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In the first place, every cargo that if they resided in different nations, and departs from the custom-houle, ap- make their balances in the same manpears on the books as an export; and, ner : yet London doth not get rich according to the custom-house balance, out of Newcastle, any more than Newthe losses at sea, and by foreign castle out of London: but coals, the failures, are all reckoned on the side merchandize of Newcastle, have an of profit, because they appear as ex- additional value at London, and Lonports.

don merchandize has the same at Secondly, Because the importation Newcastle. ·by the smuggling trade does not ap- Though the principle of all compear on the custom-house books, to merce is the same, the domestic, in a arrange against the exports. national view, is the part the most

No balance, therefore, as applying beneficial ; because the whole of the to superior advantages, can be drawn advantages, on both sides, rests withfrom those documents ; and if we ex- in the nation; whereas, in foreign amine the natural operation of com- commerce, it is only a participation merce, the idea is fallacious; and if of one half. true, would soon be injurious. The The most unprofitable of all comgreat support of commerce consists in merce is that connected with foreign the balance being a level of benefits dominion. To a few individuals it among all nations.

may be beneficial, merely becaufe it Two merchants of different nations is commerce ; but to the nation it is - trading together, will both become a loss. The expence of maintaining rich, and each makes the balance in his dominion more than absorbs the proown favour; confequently, they do fits of any trade. It does not increase

rich out of each other; and it the general quantity in the world, but is the same with respect to the nations operates to lessen it; and as a greater in which they reside. The case must mass would be afloat by relinquishing be, that each nation must get rich out dominion, the participation without of its own means, and increases that the expence would be more valuable riches by something which it procures than a greater quantity with it. from another in exchange.

But it is impossible to engross comIf a merchant in England sends an merce by dominion ; and therefore it article of English manufacture abroad, is still more fallacious. It cannot exist which costs him a shilling at home, in confined channels, and necessarily and imports something which fells for breaks out by regular or irregular two, he makes a balance of one fhil- means, that defeat the attempt; and ling in his own favour: but this is to succeed would be fill worse. not gained out of the foreign nation France, since the revolution, has been or the foreign merchant, for he also more than indifferent as to foreign does the fame by the article he re- possessions; and other nations will beceives, and neither has a balance of come the same, when they investigate advantage upon the other. The ori- the subject with respect to commerce. ginal value of the two articles in their To the expence of dominion is to proper countries were but two fhil- be added that of navies, and when the lings; but by changing their places, amount of the two are subtracted from they acquire a new idea of value, the profits of commerce, it will apequal to double what they had at first, pear, that what is called the balance and that increased value is equally of trade, even admitting it to exist, divided.

is not enjoyed by the nation, but abThere is no otherwise a balance on forbed by the

government. 'foreign than on domestic commerce. The idea of having navies for the

The merchants of London and New- protection of commerce is delusive. caitle trade on the same principles, as it is putting the means of destruction

for

for the means of protection. Com- of advantages to all; and the only merce needs no other protection than interruption it meets, is from the prethe reciprocal interest which every sent uncivilized state of governments, nation feels in supporting it-it is and which it is its common interest to common stock-it exists by a balance reform.

OBSERVATIONS on CHARTERS and CORPORATIONS.

[ From the S A ME:] I T is a perversion of terms to say, Englishman in the full sense of the charter gives rights

the operates by a contrary effect, that of in the same manner that a Frenchman taking rights away. Rights are in- is free of France, and an American of herently in all the inhabitants ; but America. His rights are circumscribed charters, by annulling those rights into the town, and, in some cases, to the majority, leave the right by exclu- the parish of his birth; and all other fion in the hands of a few. If charters parts, though in his native land, are were constructed so as to express in to him as a foreign country. To acdirect terms, that every inhabitant, quire a residence in these, he must who is not a member of a corporation, undergo a local naturalization by purshall not exercise the right of voting,' chase, or he is forbidden or expelled such charters would, in the face, be the place. This species of feudality charters, not of rights, but of exclu- is kept up to aggrandize the corporafion. The effect is the same under tions at the ruin of towns; and the the form they now stand ; and the effect is visible. only persons on whom they operate, The generality of corporation towns are the persons whom they exclude. are in a state of solitary decay, and Those whose rights are guaranteed, prevented from further ruin, only by by not being taken away, exercise no some circumstance in their situation, other rights, than as members of the such as a navigable river, or a plenti-, community they are entitled to with- ful surrounding country. As populaout a charter; and, therefore, all tion is one of the chief sources of charters have no other than an indi- wealth, (for without it land itself has rect negative operation. They do not no value) every thing which operates give rights to A, but they make a to prevent it must lessen the value of difference in favour of A by taking property; and as corporations have away the right of B, and consequently not only this tendency, but directly are instruments of injustice.

this effect, they cannot but be injuriBut charters and corporations have ous. If any policy were to be fola more extensive evil effect, than what lowed, instead of that of general freerelates merely to elections. They are dom, to every person to settle where sources of endless contentions in the he chose, (as in France or America) places where they exist; and they lef- it would be more consistent to give sen the common rights of national so- encouragement to new comers, than ciety. A native of England, under to preclude their admission by exacting the operation of these charters and premiums from them *. corporations, cannot be said to be an The persons moft immediately in

terested

* It is difficult to account for the origin of charter and corporation towns, unless we fuppose them to have arisen out of, or been connected with, fome species of garria son service. The times in which they began justify this idea. The generality of thole towns have been garrisons ; and the corporations were charged with the care of the gates of the towns, when no military garrison was present. Their refusing. or getanto,

B b 2

ing

terested in the abolition of corpora- ability; and as all parts of a nation tions, are the inhabitants of the towns trade with each other, whatever afwhere corporations are establithed. fects any of the parts, muft necessarily The instances of Manchester, Birm- communicate to the whole. ingham, and Sheffield, shew, by con As one of the houses of the English trast

, the injury which those Gothic parliament is, in a great measure, institutions are to property and com- made up of elections from these cormerce. A few examples may be found, porations; and as it is unnatural that such as that of London, whose natural a pure ftream should flow from a foul and commercial advantage, owing to fountain, its vices are but a continuaits fituation on the Thames, is capable tion of the vices of its origin. A of bearing up against the political evils man of moral honour and good politiof a corporation ; but in almost all cal principles, cannot fubmit to the other cases the fatality is too visible to mean drudgery and disgracefal arts, be doubted or denied.

by which such elections are caried. Though the whole nation is not so To be a successful candidate, he must directly affected by the depression of be destitute of the qualities that conproperty in corporation towns as the stitute a juft legislator : and being thus inhabitants themselves, it partakes of disciplined to corruption by the mode the consequence. By leštening the of entering into parliament, it is not value of property, the quantity of to be expected that the representative national commerce is curtailed. Every thould be better than the man. man is á culioner in proportion to his

· A Curious Historical Account of London, in the Reign of HENRY II.

To the Editor of the UNIVERSAL MAGAZINE.

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The astonishing Degree in which the Buildings of this great Metropolis have increased

within a very few Years past, and fill increafing, may render an Account of it as it existed in a remote Period, a Subject of curious Contraft to those who are fond of tracing the Progress of Society from its early rude State to the Elegance of modern Civilization. I have, therefore, fent you an Account of London, by William Fitz Stephen, a Monk, in the Reign of our second Henry, who seems to have confidered as magnificent Objects what would not be regarded as abje& and contemptible. I am, &c.

AN ANTIQUARY.

her head so much the higher. HapThe situation of London.

py

she is in the wholesomeness of the

air, in the Christian religion, her A Mong the noble cities of the munition also and strength, the nature

world, honoured by fame, the of her situation, the honour of her cicity of London is the one principal feat tizens, the chastity of her matrons, of the kingdom of England, whofe Very pleasant also in her sports and renown is spread abroad very far; but pastimes, and replenished with hothe transporteth her wares and com- nourable personages, all which I think modities much farther, and advanceth meet proper severally to consider. ing admission to strangers, which has produced thu, cuftorn of giving, felling, and buying freedom, has more of the nature of garrison authority than civil government. Soldiers are free of all corporations throughout the nation, by the fame propriety that every soldier is free of every garrison, and no other perfons are.

He can follow any employment

, with the permislion of his officers, in any corporation town throughout the nation,

The

The temperateness of the air. wall before it and fome bulwarks ; it In this place the calmness of the air is two miles from the city, continued doth mollify men's minds, not cor- with a fuburb full of people. rupting them with venereal lufts, but

Of the gardens planted. preserving them from favage and rude behaviour, and seasoning their incli

Every where without the houses of nations with a more kind and free the suburbs, the citizens have gardens

and orchards planted with trees, large, temper.

beautiful, and one joining to anoOf Chriftian religion there. ther. There is in the church of St. Paul

Of their pastures. a bishop's see: it was formerly a me On the north side are fields for pastropolitan, and, as it is thought, shall ture, and open meadows, very plearecover the said dignity again, if the fant; among which the river waters citizens shall return back into the do flow, and the wheels of the mills island; except, perhaps, the archiepif- are turned about with a delightful copal title of St. Thomas the martyr, noise. Very near lieth a large foreft, and his bodily presence, do perpetuate in which are woody groves

of wild this honour to Canterbury, where beasts ; in the covers whereof do lurk now his reliques are. But seeing St. bucks and does, wild boars and bulls. Thomas hath graced both these cities, namely, London with his birth, and

Of the fields. Canterbury with his death; one place The arable lands are no hungry may alledge more againit the other, pieces of gravel ground; but like the in respect of the fight of that saint, rich fields of Asia, which bring plentiwith the accession of holiness. Now, ful corn, and fill the barns of those concerning the worship of God in the that till them with an excellent crop Christian faith ; there are in London of the fruits of Ceres. and the fuburbs, thirteen greater conventual churches, beside 126 lef

Of their wells. fer parish churches : (139 churches in There are also about London, on all.)

the north of the suburbs, choice founOf the strength and fcite of the city.

tains of water, sweet, wholesome, and

clear, streaming forth among the glisIt hath on the east part a tower pa- tening pebble stones : in this number, latine, very large and very strong ; Holywell, Clarkenwell, and St. Clewhose court and walls rife up from a ment's well, are of most note, and fredeep foundation; the mortar is tem- quented above the rest, when scholars, pered with the blood of beasts. On and the youth of the city take the air the west are two castles well fenced. abroad in the summer evenings. The wall of the city is high and great, continued with seven gates, which are

Of the citizens' honour. made double, and on the north dif This city is honoured with her men, tinguished with turrets by spaces. graced with her arms, and peopled Likewife on the south London hath with a multitude of inhabitants. In been inclosed with walls and towers, the fatal wars under king Stephen but the large river of Thames, well there went out to a muster, men fit for stored with fish, and in which the tide war, esteemed to the number of ebbs and flows, by continuance of 20,000 horsemen armed, and 60,000 time, hath washed, worn away, and footmen. The citizens of London calt down those walls. Farther above, are known in all places, and respected in the west part, the king's palace is above all other citizens for their civil eminently seated upon the same river; demeanour, their good apparel, their an incomparable building, having a table, and their discourse.

of

Of the chastity of their matrons. How the affairs of the city are disposed.

The matrons of this city may be The several craftsmen, the several paralleled with the Sabine women. sellers of wares, and workmen for

hire, all are distinguished every mornOf their schools.

ing by themselves, in their places as In London three famous schools are well as trades. Besides, there is in kept at three principal churches, St. London upon the river's bank a pubPaul's, the Holy Trinity, and St. lic place of cookery, among the wines Martin's, which they retain by privi- to be sold in the ships, and in the lege and ancient dignity: yet, for the wine cellars. There every day we most part, by favour of some persons, may call for any dish of meat, roaft, or some tcachers, who are known and fried, or boiled; fith both small and famed for their philosophy : there are great ; ordinary Aesh for the poorer Other schools there upon good-will and fort

, and more dainty for the rich, as sufferance. Upon the holidays, the venison and fowl. "If friends come masters with their scholars celebrate upon a sudden, wearied with travel, to assemblies at the feitival churches.

a citizen's house, and they be loth to The scholars dispute there for exer- wait for curious preparations and cise fake; some use demonftrations, dressings of fresh meat, let the servants others topical and probable argu- give them water to wash, and bread ments; fome practise enthymemes, to stay their stomach, and in the mean others do better use perfect fyllogisms; time they run to the water fide, where fome exercise themselves in dispute for all things that can be desired are at oftentation, which is practised among hand. Whatsoever multitude of solsuch as strive together for victory; diers, or other strangers enter into others dispute for truth, which is the the city at any hour of the day or grace of perfection. The fophifters, night, or else are about to depart, which are diffemblers, turn verbalists, they may turn in, bait here, and reand are magnified when they overflow fresh themselves to their content, and in speech and abundance of words ; fo avoid long faiting, and not go away fome also are entrapped with deceit- without their dinner. If

any

desire ful arguments.

Sometimes certain to fit their dainty tooth, they take a orators, with rhetorical orations, speak goose; they need not to long for the handsomely to persuade, being careful fowl of Africa, no, nor the rare Godto observe the precepts of art, who wit of Ionia. This is the public omit no matter contingent. The boys cookery, and very convenient for the of divers schools wrangle together in state of the city, and belongs to it. versifying, or canvass the principles Hence it is, we read in Plato's Gorof grammar, or dispute the rules of gias, that next to the physician's art the præterperfect and future tenses. is the trade of cooks. Some there are that in epigrams, shimes, and verses, use that trivial

Of Smithfield. way of abuse. These do freely abuse Without one of the gates is a certheir fellows, suppressing their names, tain field, plain, (or imooth) both in with a fefcennine railing liberty ; name and situation. Every Friday, these cast out molt abusive jefts ;

fome
greater

festival come in with focratical witty expressions, they the way, there is a fine light of good touch the vices of their fellow, or horses to be sold: many come out of perhaps of their superiors, or fall upon the city to buy or look on, to wit, them with a satirical bitterness, and earls, barons, knights, citizens, all with bolder reproaches than is fit. resorting thither. It is a pleafant The hearers, prepared for laughter, fight there to bchold the animals, well make themselves merry in the mean fethed, sleek, and shining, delighttime.

fully walking, and their teet on either

and · except

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