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PRINCIPLES

POLITICAL ECONOMY

°PRINCIPLES

O

POLITICAL ECONOMY

WITH

SOME OF THEIR `APPLICATIONS TO SOCIAL

PHILOSOPHY

BY

JOHN STUART MILL

PEOPLE'S EDITION

LONDON
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

AND NEW YORK: 15 EAST 16th STREET

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY

GIFT OF
PROF. JOHN TUCKER MURRAY

JUNE 13, 1938

Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON & Co.

At the Ballantyne Press

PRÈ FACE.

The appearance of a treatise like the present, on a subject on which so many works of merit already exist, may be thought to require sume explanation.

It might perhaps be sufficient to say, that no existing treatise on Political Economy contains the latest improvements which have been made in the theory of the subject. Many new ideas, and new applications of ideas, have been elicited by the discussions of the last few years, especially those on Currency, on Foreign Trade, and on the important topics connected more or less intimately with Colonization : and there seems reason that the field of Political Economy should be re-surveyed in its whole extent, if only for the purpose of incorporating the results of these speculations, and bringing them into harmony with the principles previously laid down by the best thinkers on the subject.

To supply, however, these deficiencies in former treatises bearing a similar title, is not the sole, or even the principal object which the author has in view. The design of the book is different from that of any treatise on Political Economy which has been produced in England since the work of Adam Smith.

The most characteristic quality of that work, and the one in which it most differs from some others which have equalled and even surpassed it as mere expositions of the general principles of the subject, is that it invariably associates the principles with their applications. This of itself implies a much wider range of ideas and of topics, than are included in Political Economy, considered as a branch of abstract speculation. For practical purposes, Political Economy is inseparably intertwined with many other brancbes of social philosophy. Except on matters of mere detail, there are perhaps no practical questions, even among those which approach nearest to the character of purely economical questions, which admit of being decided on economical premises alone. And it is because Adam Smith never loses sight of this truth; because, in his applications of Political Economy, he perpetually appeals to other and often far larger considerations than pure Political Economy affords--that he gives that well-grounded feeling of command over the

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