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in the vulture, as to silence all dispute on the subject. The family of the crows also claims our attention as possessing very great powers of scent: it is this which so often directs them to their food from great distances in such a mysterious manner, as to cause the wonder and incredulity of man: some observers who have seen troops of ravens hurrying along, to the banquet of some fallen animal, where not a bird till then could be seen, have attributed their discovery of the feast, not to the true cause, their keen sense of seeing and smelling, but to some unknown faculty, thinking it impossible that scent could be carried so far, and having little conception of the superior acuteness of some of the senses of birds: again the rook discovers the grubs hidden in the earth by the same wonderful sense: the carrion crow scents the tempting morsel from a distance: the magpie is not behind hand in the same perception. Some of the water birds too seem to have this faculty very highly developed : the curlew will take wing when you are at a great distance, if you approach them down the wind: the hungry woodcock will discover by the smell, where it will be profitable to probe the mud with his beak: most of the ducks are so sensitive, that the man who works a decoy, knows full well that he has no chance of success, unless he keeps to leeward of the flock; and, as an additional precaution burns a piece of turf and holds it smoking in his hand, to prevent their scenting him. Thus we see the faculty of scent no less conspicuous in birds than in other animals: the well known properties of the pointer and the foxhound will not surpass the exquisite sense of smell of some of the birds, and even the notorious bloodhound will scarcely outdo the vulture in the same faculty.

Bnt besides these three powers of seeing, hearing, and smelling, with which we have seen them to be remarkably endowed, we find the feathered tribe gifted with the power of feeling or handling (if I may apply such a term to the beak) not usually allotted to the inferior races of the animal kingdom. Their beaks serve them for hands, as well as for lips and teeth, and wonderfully are they adapted to a variety of purposes; but as in addition to their exceeding interest and variety of form and use, the beaks are principal characteristics whereby to distinguish the position birds are entitled to hold, and their habits, I propose to consider this subject separately, in a future paper, so for the present pass it by.

Again they are furnished with tongues, which are not only organs of taste, but partly also of prehension: these too differ exceedingly in form, according to their requirements, being sometimes short, rounded, and thick; sometimes long, thin, and pointed; and some tribes make considerable use of these members in securing their prey, as we shall hereafter see.

Their organs of voice too are very various; some most melodious, charming man by their continual, and often exquisite song: others harsh and unmusical: notes they have of alarm, whereby they signify to one another that danger is at hand; notes of distress, whereby they proclaim the pain or terror they feel; notes of love, whereby they show their affection; notes of communication, whereby they signify their intentions to each other, and act in concert, and 80 continue their migrations on the darkest night without danger of parting company. The notes of the different species too are as various as are their forms; some are able to imitate those of others, but seldom do they step beyond their own limits: for each is content to communicate with his congeners in the language peculiar to its own species.

Such then is an outline of the structure of birds, and such are some of their faculties and characteristics. The subject is one which might be pursued to an unlimited extent, until such a knowledge of the anatomy of birds was gained, that like Buffon and Cuvier of late time, and the present Dean of Westminster and Professor Owen of the College of Surgeons of our day, from seeing one single bone we might be able to describe accurately the whole bird to which it belonged, and its habits; though of a species never hitherto seen. To such an intimate acquaintance however with the structure of birds we shall not probably aspire. The present communication possesses only a general consideration of their formation and faculties, but we have seen enough to prove to us how admirably birds are formed for the position they hold in the scale of Zoology. Their bodies light and buoyant, furnished with wings License to convert Malmsbury Abbey into a Parish Church. 249 enabling them to pass rapidly through the air; provided with aircells, as an additional assistance to them: endowed with astonishing powers of sight, hearing, and smell: possessed of organs of voice as varied as they are remarkable; and with many other faculties not inferior to these, the feathered tribes claim a high position in the scale of created beings. We see in their formation the hand of a bountiful Creator; in their endowments the wisdom and goodness of Providence displayed. A knowledge of their structure, and an insight into the wonderful organs with which they are supplied, cannot but raise them in our eyes, as worthy of deeper investigation and closer attention than they usually receive; and raise us, at the same time, as should be the case after all our researches into the page of nature, ‘from nature's works up to nature's God.'

"Thus the men
Whom nature's works can charm, with God himself
Hold converse: grow familiar day by day
With His conceptions; act upon His plan,
And form to His the relish of their souls."

ALFRED CHARLES SMITH. Yatesbury Rectory, July, 1854.

Malmsbury.

ARCHBISHOP CRANMER'S LICENSE TO CONVERT THE NAVE OF

MALMSBURY ABBEY CHURCH INTO A PARISH CHURCH." Thomas, by Divine Mercy Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of all England and Metropolitan, being hereunto lawfully authorised by the Parliament of England: To all the parishioners of the parish church of St. Paul of the town of Malmsbury, in the diocese of Sarum, health, grace, and benediction. We willingly regard and assist with opportune marks of our favour, those things which respect the increase of divine worship, and the convenience of the faithful. Whereas you have represented to us that the worthy

1 Copied from the original document by the late William Hughes, Esq., of Devizes. [A translation, we presume, from the original document which would of course be in Latin).

250 License to convert Malmsbury Abbey into a Parish Church. Master William Stumpe, Esq.,' who by gift and grant of the King's Majesty, and of full right possesses all the site, circuit, and precinct, of the late Monastery of the town of Malmsbury aforesaid, and also all the Nave of the Conventual Church, late of the same Monastery, in respect that the aforesaid parish church of St. Paul of Malmsbury is fallen even unto the ground, and is not fit to receive the people for divine service, Hath granted all the said Nave of the late Conventual Church to be perpetually converted to the use of divine services; We favourably granting your petition in this respect, by the authority of the aforesaid Parliament of England, which in this behalf we enjoy, by tenor of these presents indulge you that ye freely and lawfully may hear divine offices, and participate in sacraments, and all and singular sacramental rites, within the aforesaid Nave, so that the consent of those who have interest in the premises be thereunto had, and the right of all others be saved, any ordination to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding. Dated in our Manor of Lambeth, under our seal for Faculties on the 20th day of the month of August, in the year of our Lord 1541, and in the 9th year of our consecration.

(Jo. HUGHES, Doctor of Laws. NICHOLAS WOTTON, STEPHEN VAUGHAN, Clerk of Commissary.2 the Faculties of the King's

Majesty.

E. W.

1 For some account of Master William Stumpe who turned Malmsbury Abbey and its offices into a Cloth Factory, see page 140. He was also the purchaser, from the Crown, of Charlton and other Estates of the Monastery. He died 1563: and his grand-daughter Elizabeth, being an only child and heiress, carried them by marriage into the family of Knyvett.

2 Of this Nicholas Wotton, Izaak Walton thus makes honourable mention in his Life of Sir Henry Wotton. “He was Doctor of Law, and sometime Dean both of York and Canterbury; a man whom God did not only bless with a long life, but with great abilities of mind, and an inclination to employ them in the service of his country: as is testified by his several employments, having been sent nine times ambassador unto foreign princes, and by his being a Privy Counsellor to King Henry VIII., to Edward VI., to Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth. He was also by the Will of King Henry VIII. made one of his Executors, and chief Secretary of State to his son Edward VI. Concerning which Nicholas Wotton I shall say but this little more: that he refused (bein g offered it by Queen Elizabeth) to be Archbishop of Canterbury, and that he died not rich, though he lived in that time of dissolution of Abbeys."

Itaud Weath's Causey.

To have a walk that shall be dry and available in all weathers, a real walk, not the mere distance for a turn or two on a garden terrace, but a good constitutional stretch, away into the country, nine miles there and back; to have this always firm and free from mudnon cuivis homini contingit-does not fall to every man's share. Still more rare is it to find such a privilege free from the cost of maintenance to those who do enjoy it. But these united comforts have fallen to the lot of four contiguous and favoured parishes in North Wilts: Chippenham, Langley Burrell, Tytherton-Kellaways, and Bremhill: for which they may thank the foresight and public spirit of “that worthy benefactress Maud HEATH."

Thomas Fuller the witty does not indeed mention her amongst the “ Worthies of Wilts”; but well did she, and well did any one deserve that name, who in days when roads were “founderous," rivers had to be forded, and footpaths were none at all, did so much pro bono publico as to make a bridge, a road, or a causey.1 These are in more senses than one essentially amongst the first steps towards the civilization of a country. Without them, there is no comfortable communication, no encouragement to the interchange of society, of capital, or of traffic.

A curious illustration of the great importance anciently attached to the duty of providing safe and easy public thoroughfares, is supplied to us in the history of names. Amongst other titles borne by the Pope, is that of “Pontifex Maximus” which in its original sense means literally neither more nor less than the Head BridgeBuilder. And the way in which, according to received authorities, this title has descended to the Pope is this. In the earliest days of heathen Rome the duty of controlling the arrangement for public

1 Thus the word is always spelled in old writers: and perhaps correctly: being nearer than “cause-way” to the French “chaussée,” (a pitched road), from which it is derived.

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