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strength and vigour. Animal foods, by which it was actuated; and all the
and fermented and spirituous drinks, efforts of the strongest constitution,
he utterly discarded from his diet. not inured to habits of self-denial, and
Water and the plainest vegetables fuf- moral as well as corporeal exercise,
ficed him. Milk, tea, butter, and would have been unequal to his ex-
fruit, were his luxuries; and he was ertions *.
equally sparing in the quantity of With respect to the character of his
food, and indifferent as to the stated understanding, that, too, was as hap-
times of taking it. Thus he found pily adapted to the great business in
his wants supplied in almost every which he engaged. He had not, in
place where man exifted, and was as a high degree, that extensive com-
well provided in the posadas of Spain prehension, that faculty of generaliz-
and caravanseras of Turkey, as in ing, which is said to distinguish the man
the inns and hotels of England and of genius, but which, without a pre-
France. Water was one of his prin- vious collection of authentic materials,
cipal necessaries, for he was a very is ever apt to lead into erroneous fpe-
Mussulman in his ablutions; and if culations. He was rather a man of
nicety or delicacy had place with him detail; of laborious accuracy and mi-
in any respect, it was in the perfect nute examination ; and therefore he
cleanliness of his whole person. He had the proper qualities for one who
was equally tolerant of heat, cold, and was to lead the way in researches
all the vicissitudes of climate ; and, where all was ignorance, confusion,
what is more wonderful, not even and local custom. Who but such a
sleep seemed necessary to him, at least man could have collected a body of
at those returns and in those propor- information, which has made even
tions in which mankind in general ex- professional men acquainted with in-
pect it. How well he was capable of teresting facts that they never before
enduring fatigue, the amazing journies knew; and has given the English
he took by all modes of conveyance, reader a more exact knowledge of
without any intervals of what might practices followed in Russia and Spain,
be called repose (since his only bait- than he before had of those in his own
ing places were his proper scenes of country. This minuteness of detail
action) abundantly testify. In short, was what he ever regarded as his pe-
no human body was probably ever culiar province. As he was of all
more perfectly the servant of the mind men the most modest estimator of his

* The following account of his mode of travelling, communicated to me by a gen-
tleman in Dublin, who had much free conversation with him, and the substance of
which I well recolleat to have heard from himself, will, I doubt not, prove intereiting.
· When he travelled in England or Ireland, it was generally on horseback, and he
rode about forty English miles a day. He was never at a loss for an inn. When in
Ireland, or the Highlands of Scotland, he used to stop at one of the poor cabins that
Teick up a rag by way of fign, and get a little milk. When he came to the town he
was to deep at, he bespoke a fupper, with wine and beer, like another traveller, but
made his man attend hiin, and take it away, while he was preparing his bread and
milk. He always paid the waiters, poftillions, &c. liberally, becauie he would have
na discontent or dispute, nor suffer his spirits to be agitated for such a matter ; laying,
that in a journey that might cost three or four hundred pounds, fifteen or twenty pounds
addition was not worth thinking about. When he travelled on the continent, he
usually went poft in his own chaile, which was a German one that he bought for the
purpole. He nerer ficpped till he came to the town he meant to virit, but travelled
all night, if necesary; and from habit could fleep very well in the chaile for several
sights iogether. In the last tour but one he travelle i twenty days and nights 10-
gether without going to bid, and found no inconvenienc: from it. He used to carry
with him a smali tea-kerile, fome cups, a little pot of sweetmeats, and a few loaves.
At the poft-house he could get his water boiled, find out for milk, and make his l'e-
past, while his nian went to the auberge.'

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own abilities, he was used to say, 'I those who in the language of the am the plodder, who goes about to great lord Chatham) • rejoiced that collect materials for men of genius to America had refifted,' and triumphed make use of.' Let those who look in her final success; that he was prinwith fastidiousness upon long tables cipally attached to the popular part of rules and orders, and measure- of our conftitution; and that in his ments of cells and work-rooms, given own county he distinguished himself in feet and inches, consider, that when by a spirited opposition to aristocraa scheme is brought into practice, tical influence. these small circumstances must have His peculiar habits of life, and the their place; and that the most ingeni- exclusive attention he bestowed in his ous plans often fail in their execution later years on a few objects, caused for want of adjustment in the nicer him to appear more averse to society parts. Perhaps even the great Fre- than I think he really was ; and it has deric of Pruffia was more indebted for been mentioned as an unfortunate cirsuccess to the exa&tness of his disposi- cumstance, that his shyness and retions in every minute particular con- serve frequently kept him out of the nected with practice, than to deep and way of persons from whom he might sublime views of general principles. have derived much useful information.

From a limilar cast of mind, Mr. But it is vain to desire things incomHoward was a friend to subordination, patible. Mr. Howard can scarcely and all the decorums of regular fo- be denied to have chosen the best way, ciety, nor did he dislike vigorous ex- upon the whole. of conducting his ertions of civil authority, when di- inquiries; and if he had been a more rected to laudable purposes. He in- coinpanionable man, more ready to terfered little in disputes relative to indulge his own curiosity, and gratify the theory of government; but was that of others, he would no longer contented to take systems of fove- have possefled one of the chief advanreignty as he found them establised tages he brought to his great work. in various parts of the world, fatisfied Yet while he alliduously shunned all with prompting such an application engagements which would have inof their powers as might promote the volved him in the forms and dissipawelfare of the respective communities. tion of society, he was by no means A ftate of imprisonment being that disinclined to enter into conversations in which the rights of men are, in on his particular topics ; on the congreat part, at least

, suspended, it was trary, he was often extremely comnatural that his thoughts should be municative, and would enliven a more conversant with a people as the small circle with the most entertainsubjects, than as the source, of au- ing relations of his travels and adthority. Yet he well knew, and pro- ventures. perly valued, the inestimable blefiings

Mr. Howard had in a high degree of political freedom, as opposed to that respectful attention to the female despotism; and, among the nations sex which so much characterises the of Europe, he considered the Dutch gentleman. Perhaps, indeed, I may and Swiss as affording the best exam- here be referring to rules of politeples of a frict and steady police, con- ness which no longer exift. But he ducted upon principles of equity and was as thoroughly impressed with the humanity. To the character of the maxim of place aux dames as any Dutch he was, indeed, peculiarly par- Frenchman, though without the strain tial; and frequently afferted, that he of light and complimentary gallantry Mould prefer Holland for his place of which has accompanied it in the inresidence, to any other foreign coun- dividuals of that nation.

His was a try. I can add, from undoubted au more serious sentiment, connected thority, that Mr. Howard was one of with the uniform practice of giving up


his own ease and accommodation, for gross and licentious. His own lanthe sake of doing a real kindness to guage and manners were invariably any female of decent character. It is pure and delicate ; and the freedoms excellently illustrated by an anecdote which pass uncensured or even aprelated in a magazine, by a person plauded in the promiscuous companies who chanced to fail with him in the of men, would have affected him with packet from Holyhead to Dublin, sensations of disguft. For a person when, the vessel being much crowded, poffefied of such feelings, to have Mr. Howard resigned his bed to a ser- brought himself to submit to such frevant-maid, and took up with the ca- quent communication with the most bin floor for himself. It is likewise abandoned of mankind, was perhaps displayed throughout his works, by a greater triumph of duty over inclithe warmth with which he always nation than any other he obtained in censures the practice of putting female the prosecution of his designs. Yet prisoners in irons, and exposing them the nature of his errand to prisons to any harsh and indelicate treatment. probably inspired awe and respect in He was fond of nothing so much as the most diffolute; and I think he has the conversation of women of educa- recorded, that he never met with a tion and cultivated manners, and stu- single insult from the prisoners in any died to attach them by little elegant of the gaols he visited. presents, and other marks of atten As Mr. Howard was so eminently a tion. Indeed, his soft tones of voice religious character, it may

be expect and gentleness of demeanour might ed that somewhat more should be said be thought to approach somewhat to of the peculiar tenets he adopted. the effeminate, and would surprise But, belide that this was a topic those who had known him only by the which did not enter into our converenergy of his exertions. In his judg- sations, I confess, I do not perceive ment of female character, it was ma- how his general plan of conduct was nifest that the idea of his loft Harriet likely to be influenced by any pecuwas the standard of excellence; and, liarity of that kind. The principle if ever he had married again, a re- of religious duty, which is nearly the semblance to her would have been the same in all systems, and differs rather principal motive of his choice. I re- in strength than in kind in different collect to this purpose a singular anec- persons, is surely fufficient to account, dote, which he related to us on his for all that he did and underwent in return from one of his tours. In go- promoting the good of mankind, by ing from one town in Holland to ano- modes which Providence seemed to ther in the common passage boat, he place before him. It has been sugwas placed near an elderly gentleman, gelted, that he was much under the who had in company a young lady of influence of the doctrine of predeftia most engaging manner and appear- nation; and I know not what of ance, which very strongly reminded sternness has been attributed to him as him of his Harriet. He was so much its natural consequence. For my own ftruck with her, that, on arriving at part, I am not able to discover in the place of destination, he caused his what those notions of Providence, servant to follow them, and get in- general and particular, which make telligence who they were. It was part of the profeffion of all religions, not without fome disappointment that differ essentially from the opinions of he learped, that the old gentleman 'the predestinarians; and, from mani

an eminent merchant, and the fold observation, I am certain, that young lady,---his wife.

the reception of the doctrine of preMr. Howard's predilection for fe- destination, as an article of belief, male society, was in part a confe- does not neceffarily imply those pracquence of his abhorrence of every thing tical consequences which might seem 4



deducible from it. The language, at professors and ministers of that perleast, of our lower classes of people is fuafion. But such was his veneraalmost universally founded upon it; tion for true vital religion, that he but when one of them dies of an in- was as ready to pay it honour when fectious disease, notwithstanding the he met with it in the habit of a monk, bystanders all speak of the event as as under the garb of a teacher : and fated and inevitable, yet each, for throughout his works, as well as in himself, does not the less avoid the conversation, he ever dwelt with great infection, or the less recur to medical complacency on the pure zeal for the aid if attacked by it. With respect good of mankind, and genuine Chrifto Mr. Howard, he never seemed to tian charity, which he frequently adopt the idea that he was moved by discovered among the Roman cathoan irrefittible impulse to his designs ; lic clergy, both regular and secular. for they were the subject of much He was no friend to that hasty diffothought and discussion: nor did he lution of convents and monasteries confront dangers because he had a which formed part of the multifarious persuasion that he should be preserved reforms of the late emperor of Gerfrom their natural consequences, but many. He pitied the aged inmates, because he was elevated above them. male and female, of these quiet abodes, This sentiment he has himself more who were driven from their beloved than once expressed in print ; and retreats into the wide world, with a surely none could be either more ra- very slender and often ill-paid pittance tional, or more adequate to the effects for their support. Why might not produced. Being in the way of my they (he would say) be suffered graduty (says he) I fear no evil. I dually to die away, and be transplantmay venture to affirm, that those of ed from one religious house to another the medical profession, whose fearless- as their numbers lessened ?' Thole ness is not merely the result of habit, orders which make it the great duty must reason upon the same principle, of their profession to attend with the when they calmly expose themselves to kindest assiduity upon the sick and imfimilar hazards. They, for the most prisoned, and who therefore came part, use no precautions against con- continually within his notice, seemed tagion : Mr. Howard did use fome; to conciliate his good will to the whole though their effects were probably fraternity; and the virtues of order, trifling compared with that of his ha- decency, fobriety, and charity, fo bitual temperance and cleanliness, and much akin to his own, naturally inhis untroubled serenity of mind. On clined him to a kind of fellowship the whole, his religious confidence with them. He rigorously, however, does not appear to have been of a na- abitained from any compliances with ture different from that of other pious their worship which he thought unmen ; but to be so steadily and uni- lawful; and gave them his esteem as formly under its influence, and to be men, without the least disposition to elevated by it to such a superiority to concur with them as theologians, all worldly confiderations, can be the Such were the great lines of Mr. lot of none but those who have formed Howard's character_lines strongly early habits of referring every thing marked, and fufficient to discriminate to the divine will, and of fixing all him from any of those who have aptheir views on futurity.

reared in a part somewhat similar to From Mr. Howard's connections his own on the theatre of the world. with those fects who have ever shewn The union of qualities which so pea particular abhorrence of the frauds culiarly fitted him for the post he unand the superstitions of popery, it dertook, is not likely, in our age, might be supposed, that he would again to take place; yet diferent look with a prejudiced eye on the combirections may be employed to ef



fect the fame purposes; and, with vain and injudicious; but his firm atrespect to the objects of police and tachment to principle, high sense of humanity concerning which he occu- honour, pure benevolence, unshaken pied himself

, the information he has constançy, and indefatigable persevecollected will render the repetition of rance, may properly be held up to labours like his unnecessary. To pro- the view of all persons occupying impose as a model, a character marked portant stations, or engaged in useful with such fingularities, and, no doubt, enterprises, as qualities not less to be with some foibles, would be equally imitated, than admired.'



her :

O T H E L L O.

From the weakness and superstition

of this accusation, it might seem, in Love Potions.

these enlightened times, to have been

unbecoming the gravity of the accuser, Brabantio.

and the dignity of the council. But O

Thou foul thief, where haft thou 'the circumitance was not only exactly
stow'd my daughter?

in character, but urged with the Damn'd as thou art, thou hast enchanted

greatest address, as the thing to be For I'll refer me to all things of sense,

principally insisted on: for, by the If the in chains of magic were not bound, laws of Venice, the giving of loveWhether a maid – so tender, fair, and potions was highly criminal, as Shakhappy ;

speare, no doubt, perfectly underSo opposite to marriage, that she shunnid

ftood. And Fabian and Speed relate, The wealthy curled darlings of our na

that, even in our own country, the tion,

notion of the efficacy of love-powders Would ever have, to incur a general mock, Run from her guardage to the footy bo was formerly so prevalent, that, in som

the parliament which king Richard Of such a thing as thou ; to fear, not to the third summoned, on his usurping delight.

the throne, it was urged as a charge Judge me the world, if 'tis not gross in against the queen dowager, that, sense,

when lady Elizabeth Grey, she had That thou hast practisid on her with foul betwitched king Edward the fourth,

charms; Abus'd her delicate youth with drugs, or

by strange potions and amorous minerals,

charms.' That waken motion. I'll have it disputed

The Attractions of Valour. 'Tis probable, and palpable to thinking. I therefore apprehend and do attach thee,

Desdemona. I saw Othello's visage in For an abuser of the world, a practiser

his mind; Of arts inhibited and out of warrant.

And to his honours and his valiant parts,

Did I my soul and fortunes consecrate. This accusation is repeated by Brabantio in the council-chamber : There is something so irresistibly

betwitching in personal courage, that She is abus'd, stol'n from me, and cor

we have hardly any instance of a truly rupted

brave admiral or general, that was By spells and medicines bought of morge- not adored by every failor or foldier

banks : For nature so preposterously to err,

under his command. With singular Being not deficient, blind, or lame of propriety, therefore, does Shakspeare, sense,

who had such a perfect knowledge of Sans witchcraft could not.

human nature, make the young and


on :

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