This Being a Saga of the Economic Development Administration as Told by Two Sympathetic Observers Who Seek to Build Morals on a Foundation
University of California Press, Jun 5, 1984 - History - 281 pages
This book confronts the widespread impression that policy or program implementation should be easy, arguing instead that implementation, even under the best of circumstances, is exceedingly difficult. Using the Oakland Project as a case study, this book discusses each stage of the process of implementation, demonstrating that completion of what might seem to be a simple sequence of events will in fact depend on a complex chain of reciprocal interactions. Each part of the chain must be built with the others in view, so the separation of policy design from implementation is fatal. The first four chapters illustrate the movement from simplicity to complexity. Chapter 5 discusses the number of decision points throughout the process, giving an indication of the magnitude of the task. Chapter 6 examines why project targets may be set even if they are unlikely to be met, considering both the position of those who set targets -- top federal officials who wish large accomplishments from small resources in a short time -- and those who must implement them -- career bureaucrats and local participants characterized by high needs and low cohesion. The last chapter discusses the relationship between the evaluation of programs and the study of their implementation, arguing that tendencies to assimilate the two should be resisted.
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Aaron Wildavsky action administrative affirmative action agreement Amory Bradford analysis Angela Browne approved April bureaucratic business loans Charles Luckman clearances commitment construction coordination cost create decision points delay difficult Economic Development EDA internal report EDA Oakland EDA officials EDA program EDA public EDA Washington EDA's employment plan evaluation experience facilities February February 26 federal agency financing firm Floyd Hunter Foley funds goals gram hangar project hiring Ibid imple implementation initial involved January 17 Karras labor learning marine terminal mayor ment mentation minority Nutter Oakland Health Center Oakland program Oakland Project Oakland task force Oakland Tribune objectives organization organizational outcomes overrun participants percent political Port of Oakland port's problems program in Oakland proposal public works program recipients revolving restaurant Ross Davis Skills Center social tion training program U.S. Senate unemployed urban West Oakland Health Western Area Office WOHCI World Airways