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Nicolas Hospital. The cause of the relinquisching of it was the moysteness of the ground often overflowen. For this chirch was ther a new, dedicate to S. Martine, in a nother place that yet standith.
Licens was get of the King by a Bishop of Saresbyri to turn the Kingges Highway to New Saresbyri, and to make a mayn bridge of right passage over Avon at Harnham.
[A grant by Henry III. for building bridges and changing roads. Iv. 177].
The chaunging of this way was the totale causel of the ruine of Old-Saresbyri and Wiltoun. For afore this, Wiltoun had a 12 paroch chirches2 or more, and was the hedde toun of Wileshir.
[Egidius [Giles of Bridport, Bishop of Sarum, 1257-1262], as sum say, builded the fair stone bridge called Harnham at Saresbyri, and so was the Highway westward made that way, and Wilton way lefte, to the ruine of that town. Iv. 29].
[111. 89]. Ther was a village at Fisherton, over Avon, or eyer New-Saresbyri was builded, and had a paroche chirche there, as it hath yet.
In this Fisherton, now a suburb to New-Saresbyri, was, since the erection of the new toun, an house of Blake-Frères builded not far from Fisherton Bridge.3
Ther was also an house of Gray-Freres withyn the toun of Saresbyri of the fundation of ...... Bishop of Saresbyri. [King Henry III. gave them a site4 : but one Richard Sude, a citizen,
1 There were other causes; as the establishment of a market at New Sarum, and the growing influence of that town.
2 This statement has often been disputed, but is vindicated in the history of Branch and Dole, p. 74. One or two may not have been parish churches,
36 Fisherton.” See Hall's Pic. Mem. of S., plate xi. The Dominican House of Black Friars stood on the spot afterwards ocoupied by the Sun Inn (West Street). In the library of this house, Leland appears to have found only 3 books worth noticing :--
“ The Quodlibets of Nicholas Trivet:
Pope Leo, on the conflict of Virtues and Vices :
A History of Britain, in indifferent verse.” [Collect. IV. 67). 4 The ground could hardly have been granted by the Crown, as it belonged to the Church. [Hatcher].
built the church. They were afterwards brought by the citizens into the toun where they now are. 1 ]
OLD SARUM. [111. 89.] The Cite of Old-Saresbyri standing on an hille is distant from the New a mile by north-weste, and is in cumpacè half a mile and more. This thing hath bene auncient and exceeding strong: but syns the building of New-Saresbyri it went totally to ruine.
Sum think that lak of water caussid the inhabitantes to relinquish the place; yet were ther many welles of swete water.
Sum say, that after that in tyme of civil warres that castles and waullid towns were kept, that the castellanes of Old-Saresbyri and the chanons could not agree, insomuch that the castellanes upon a time prohibited them coming home from Procession and Rogation to re-entre the toun. Whereupon the bishop and they consulting together, at the last began a chirch on his oun proper soyle ; and then the people resorted strait to Neu-Saresbyri and buildid ther : and then in continuance were a great number of the houses of Old-Saresbyri pulled down and set up at New-Saresbyri.,
Osmund Erle of Dorchestre and after Bishop of Saresbyri erectid his Cathedrale2 Chirch ther (i. e., in Old-Saresbyri) in the west part of the town; and also his palace, whereof now no token is but only a chapel of our Lady yet standing and mainteynid.
[A. D. 1092. At Saresbyri the roof of the tower of the cathedral was entirely thrown down by lightning the day after it had been dedicated by Osmund Bishop of Sarum, and Remigius Bishop of Lincoln. Itin. VIII. 49].
1 Lel. Collectanea, II. 342, upon the authority of Thomas Eccleston, a Franciscan. The name of the citizen was first written in Leland's manuscript Pude : but was corrected to Sude, with a mark under the u. Tanner (from Stevens and St. Clare) calls him Pende. The original site was perhaps at Old Sarum.
2 “ Cathedral.” In a dry summer the outlines of the foundation of this church may still be perceived. Mr. Hatcher in 1834 made a sketch of it, according to which, if correct, it was about 240 feet long. It is engraved in Nichols and Bowles's Lacock, p. 363 : and in Hatcher and Benson's Salisbury, p. 49.
(Osmund founded canons in it: and endowed them largely. His grant was dated A.D. 1091. [4 W. I.]
He ordained in the Church of Sarum 4 principal persons: the Dean, Præcentor, Chancellor and Treasurer : and 32 Præbends. He also deputed 4 Archdeacons, a Subdean, and a Subchanter: to all of whom he gave possessions out of the demesne which he had when he was Earl of Dorsetshire. He did not disdain to write, bind, and illuminate books. Itin. iv. 176).
Ther was a parochl of the Holy Rode beside in Old-Saresbyri: and an other over the est gate whereof yet some tokens remayne.
I do not perceyve that ther wer any mo gates in Old-Saresbyri than 2: one by est, and an other by west. Withoute eche of these gates was a fair suburbe. And in the est suburbe was a paroch chirch2 of S. John: and ther yet is a chapelle standinge.
The ryver is a good quarter of a myle from Old-Saresbyri and more, where it is nerest onto it, and that is at Stratford village south from it.
There hath bene houses in tyme of mind inhabited in the est suburbe of Old-Saresbyri: but now ther is not one house neither within Old-Saresbyri, nor without it, inhabited.
Ther was a right fair and strong castelle within Old-Saresbyri longging to the Erles of Saresbyri, especially the Longespees. 3
I read that one Gualterus4 was the first Erle after the conquest, of it. Much notable ruinus building of this castelle yet there remayneth. The diche that environed the old toun was a very deepe and strong thynge.
i Quære Porch ?
2 “ Paroch Chirch.” The presentations in the Salisbury registers are to “ St. Peter's, Old Sarum.” The last Rector was William Colville presented A.D. 1412. There was one presentation by the Crown in 1381 to the Free Chapel in the castle of Sarum.
3 "Especially the Longespees.” The title of Earl of Sarum had been borne before Leland's time by several different families : viz., 1. D’Eureux. 2. Longespee. 3. Montacute. 4. Nevill. 5. Plantagenet.
4 “Gualterus." Walter D’Eureux, son of Edward “the Sheriff,” and founder of Bradenstoke Priory near Chippenham.
THE COURSE OF AVON RIVER. [111. 91). Avon river risith by north est not far from Wolphe-Haull yn Wyleshir. The first notable bridg that it cummith to is at Uphaven.
Thens a 4 miles to Ambrosbyri, and there is a bridge.
Thens to Woddeford village a 4 miles, standing on the right ripe, and Newton2 village on the lift ripe.
The Bishopes of Saresbyri had a proper maner place at Wodford. Bishop Shakeston3 pullid it down bycause it was sumwhat yn ruine.
Thens to Fisherton Bridge of vi. stone arches, a 3 miles.
Thens a very little lower to Crane Bridge4 of a vi. arches of stone.
Thens a forowghe lengthe5 lower to Harneham Bridge of VI. gret arches of stone, a mayne and stately thing.
Here is at the west ende of this bridge (only a litle islet distante betwixt) another bridg of 4 praty arches, and under this rennith a good streme as I take it of Avon water as an arme breaking out a little above and soon rejoyning; or els that Wilton water hath ther his entery into Avon.
From Harnham Bridge to Dunton (Downton) a fair bridge of stone, a 4 miles.
Thens to Fordingbridge of stone a 4 miles.
And so a 5 miles to Christes-Chirch Twinham, and strait to the se. Christe-Chirch xviij miles from Saresbyri.
THE COURSE OF WYLE RIVER. [111. 91.] Wyle risith a 3 miles or more above Wermistre (Warminster),
1 “Wolf-Hall.” The Salisbury Avon has, not one, but several sources, two of which are near this place, under the high ground of Savernake Forest.
2 “Newton.” In the parish of Great Durnford.
and so cummith a x miles doun to Hanging Langforde standing, as the descent is, on the right hand of it. (Hanging Langforde was Popham's, and came in partition to Fostar). [Itin. vi. 38).
Thens a 3 miles to Stapleford village on the same hand.
Thens cummith Wyle a 2 miles, and rennith thorough the toun of Wilton divided into armes.
And here cummith into Wyle a river called Nadder, alias Fovington water, bycause it risith about. Fovington (Fovant) village 5 miles by west from Wilton.
From Wilton to Saresbyri 2 miles.
Here about Harnham Bridge is the confluence of Wyle and Avon.
LADY CHAPEE. SAL. CATH. [111. 92].. From a tablet in the chapel of St. Mary :-1
“ Pray for the soul of RICHARD POURE, formerly BISHOP OF SARUM, who caused this Church to be commenced, in a certain ground where it now stands anciently called “MIRYFIELD,” in honour of the B. V. Mary, 29 April,2 being the feast of S. Vitalis, the Martyr, A.D. 1219, in the Reign of King Richard I. And this Church was 40 years in building, during the reigns of 3 Kings, viz., Richard I., John, and Henry IV., and it was finished 25 March A.D. 1260. The said Bishop founded a Mass of the B. V. Mary to be solemnized daily within this chapel, and appropriated for the maintenance of the said Mass the Rectory of Laverstoke. He was afterwards translated to the Bishoprick of Durham; and founded a Monastery at Terrauntz in
1 This and some of the following inscriptions, here printed in italics, are given by Leland in the original Latin. The reader will bear in mind that the arrangement of the monuments and gravestones in Salisbury Cathedral underwent great alterations about the year 1790.
2 " 3 Cal. Maii” in the original; which would be May 29. But the feast of S. Vitalis was May 28.
3 « Terraunt.” A house of Cistercian or White Nuns, called originally « The Charnel,” at Tarent Crayford, county Dorset. (See Hutchins II. 43, and Lel. Collect. III. 345).