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Hence the pitch-caps, the half-hang- on whom both Orangemen and United ings, the Beresford triangles, the Irishmen insisted on forcing a quarrel.

free quarters,” the brutalities of The search for arms gave rise to great General Lake's men which so moved

excesses, and sometimes to cruel repriLord Cornwallis's wrath, the yet sals; and somehow, a prophecy of St

inhuman brutalities of the Columba was passed round to the “Ancient Druids” and other Fencibles, effect that, “All in Ulster who have as well aş of the Irish yeomanry; not joined the heretics will perish by and all this, remember, before “’98," famine or sword; but across the for the wonder is, not that that rising Shannon there shall be safety.” This took place, but that the people should moved some

as powerfully as the have borne so much and still have de- Orange arguments ad hominem above layed their insurrection. But I must cited, had moved others : for, says not become political, even with regard to De Latocnaye, “They are the most the past; I must stick to De Latocnaye; timid and credulous creatures in the and he, poor man, was in a strange world ; and the idea of safety was quandary about this sad state of things enough to have made them foot it ten in the north. He did not like it, and times as far as the Shannon. I've no wonder, when he found himself in often met these wandering families— danger of his life because he had a father and mother carrying their green string to his umbrella. Fresh

younger children and their poor houseas he was from the land of suspicion, hold stuff, the bigger children trotting that was almost too much for him. along behind, accompanied by the Moreover he naturally disliked the faithful pig and sometimes by a few “ United Irishmen”

set of head of poultry." His remedy, vapouring fools who talk the same several times repeated, is not to try highflown jargon that our philo- to Anglicise them, but to respect sophers talked before '93." He had their habits and prejudices and to his friends and subscribers, too, to lead them accordingly. Of Navan, for look to—people like the Latouches, instance, he says, “It's a thoroughly worthy bankers who, men of the Edict Irish town, and I can't say that it's of Nantes themselves, had been kind very clean or very pretty; but I like to him for his French name's sake. it better as it is; for I'm more and No wonder he now and then found his more convinced that the true way is position a difficult one. “Sometimes,” to improve, not to destroy. The mishe says, “I am called a Democrat, take over here is that nothing is ever sometimes I'm found to be too aris- thought of but England and English tocratic; now I'm an Atheist, now a interests (qu'on ne pense qu'à l'Anglebigoted Papist. But,” he adds with terre en tout et pour tout); and that more than French vivacity, “the plan can never succeed." Again, near esteem of a few sensible people, or a the Causeway, he comes upon a scene flattering reception from a single re- such as I witnessed at Avondale, on spectable family, makes me forget all Mr. Parnell's property, in the autumn that unpleasantness."

of 1882. A crowd of men, women, Emigré as he was, he naturally re- and children, singing and working in joiced to see how a possible Franco- time to an instrument played by a Irish republic was being made impos- fugleman, were digging up some sible; and he often sadly reflects favourite landlord's potatoes. They how differently things would have were all in their best clothes, and not gone on in France had there been a drop of liquor was allowed on the a little stern repression at the outset. ground. “ The Orangemen assert," But still he can't help sympathising says our Breton, “that it's mostly with the sufferers, the Catholic farmers people who have been arrested for who only wanted to be let alone, but high treason who come in for this kind

of help; but I know of many staunch their own houses to secure the punishfriends of Government, my host of ment of their private enemies ; magisyesterday among them, who have been trates would fire shots into their own thus treated. Of one thing I am sitting-rooms to get their district quite certain, in France or England proclaimed. A man cut off his own such gatherings could scarcely have ear (the surgeon at once pointed out taken place without a riot; yet here, how it had been done) and accused a though the county is in such a fer- neighbour of having bitten it off. The ment, everything passes off quite bad side of human nature came out, quietly unless the Orangemen come in now that denouncing and informing and meddle. . . . Before long Govern- and playing the spy had become a ment put down these potato diggings; regular profession. probably that was the wisest plan, but No wonder people were glad to I must again remark how very easy it escape all this by moving westward. is to make these Irish submissive. In Lord Altamont at Westport gave them the hands of able men, actuated by lands; so did other Connaught landtrue public spirit, they would be more lords besides Colonel Martin. They easily kept in the right path than any were to begin after a few years to pay people in the world. Their constant a small rent; and De Latocnaye (having seditions are a proof of sensitiveness ; before his eyes no fear of “congestion”) don't try then to make them something thinks what a pity it is that Governelse, but work on what is good in ment can't arrange with men like them and you'll be able to mould them Colonel Martin and do the thing wholeas you please."

sale. “Give some sixty thousand of them There were outrages on the other land, tools, seed-corn, and provisions side; everybody could not be expected for two years, and at the end of that to quietly pack up and go to Con- time they'd be able to maintain themnaught without an appeal to force selves. You can't expect a private insince there was no hope of justice; but dividual to do all that; but if it was most of the Catholic excesses struck done, Ireland would support twice its our traveller as laughable rather than present population, and that population criminal. Hecites the case of a Catholic would be evenly distributed instead of chaplain who, having been turned out being massed in a few places; and of his appointment, read his recantation, this would surely be better than for and thereby got not only the regulation crowds to go


every year to annuity of forty pounds a year provided America.” for convert priests, but also the first The strange thing is that, though living that fell vacant. If he had kept he went through Wicklow and Wexquiet all would have been well; but ford, even stopping at Enniscorthy, with a convert's zeal he denounced la and though while he was in Wexford prostituée de Babylone, and preached town a French privateer came into the inflammatory harangues. The people harbour and levied contributions on cut off his cow's tail and ears, and the ships lying there, he had no nailed them to his door ; and De suspicion of the rising which took place Latocnaye, who was born before two years after his book was printed. He Martin's Act and the days of societies mentions the defeat of the Whiteboys for the prevention of cruelty to animals, at Wexford in 1793, and is quite sure does not express so much horror as that the same firmness which put them he ought at their conduct. But what down would have stopped the French seemed to him worse than the outrages Revolution; but, except in the north, was the atmosphere of suspicion in Ireland appeared to him quite quiet. which everybody lived. It was like He noted the wonderful progress she the French “ Terror.” Men (he was had made during the fourteen years credibly informed) would burn down since 1782; the industries that had

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been started,—too few but still en- extra tip (pot de vin) as well, which is couraging, "showing that the country not reckoned in the episcopal revenue.” is now roused from her stupor of Of the fellowships of Trinity College, seven centuries.” “It is the partial Dublin, he says, “ they are too richly abrogation of the penal laws," he endowed;" and heis told that the fellows thinks, "which has brought about all are all married, but that to evade Queen this good ; how much more may be Elizabeth's old-maid's whim, their wives expected when they are wholly done don't take their husbands's names !

Ireland will then soon De Latocnaye'sintroductions brought rival the country that has held her him under the spell of General Valdown, and this rivalry will be for the lancey; and he talks quite glibly about good of both.

Tuatha da Danaan and the connection He hears a good deal about the between Irish and Phænician, quoting working of these penal laws; how, for the celebrated speech of Hanno in the instance, Lord Oranmore, fearing that Penulus' of Plautus which Silk Bucka Protestant cousin was going to ingham used to make so much of, claim his estate, went to the rector of and describing Druidical remains the parish and desired to be recon- whenever he comes across them. He ciled to the Protestant Church. The knows however (which very few of us rector naturally asked “Why?” but have yet learned) that a cromlech is a to all his inquiries there was only the circle of stones, and not the thing which one answer: “I conform for Oran

the Cornish call a quoit, and the Bretons more.” It was not satisfactory, but, a dolmen. It is interesting to note as the law demanded nothing beyond what he says about Glendalough and conformity, the clergyman was obliged Irish ruins in general; and about to submit, and his lordship kept his Tir

" the land of the property One is curious to know if young,” for which (like every other he was the direct ancestor of that re- traveller in County Clare) he was doubtable champion of Protestantism, taught to look across the western Lord Oranmore and Brown.

waters, and the persistent belief in Our Breton is fond of a joke at the which leads him to dilate at too great expense of the Protestant clergy: length on Atlantis, and the primal “What a good trade, what a charming race, and the cause of Irish bogs. He trade, that of Anglican bishop or has a long digression, too, about parson in Ireland !

These men bread-making; he gives in quaint God Almighty's spoiled children; English, "put together with hard they're as rich as bankers, they have labour at the dictionary” a recipe, three good wine, good fare, pretty wives, and pages long, for “baking with leaven”; all that just for saying "God bless "It is such a pity to be dependent on you. God bless them, I say. Ah! the brewer for your barm, when you if I could only put on the black satin can manage better without him. Fancy philibeg, it would be a good deal Colonel Martin having to send all the better than being an émigré.”] The way to Galway, thirty-five miles, for jobbing in leases which was so common yeast, and even for bread if the yeastamong the Irish bishops of that day supply runs short.” He is just antici: amazes him ; "the rents are very low, pating that “ German yeast

" which but every year the farmers pay a goodly almost everybody uses now; but though

he writes to deliver his conscience, he 1 “The bishopric of Killala is the poorest

doesn't think much good will come of in Ireland. The bishop's income is only 3,0001.

it: “Britons are little given to change a year. Poor man !Perhaps his shrewdest their ways of doing things.” blow is what he says of Galway city : "It's

But I can only introduce you to De a good thing there are plenty of Anglican clergy living here, else there would not be a

Latocnaye. Read for yourselves what single soul belonging to the dominant religion.” he says about “ that enchanting little




nook, Glengariff"; about the beauties the people, it does not make the least of Killarney, and (at Muckross) about effort to conciliate them; on the conthe horrors of an Irish burial-ground: trary it has made enemies of them by about the groups of “Palatines” ill-treatment. Forget the past; wipe the rich lands of County Limerick; out inscriptions like that which I read about the Dublin charities, so abundant in Nassau Street, Dublin : May we and yet helping the wrong sort of never want William to kick a people ; about the prodigality of the Jacobite's breech’; win the priests, great, which is ruinous because not a and you'll have the people with you.' penny is spent on native productions.1 But it is his experiences in Ulster The labour question he solves in a very which have a special interest just summary way. “You reproach the now. He spent the winter among his peasant with being lazy and thriftless; friends in Scotland, crossing to Port how do you expect anything else from Patrick on the first of December, and a man who never can earn enough to returning to Donaghadee early in live on? When he comes over to spring, to find Belfast,—which before England the Irish labourer works like had seemed to him as quietly moneya horse and is as sober as Spartan; grubbing as a Scotch town, and where and landlords who have tried at home all his political questions had been the plan of paying him decently and parried with such replies as, “Sugar's building him a decent place to live too dear, and linen too cheap, and if in, have found it answer admirably.” they don't make peace we shall all be Of course he denounces Absentee- ruined,"—in a state of actual siege. ism and the Middleman system, find- He got there on the king's birthday, ing in the latter an explanation of the and the soldiers were ransacking paradox that “the richer the land in every corner, and breaking all the Ireland, the greater the poverty. On back-yard windows even of the houses poor land it doesn't pay to sub-let; which were illuminated in front. It but on good land you have sometimes was not a pleasant place to stay half a dozen links between the owner in; so he obtained a pass (needful and the actual worker.” One thing is in those times) and went off by coach, worth noting; he never dreams that judging that the roads would not be the country is over-peopled : “If only safe for pedestrians in a neighbourpublic works like the draining of hood where for two or three miles Strangford Lough and Lough Derg on outside the town the soldiers had the Shannon were taken in hand, it broken every pane of glass. At Banncould feed double its present popula- bridge it

bridge it was market-day, and the tion," On another point he agrees

soldiers were strolling about amongst with the late Lord Derby; he would the stalls, and making the women “ level up.” “If the viceroy had half take off anything green that they a dozen benefices in every diocese to happened to be wearing. give to the priests, they would soon Sympathising, as he does with the become as attached to the Government peasants," duped by United Irish as their dearly beloved brethren the wire-pullers,” he is never weary of Protestant clergy are. Unfortunately, admiring the energy of the Governthough Government knows the im- ment and contrasting it with the mense power that the priests have over supineness which was shown in France.

Here, they manage to hold in a dis| About hedge schools and endowed gram- contented people, excited by the mar schools he is instructive: “At Enniskillen success of the French revolutionists. Dr. Stock gets a salary of 2,0001. for teaching There, a weak Government and foolish nobody, except his own sons and nephews and seven or eight boarders who pay him a hundred

Ministers so mismanaged things that guineas a year."

a flourishing Monarchy was destroyed No. 323.-VOL. LIV.

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among a thoroughly Royalist people of these Ulster troubles : “It is the who really loved their king."1 What richest and most beautiful part of struck him as so wise was that, before Ireland. Hence such an influx of beginning repressive measures, Go- strangers that there is not room for vernment had taken good care to put everybody, and one side is eager to everything in a state of defence. oust the other. I hesitated a Then, when the country was full long time about

long time about telling all this; of troops, the oath of allegiance was but people will expect me to say enforced and the search for arms something, and when one does speak went on vigorously. Of course the one is bound to tell what one believes law was in abeyance : "the only

" the only to be the truth.” part of it that was enforced was that The sum of all, according to him, is which made it penal for Catholics to that England should lay aside her have arms; and this searching for ridiculous prejudices, and let Ireland arms gave occasion to many outrages, really (they are his italics) "share the carried on by Orangemen under Orange beneficent laws that she has made for magistrates, such as must always be herself. Thus will she gain the love expected when the lower orders not of four millions of subjects whom her only have arms in their hands but also have conquered, but whom the support of the powers that be.” nothing but justice can make conHis excuse for this partiality on the tented.' As a Frenchman he can. part of the Executive is rather a lame not

understand how it is that one : “I met one high-minded officer for centuries the English should who absolutely refused to take sides, have been content to know less of and was ready to help whenever wrong many parts of Ireland than they do was being done; but to have succeeded of Otaheite, and to allow the Irish on that plan a man must have had a to be maligned and degraded by intevery large force at his disposal.” His rested schemers. “ It is not so with remedy is wholesale transplanting (he A Provençal is proud of being does not say of which party), for he is the fellow-subject of a Norman ; a sure that the land is at the bottom native of Old France has no antipathy

to a Breton. Why is there such a 1 Kings in England, he sees, reign but don't govern. “In all the political disputes it is

different feeling between Irish and Mr. Pitt or Mr. Fox who says this and does English?that. The King walks on the terrace at Windsor, takes a drive, goes to bed ; that's

HENRY STUART FAGAN, all we hear about him.”



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