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sions, though in supernatural circum- | Milton is as absurd (and in fact, blasphemices. What made Socrates the greatest ous) in putting material lightnings into the nen? His moral truth-his ethics. What hands of the Godhead as in giving him ved Jesus Christ the Son of God hardly hands at all.

than his miracles? His moral precepts. The artillery of the demons was but the lif ethics have made a philosopher the first step of his mistake, the thunder the t of men, and have not been disdained next, and it is a step lower. It would have in adjunct to his Gospel by the Deity been fit for Jove, but not for Jehovah. The iself, are we to be told that ethical poet- subject altogether was essentially unpoet

or by whatever name you term it, ical; he has made more of it than another Ose object is to make men better and could, but it is beyond him and all men. er, is not the very first order of poetry; In a portion of his reply, Mr. Bowles | are we to be told this too by one of asserts that Pope “envied Philips” because

priesthood? It reqnires more mind, he quizzed his pastorals in the Guardian, re wisdom, more power, than all the in that most admirable model of irony, his rests” that ever were “walked” for their paper on the subject. If there was any thing ?scription,” and all the epics that ever enviable about Philips, it could hardly be re founded upon fields of battle. The his pastorals. They were despicable, and orgics are indisputably, and, I believe, Pope expressed his contempt. İf Mr. Fitzlisputedly, even a finer poem than the gerald published a volume of sonnets, or neid. Virgil knew this; he did not order a “Spirit of Discovery," or a “Missionary," mato be burnt.

and Mr. Bowles wrote in any periodical “The proper study of mankind is man."

journal an ironical paper upon them, would

this be "envy?” The authors of the “ReIt is the fashion of the day to lay greatjected Addresses” have ridiculed the sixteen ess upon what they call "imagination” or twenty “first living poets” of the day; { "invention,” the two commonest of but do they "envy" them? “Envy" writhes, alities : an Irish peasant, with a little it don't laugh. The authors of the Reiskey in his head, will imagine and in-Ijected Addresses may despise some, but at more than would furnish forth a modern they can hardly "envy” any of the persons em. If Lucretius had not been spoiled whom they have parodied; and Pope could

the Epicurean system, we should have have no more envied Philips than he did d a far superior poem to any now in Welsted, or Theobalds, or Smedley, or any stence. As mere poetry, it is the first other given hero of the Dunciad. He could Latin poems. What then has ruined it? not have envied him, even had he himself s ethics. Pope has not this defect ; his not been the greatest poet of his age. Did vral is as pure as his poetry is glorious. Mr. Ings "envy” Mr. Philips when he asked

speaking of artificial objects, I have him, how came your Pyrrhus to drive litted to touch upon one which I will oxen, and say, I am goaded on by love?" w mention. Cannon may be presumed This question silenced poor Philips; but be as highly poetical as art can make it no more proceeded from "envy” than r objects. Mr. Bowles will, perhaps, tell did Pope's ridicule. Did he envy Swift ?

that this is because they resemble that Did he envy Bolingbroke? Did he envy and natural article of sound in heaven, Gay the unparalleled success of his “Begd simile upon earth — thunder. I shall gar's Opera ?" We may be answered that

told triumphantly, that Milton made these were his friends - true; but does d work with his artillery, when he armed friendship prevent envy ? Study the first

devils therewithal. He did 80; and this woman you meet with, or the first scribtificial object must have had much of the bler; let Mr. Bowles himself (whom I acblime to attract his attention for such a quit fully of such an odious quality) study nflict. He has made an absurd use of some of his own poetical intimates: the i but the absurdity consists not in using most envious man I ever heard of is a poet, nnon against the angels of God, but any and a high one; besides it is an universal iterial weapon. The thunder of the clouds passion. Goldsmith envied not only the ould have been as ridiculous and vain inpuppets for their dancing, and broke his e hands of the devils, as the "villanous shins in the attempt at rivalry, but was Itpetre:” the angels were as impervious seriously angry because two pretty women the one as to the other. The thunder-received more attention than he did. This Its became sublime in the hands of the is envy; but where does Pope show a sign Imighty, not as such but because he deigns of the passion? In that case Dryden envied

use them as a means of repelling the the hero of his Mac Flecknoe. Mr. Bowles btl spirits; but no one can attribute their compares, when and where he can, Pope feat to this grand piece of natural elec- with Cowper (the same Cowper whom in icity : the Almighty willed, and they fell; his edition of Pope he laughs at for his

word would have been enough; and I attachment to an old woman, Mrs. Unwin: search and you will find it; I remember that Mr. Bowles can do in return is to ap the passage, though not the page); in par-prove the “invariable principles of Mr. ticular he requotes Cowper's Dutch deli-Southey,” I should have thought that the neation of a wood, drawn up like a seeds- word "invariable” might bave stnck in Sogman's catalogue, with an affected imitation they's throat, like Macbeth's " Amen!" 1 of Milton's style, as burlesque as the “Splen- am sure it did in mine, and I am not the did shilling.” These two writers (for Cow- least consistent of the two, at least as 1 per is no poet) come into comparison in voter. Moore (et tu, Brute!) also approven one great work, the translation of Homer. and a Mr. J. Scott. There is a letter als Now, with all the great, and manifest, of two lines from a gentleman in asterisks and manifold, and reproved, and acknow-who, it seems, is a poet of "the highest ledged, and uncontroverted faults of Pope's rank” – who can this be? not my friend, translation, and all the scholarship, and Sir Walter, surely. Campbell it canik, pains, and time, and trouble, and blank Rogers it won't be. verse of the other, who can ever read Cow “You have hit the nail in the head, and **** per? and who will ever lay down Pope, (Pope, I presume) on the head also. unless for the original? Pope's was "not

I remain yours, affectionately, Homer, it was Spondanus;" but Cowper's

(Four Asteriet is not Homer, either, it is not even Cowper. | And in asterisks let him remain, Wheera As a child I first read Pope's Homer with this person may be, he deserves, for sed a rapture which no subsequent work could a judgment of Midas, that "the nail" which ever afford, and children are not the worst Mr. Bowles has “hit in the head" should judges of their own language. As a boy I be driven through his own ears; I arrum read Homer in the original, as we have all that they are long enough. done, some of us by force, and a few by The attempt of the poetical populace el favour; under which description I come is the present day to obtain an ostracisu nothing to the purpose, it is enough that I against Pope is as' easily accounted for at read him. As a man I have tried to read the Athenian's shell against Aristides; they Cowper's version, and I found it impossible. I are tired of hearing him always called “la Has any human reader ever succeeded? Just.” They are also fighting for life; for ile

And now that we have heard the Catholic maintains his station, they will reach the reproached with envy, duplicity , licenti- own by falling. They have raised a meye ousness, avarice-what was the Calvinist? by the side of a Grecian temple of the per He attempted the most atrocious of crimes architecture; and, more barbarous than the in the Christian code, viz. suicide – and | barbarians from whose practice I have barwhy? because he was to be examined rowed the figure, they are not contented whether he was fit for an office which he with their own grotesque edifice, under seems to wish to have made a sinecure. His they destroy the prior and purely beantita connexion with Mrs. Unwin was pure fabric which preceded, and which shara enough, for the old lady was devout, and them and theirs for ever and ever. I shall he was deranged; but why then is the in- be told that amongst those I have been a firm and then elderly Pope to be reproved it may be, still am) conspicuous - true, a for his connexion with Martha Blount? I am ashamed of it. I have been amones Cowper was the almoner of Mrs. Throg- the builders of this Babel, attended by morton; but Pope's charities were his own, / confusion of tongues, but never amongst to and they were noble and extensive, far) envious destroyers of the classic tempa." beyond his fortune's warrant. Pope was our predecessor. I have loved and he the tolerant yet steady adherent of the most noured the fame and name of that illustrien bigoted of sects; and Cowper the most bi-l and unrivalled man, far more than my goted and despondent sectary that ever an- paltry renown, and the trashy jingle of u ticipated damnation to himself or others. crowd of “Schools” and upstarts, who pre Is this harsh? I know it is, and I do not tend to rival, or even surpass him. assert it as my opinion of Cowper personally, than a single leaf should be torn from but to show what might be said, with just | laurel, it were better that all which the as great an appearance of truth and candour. /men, and that I, as one of their set, ha

m which has been accumu-, ever written, should lated upon Pope in similar speculations. Line trunks, clothe spice, or, fluttering in Cowper was a good man, and lived at a Befringe the rails of Bedlam or Soho! fortunate time for his works.

There are those who will believe this, ane Mr. Bowles, apparently not relying en-those who will not. You , sir, kao tirely upon his own arguments, has , in far I am sincere, and whether my op person or by proxy, brought forward the not only in the short work joten names of Southey and Moore. Mr. Southey publication, and in private letters W “agrees entirely with Mr. Bowles in his never be published, has or has no invariable principles of poetry." The least the same. I look upon this as the


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e of English poetry; no regard for others, the posterity of strangers should know that selfish feeling, can prevent me from see-there had been such a thing as a British 3 this, and expressing the truth. There Epic and Tragedy, might wish for the n be no worse sign for the taste of the preservation of Shakspeare and Milton; but nes than the depreciation of Pope. It the surviving world would snatch Pope ould be better to receive for proof Mr. from the wreck, and let the rest sink with bbett's rough but strong attack upon the people. He is the moral poet of all akespeare and Milton, than to allow this civilization; and, as such, let us hope nooth and “candid” undermining of the that he will one day be the national poet patation of the most perfect of our poets of mankind. He is the only poet that never d the purest of our moralists. of his shocks , the only poet whose faultlessness wer in the passions, in description, in, has been made his reproach. Cast your e mock-heroic, I leave others to descant. eye over his productions; consider their take him on his strong ground, as an extent, and contemplate their vàriety:-hical poet: in the former none excel, in pastoral, passion, mockheroic, translation, ne mock-heroic and the ethical none equal satire, ethics,- all excellent, and often perm; and in my mind, the latter is the fect. If his great charm be his melody, ghest of all poetry, because it does that how comes it that foreigners adore him

verse, which the greatest of men have even in their diluted translations ? But I ished to accomplish in prose. If the es- have made this letter too long. Give my ence of poetry must be a lie, throw it to compliments to Mr. Bowles. ne dogs, or banish it from your republic,

Yours ever, very truly, - Plato would have done. He who can

BYRON. econcile poetry with truth and wisdom, is Postscriptum.- Long as this letter has he only true "poet in its real sense: “the grown, I find it necessary to append & aker,” “the creator" – why must this mean postscript,- if possible, a short one. Mr. he “liar," the “feigner," the tale-teller?" Bowles denies that he has accused Pope

man may make and create better things of "a sordid money-getting passion;” but han these.

he adds, “if I had ever done so, I should I shall not presume to say that Pope is be glad to find any testimony that might a high a poet as Shakspeare and Milton, show he was not so." This testimony ho hough his enemy, Warton, places him may find to his heart's content in Spence mmediately under them. I would no more and elsewhere. First, there is Martha ay this than I would assert in the mosque Blount, who, Mr. Bowles charitably says, once Saint Sophia's), that Socrates was a probably thought he did not save enough Teater man than Mahomet. But if I say for her as legatee,” Whatever she thought hat he is very near them, it is no more upon this point, her words are in Pope's han has been asserted of Burns, who is favour. Then there is Alderman Barber; apposed

see Spence's Anecdotes. There is Pope's "To rival all but Shakspeare's name below."

cold answer to Halifax when he proposed

a pension; his behaviour to Craggs and to say nothing against this opinion. But Addison upon like occasions; and his own f what "order,” according to the poetical two lines ristocracy, are Burns's poems? There are And, thanks to Homer, since I live and is opus magnum, “Tam O'Shanter,” a tale;

thrive, he-Cotter's Saturday Night," a descriptive

Indebted to no prince or peer alive. ketch ; some others in the same style; the written when princes would have been est are songs. So much for the rank of proud to pension, and peers to promote him, . iis productions ; the rank of Burns is the and when the whole army of dunces were fery first of his art. Of Pope I have ex-in array against him, and would have been pressed my opinion elsewhere, as also of but too happy to deprive him of this boast he effect which the present attempts at of independence. But there is something voetry have had upon our literature. If a little more serious in Mr. Bowles's deiny great national or natural convulsion claration, that he "rrould have spoken ” of ould or should overwhelm your country, his "noble generosity to the outcast, Richn such sort as to sweep Great Britain from ard Savage," and other instances of a he kingdoms of the earth, and leave only compassionate and generous heart, "had hat, after all the most living of human they occurred to his recollection when he hings, a dead language, to be studied, I wrote.What! is it come to this ? Does Ind read, and imitated by the wise of future Mr. Bowles sit down to write a minute ind far generations upon foreign shores; and laboured life and edition of a great if your literature should become the learn- poet? Does he anatomize his character, ing of mankind, divested of party-cabals, moral and poetical? Does he present us teenporary fashions, and national pride and with his faults and with his foibles? Does prejudice; an Englishman, anxious that he sneer at bis feelings and donbt of his

sincerity? Does he unfold his vanity and as often as Mr. Bowles, and have had duplicity and then omit the good qualities pleasant things said, and some as unpleasa which might, in part, have "covered this as could well be pronounced. In the revi multitude of sins?" and then plead that of "The Fall of Jerusalem," it is stat they did not occur to his recollection?Is that I have devoted "my powers, tot this the frame of mind and of memory with worst parts of Manicheism," which, bei which the illustrious dead are to be ap- interpreted, means that I worship the det proached ? If Mr. Bowles, who must have Now, I have neither written a reply, 1 had access to all the means of refreshing complained to Gifford. I believe that his memory, did not recollect these facts, observed in a letter to you, that I thoug he is unfit for his task ; but if he did re- "that the critic might have praised Mila collect, and omit them, I know not what without finding it necessary to abuse me he is fit for, but I know what would be but did I not add at the same time, ara fit for him. Is the plea of “not recollect- after (apropos of the note in the book ing” such prominent facts to be admitted? Travels), that I would not, if it we Mr. Bowles has been at a public school, even in my power, have a single line a and as I have been publicly educated also, celled or my account in that nor in a I can sympathize with his predilection. other publication ?-Of course, I reser When we were in the third form even, had to myself the privilege of response wht we pleaded on the Monday morning, that necessary. Mr. Bowles seems in a whia we had not brought up the Saturday's exer-sical state about the article on Spence. I cise because “we had forgotten it,” what know very well that I am not in a would have been the reply? And is an ex- confidence, nor in that of the conductor cuse, which would not be pardoned to a the journal. The moment I saw that article schoolboy, to pass current in a matter I was morally certain that I knew the a which so nearly concerns the fame of the thor “by his style.” You will tell me tha first poet of his age, if not of his country? I do not know him: that is all as it buah If Mr. Bowles so readily forgets the virtues be; keep the secret, so shall I, theughs of others, why complain so grievously that one has ever intrusted it to me. He is al others have a better memory for his own the person whom Mr. Bowles denounes faults? They are but the faults of an an- Mr. Bowles's extreme sensibility remind thor; while the virtues he omitted from me of a circumstance which occurred a his catalogue are essential to the justice board of a frigate, in which I was i due to a man.

passenger and guest of the captain's fe ? Mr. Bowles appears, indeed, to be sus- considerable time. The surgeon on beard ceptible beyond the privilege of authorship. a very gentlemanly young man, and ** There is a plaintive dedication to Mr.markably able in his profession, ware Gifford, in which he is made responsible wig. Upon this ornament he was extremely for all the articles of the Quarterly. Mr. tenacious. As naval jests are sometimes Sonthey, it seems, "the most able and elo- little rough, his brother-officers made quent writer in that Review," approves of casional allusions to this delicate appende Mr. Bowles's publication. Now, it seems to the doctor's person. One day a young to me the more impartial, that, notwith-lientenant, in the course of a facetious de standing that the great writer of the Quar-cussion, said, “Suppose, now, docter, terly entertains opinions opposite to the should take off your hat.” “Sir," repla able article on Spence, nevertheless that the doctor, “I shall talk no longer vil essay was permitted to appear. Is a Review you ; you grow scurrilous." He world to be devoted to the opinions of any one even admit so near an approach as to wa man? Must it not vary according to cir-hat which protected it. In like mante cumstances, and according to the subjects if any body approaches Mr. Bowles's laures to be criticised ? I fear that writers must even in his outside capacity of an edi take the sweets and bitters of the public “they grow scurrilous." You say that journals as they occur, and an author of are about to prepare an edition of so long a standing as Mr. Bowles might you cannot do better for your own cry have become accustomed to such incidents; as a publisher, nor for the redemption he might be angry, but not astonished. i Pope from Mr. Bowles, and of the pubir have been reviewed in the Quarterly almost taste from rapid degeneracy.

of PAS


I tion, reconciled rival superstitions, and baffled

an enemy who never retreated before his prees! sigh'd o'er Delphi*, long-deserted shrine, decessors.

(pag. 3. Stanza 1. "He little village of Castri stands partly on Yet Mafra shall one moment claim delay. site of Delphi. Along the path of the moun

(p. 6. si. 29. 1, from Chrysso, are the remains of sepul The extent of Mafra is prodigious; it contains es hewn in and from the rock: “One," said a palace. convent, and most

la palace, convent, and most superb church. The gaide, "of a king who broke his neck hunt- six organg are the most beautiful I ever beheld *** His Majesty had certainly chosen the in point of decoration; we did not hear them, est spot for such an achievement. A little but were told that their tones were correspondve Castri is a cave, supposed the Pythian, ent to their splendour. Mafra is termed the immense depth; the upper part of it is paved, Escurial of Portugal. I now a cowhouse. On the other side of Castri ads a Greek monastery; some way above Well doth the Spanish hind the difference know ich is the cleft in the rock, with a range of Twixt him and Lusian slave, the lowest of the low. rerns difficult of ascent, and apparently lead

(p. 7. St. 33. s to the interior of the mountain ; probably to As I found the Portuguese, so I have charac

Corycian Cavern mentioned by Pausanias. terized them. That they are since improved, at om this part descend the fountain and the least in courage, is evident. Jews of Castalie."

When Cava's traitor-sire first call'd the band And rest ye at our 'Lady's house of woe." I That dyed thy mountain-streams with Gothic gore? [p. 5. St. 20.

. 7. St. 35. 'The Convent of “Our Lady of Punishment," Count Julian's daughter, the Helen of Spain. basa Sennora de Pena *), on the summit of the Pelagius preserved his independence in the fastck. Below, at some distance, is the Cork Con nesses of the Asturias, and the descendants of nt, where St. Honorius dug his den, over his followers, after some centuries, completed hich is his epitaph. From the hills, the sea their struggle by the conquest of Grenada. Ids to the beauty of the view.

No! as he speeds, he chaunta: Viva el Rey !" hroughout this purple land, where law secures

(p. 8. St. 48. not life. (p. 5. St. 21. “Viva el Rey Fernando!"-Long live King It is a well known fact, that, in the year 1809, Ferdinand! is the chorus of most of the Spanish le assassinations in the streets of Lisbon and patriotic songs: they are chiefly in dispraise of * vicinity were not confined by the Portuguese the old king Charles, the Queen, and the Prince

their countrymen ; but that Englishmen were of Peace. I have heard many of them; some of xily butchered : and so far from redress being the airg are beautiful. Godoy, the Principe btained, we were requested not to interfere if la Paz, was born at Badajoz, on the frontiers e perceived any compatriot defending himself of Portugal, and was originally in the ranks of gainst his allies. I was once stopped in the the Spanish Guards, till his person attracted ay to the theatre at eight o'clock in the eve-the queen's eyes, and raised him to the dukeing, when the streets were not more empty dom of Alcudia. It is to this man that the han they generally are at that hour, opposite Spaniards universally impute the ruin of their

an open shop, and in a carriage with a friend; country. ad we not fortunately been armed, I have not he least doubt that we should have adorned a Bears in his cap the badge of crimson hue, lle instead of telling one. The crime of as-Which tells you whom to shun and whom to greet. assination is not confined to Portugal : in Sicily

(p. 8. Št. 50. nd Malta we are knocked on the head at a The red cockade with "Fernando Septimo" in

ne average nightly, and not a Sicilian the centre. r Maltese is ever punished !

The ball-piled pyramid, the ever-blazing match. Behold the hall where chiefs were late convened!

(p. 8. St. 51. [p. 6. St. 24. All who have seen a battery will recollect The Convention of Cintra was signed in the the pyramidal form in which shot and shells are alace of the Marchese Marialva. The late ex-piled. The Sierra Morena was fortified in every loits of Lord Wellington have effaced the fol | defile through which I passed in my way to ies of Cintra. He has, indeed, done wonders : Seville. le has perhaps changed the character of a na

Poild by a woman's hand, before a batter'd wall ?

(p. 9. St. 56. *) Since the publication of this Poem, I have such were the exploits of the Maid of Sarabeen informed of the misapprehension of the goza. When the author was at Seville she walkterm Nossa Senora de Pena. It was owing led daily on the Prado, decorated with incdalo to the want of the tilde, or mark over the n, and orders, by command of the Junta. which altere the signification of the word: with it, Pena signifies a rock; without it, The seal Love's dimpling finger hath impress'd Pena has the sense I adopted. I do not think Denotes how soft that chin which bears his touch. it necessary to alter the passage, as though

(p. 9. St. 58. the common acceptation affixed to it is "our “Sigilla in mento impressa Amoris digitulo Lady of the Rock," I may well assume the "Vestigio demonstrant mollitudinein." other sense from the severiti practised there.


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