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fide up and down together by turns: fuls ; it hath aldermen, enjoying the or else trotting horses, which are more dignity of senators, beside inferior convenient for men that bear arms; magistrates ; it hath also common these, although they fet a little harder, fewers and conveyances for waters in go away readily, and lift up and set the streets. Concerning causes in down together the contrary feet on question, there are several places and either side. Here are also young colts courts for causes deliberative, demonof a good breed, that have not been ftrative, and judicial: upon their set well accustomed to the bridle; these days also they have their commonfling about, and by mounting bravely council and great assemblies. shew their mettle. Here are princi The only
plagues of London are pal horses, strong and well limbed. immoderate drinking of idle fellows, Here also are breast-horses, perhaps and frequent fires. race horses, fit to be joined by couples,
Of Sports and pastimes. very fair and handsome, and feek about the ears, carry their necks aloft, Every Sunday in Lent, after dinbeing well felhed, and round about ner, a company of young men ride the buttocks. In another part stand out into the fields on horses which are the country people with cattle, and fit for war, and principal runners : commodities of the field, large swine, every one among them is taught to and kine with their udders strutting run the rounds with his horse. out, fair bodied oxen, and the woolly The citizens fons issue out through flock. There are also cart horses fit the gates by troops, furnished with for the dray, or the plough, or the lances and warlike shields: the
younger chariot : and some mares big with fort have their pikes not headed with foal; together with others that have iron, where they make a representatheir wanton colts following them tion of battle, and exercise a skirmish. close at their side.
There resort to this exercise many
courtiers, when the king lies near Concerning shipping and merchandize.
hand, and young striplings out of the To this city, merchants bring in families of barons and great perfons, wares by ships from every nation which have not yet attained to the under heaven. The Arabian sends warlike girdle, to train and skirmish. his gold, the Sabean his frankincense Hope of victory inflames every one: and spices, the Scythian, arms ; oil of the neighing and fierce horses bettir palms from the plentiful wood : Ba- their joints, and chew their bridles, bylon her fat soil, and Nylus his pre- and cannot endure to stand still; at cious stones: the Seres send purple last they begin their race, and then garments ; they of Norway and Ruf- the young men divide their troops ; fia, trouts, furs, and fables ; and the some labour to outstrip their leaders, French their wines.
and cannot reach them; others fling
down their fellows, and get beyond Its antiquity and government. them. According to the report of chroni In Easter holidays they counterfeit cles, it is more ancient than the city a sea-fight: a pole is set up in the of Rome; for both being descended middle of the river, with a target from the fame Trojan stock : Brute well faltened thereon, and a young builded this, before Remus and Ro- man itands in a boat which is rowed mulus did the other. Whence still it with oars, and driven on with the tide, useth the same ancient laws and com- who with his spear hits the target in mon institutions. For this our city, his passage; with which blow, if he like to that, is distinguished by wards breaks the spear and stand upright, and several limits ; it hath' fheriffs so that he hold footing, he hath his every year, answerable to their con- desire; but if his fpear continue un
broken by the blow, he is tumbled it rubs off all the skin and lays it into the water, and his boat passeth bare ; and if one fall upon his leg or clear away : but on either fide this arm, it is usually broken : but young target two ships stand in-ward, with men being greedy of honour and demany young men ready to take him sirous of victory, do thus exercise up after he is sunk, as soon as he themselves in counterfeit battles, that appeareth again on the top of the wa. they may bear the brunt more strongly ter: the spectators stand upon the when they come to it in good earbridge, and in solars upon the river nest. to behold these things, being prepared
Many citizens take delight in birds, for laughter.
as sparrow-hawks, goss-hawks, and Upon the holidays all summer, the fuch like, and in dogs to hunt in the youth is exercised in leaping, fhoot- woody, ground. The citizens have ing, wrestling, casting of tones, and authority to hunt in Middlesex, Hertthrowing of javelins fitted with loops fordshire, all the Chilterns, and in for the purpose, which they strive to Kent, as far as Gray-water,
fling beyond the mark: they also use bucklers, like fighting men. As for
Natives of London. the maidens, they have their exercise The city of London hath brought of dancing and tripping till moon- forth fome who have fubdued many light.
kingdoms, and the empire of Rome to In winter, almost every holiday themselves ; and many others, who, before dinner, the foaming boars fight being lords of this world, were deified for their heads, and prepare with in another. deadly tushes to be made bacon: or And in the times of Christianity else fome lusty bulls or huge bears are it brought forth the noble emperor baited with dogs.
Constantine, who gave the city of When that great moor which wash- Rome and all the imperial arms to ed Moorfields, at the north wall of God, and to St. Peter, and Silvester the city, is frozen over, great com- the pope, whose stirrup he refused not panies of young men go to sport upon to hold, and pleased rather to be the ice, and bind to their shoes, bones, called defender of the holy Roman as the legs of fome beasts, and hold church, than emperor of the world. stakes in their hands, headed with And left the peace of our lord the sharp iron, which sometimes they pope should faffer any disturbance by strike against the ice, and these men the noise of secular affairs, he left the go on with speed, as doth a bird in city, and bestowed it on the pope, and the air, or darts shot from some war- founded the city of Constantinople for like engine: sometimes two men set his own habitation. London also in themselves at a distance, and run one these latter times hath brought forth faagainst another, as it were at tilt, mous and magnificent princes : Maud with these stakes, wherewith one or the empress, king Henry the third, both parties are thrown down, not and Thomas the archbishop, a gloriwithout some hurt to their bodies; ous martyr of Christ, than whom no and after their fall, by reason of the man was more innocent, or more deviolent motion, are carried a good voted to the general good of the Ladistance one from another; and where- tin world. soever the ice doth touch their head,
GULF or CAMBAY
A Geographical Account of HINDOOSTAN, or INDIA: With a neat and
accurate Map of the SOUTHERN Part of that extensive Country. T 'HE geography of Hindoostan and northern boundaries : but the
has hitherto been very imper- Ganges,' continues major Rennell, fectly understood by the European was improperly applied as an eastern writers; and it seems to have been boundary ; as it intersects, in its course, referved for major Rennell, late fur- fome of the richest provinces of the veyor general of Bengal, to give a empire; while the Burrampooter, more perfect idea of it than had ever which is much nearer the mark, as been obtained before. His excellent an eastern boundary, was utterly unMap of Hindoostan, with his Memoir known. In this circumscribed state, of that Map, entitles him to an ex- the extent of Hindooftan Proper is alted rank among the men of science, about equal to France, Germany, Bowho have the most largely contributed hemia, Hungary, Switzerland, Italy, to the extension of our geographical and the Low Countries, collectively; knowledge.
and the Deccan and Peninsula are • Hindooftan,' says this indefatiga- about equal to the British Ilands; ble geographer, has, by the people Spain, and Turkey in Europe. I of modern Europe, been understood have here called the tract which lies to mean the tract situated between the on the fouth of the Kistna river, the rivers Ganges and Indus, on the east Peninsula, in conformity to general and west; the Thibetian and Tarta- practice, although its form does by rian mountains, on the north; and no means warrant it. The term Deco the sea, on the fouth. But, ftrictly can, which fignifies the South, is apspeaking, the extent of Hindoostan is plied (as before-faid) in its most exmuch more circumscribed, than those tenfive fignification, to the whole relimits convey an idea of; and the gion that lies on the south of Hinname ought to be applied only to that doostan Proper. I apprehend, howpart of the above tract, which lies to ever, that, in its proper and limited the north of the parallels of 2ro or fenfe, it means only the countries 22°. Thc Nerbudda river is, in- fituated between Hindooftan Propery deed, the reputed fouthern boundary the Carnatic, the Western Sea, and of Hindooftan, as far as it goes ; and Orissa; that is, the provinces of the southern frontiers of Bengal and Candeish, Dowlatabad, Visiapour, Bahar compose the remainder of it. Golconda, and the western part of The countries on the south of this Berar. line, according to the Indian geogra The term India, by which this phers, go under the general name of country, as far it was known, is difDeccan, and comprise nearly one half tinguished in the earliest Greek hisof the tract generaily known by the torians, appears to be derived from name of the Mogul empire. But, as Hind, the name given to it by the the term Hindoostan has been applied, ancient Perfians; through whom, in a lax sense, to this whole empire, doubtless, the knowledge both of the it may be necessary to distinguish the country and its name was transmitted northern part of it by the name of to the Greeks. We have the strongest Hindoostan Proper.
assurances from Mr. Wilkins, that no This tract (of which we shall give such words as Hindoo or Hindooftan, a map in a future number) has, in- are to be found in the Sanscrit dicdeed, the Indus, and the mountains tionary *. It appears, that the peoof Thibet and Tartary, for its western ple, among whom the Sanscrit lan
guage * See the Notes on the Heetopades, or Fables, recently translated from the Sanscrit (or Sanfcreet) by Mr. Wilkins, page 332: This gentleman has the merit of