Conservation of Genetic Resources: Costs and Implications for a Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

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Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 29, 1999 - Science - 243 pages
Over the past decade the importance of natural resources for sustainable agricultural development has been increasingly discussed at international forums and conferences. Aside from the sustainable management of soil, water, and air, it now seems to be accepted that the sustainable management of genetic resources is one of the four indispensable preconditions for a sustainable agriculture. The discussion on conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA), however, has to reflect the costs of conservation as well. These have not yet been discussed intensively. The study analyzes the conservation costs of plant genetic resources; it also assesses the effectiveness of conservation and the efficiency of the different conservation instruments. It is based on extensive surveys in relevant countries. Following the detailed cost and impact analysis, the results show that the effectiveness of conservation strategies may be increased.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
12 Definitions of Genetic Resources
4
131 Research Questions
7
132 Approach and Data Sources
9
Genetic Resources Status Development Losses and Conservation Management
11
211 Centers for Plant Genetic Diversity
12
212 Centers of Agrobiodiversity
13
213 The Interdependence of Countries on PGRFA
14
441 Multilateral System of PGRFA Exchange
91
442 Bilateral System of PGRFA Exchange
94
443 Market System of PGRFA Exchange
95
and Their Funding
96
Conservation Costs of PGRFA
101
to Different Categories
102
511 Costs of ex Situ Conservation
103
512 Costs of in Situ Conservation
111

22 Extent and Determinants of Genetic Extinction
15
Losses
16
222 Determinants for the Loss of PGRFA
24
Agrobiodiversity
29
24 Methods for Conservation of PGRFA
33
241 Ex Situ Conservation Management
35
242 In Situ Conservation
38
243 Combination of ex Situ and in Situ Methods
41
Economic Framework of Conservation
45
National Level
46
321 General Concept of Assessing Environmental Goods
47
322 Method for Economic Valuation of PGRFA Conservation
50
33 Analysis of the Beneficiaries of PGRFA Conservation
55
34 Incentives for the Conservation of PGRFA
57
342 Economic Mechanisms of Incentives for the Conservation of PGRFA
64
Institutional Frameworks for the Exchange and Utilization of PGRFA
75
41 Institutional Aspects of Exchange of PGRFA
76
Plant Genetic Resources
78
of the Exchange of PGRFA
84
432 International Agreements and Their Coherence
87
Resources
90
513 Transaction Costs of PGRFA Conservation
114
52 Expenditures of PGRFA Conservation at Country Level
115
53 Analysis of the International Expenditures in 1995
127
Countries
139
Two Examples of PGRFA Conservation Systems India and Germany
151
611 Indian National Plant Genetic Resources System
152
612 National Policy on Plant Variety Recognition in India
157
613 Production and Distribution of Quality Seed
158
62 German Case Study78
160
622 Breeding
170
63 Summary of the Indian and German Case Studies
173
Conclusions for PGRFA Conservation Policy and Further Research Issues
175
Incentives of Moderation
178
Compensation or Internalization?
180
Increasing Effectiveness Through a Market System Technology Development and Cooperation
182
Summary
185
Zusammenfassung
189
Appendices
193
References
225
Index
241
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Page 230 - States became a member of the International Union for the Pro-tection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV).

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