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was called out of town, the affair was able in their natures, as equally pursuffered to die away ; nor to this very suing the same object, the general feday has he ever enquired again after licity of mankind. But how shall the Victima, or her fate.

flave of Appetite hope for the assistance Thus terminated an adventure, of either, when the exercise of the one which at first promised to do so much consists in the contemplation of prinhonour to human nature, and which, ciples, not the gratification of palhad it been completed as it might fions, and of the other in sympathihave been, either philosophy or fen- sing with the feelings of our fellow sibility might have been proud to own; creatures, not in indulging our own and surely he must have but little capricious desires. power of discriminating between plea Sensibility must not therefore be fures, who does not perceive that all considered as the fool of instinct; since the destructive indulgences of fense much culture and practical benevoand voluptuoufness must be poor and lence are necessary to produce the tranfient, compared with the delight- disposition, which the serious moful reflection of having snatched a ralift dignifies with that amiable title; poor creature from misery, shame, and though nature may have bestowed and guilt, and restored her to peace; the energetic capacity upon which it perhaps to happiness and respectabi, is founded, if virtuous education and lity.

active generosity secure not its domiBut it is vain to expect any thing nion over the heart, susceptibility is great or excellent from any character, conferred in vain, and fordid voluphow capacious and energetic foever tuousness ufurps its polluted throne. might be the original powers of na- A disposition also, the most capable of ture, which has not been in the con- philosophical dignity and useful forftant habit either of regulating and titude, may from the fame negligence fubduing the passions by the calm and and inattention, sink into the most enlightened spirit of philosophy; or degrading habits of selfish indifferof obeying, with discriminating ala- ence; and stupid apathy may smother crity, the feelings of benevolent sen- up those fires, whose steady light might fibility. Both are the children of have cheered surrounding realms and virtuous cultivation; of different de- benested a long series of admiring fcription, it is true, and advancing generations. by different paths; but equally ami

C. W.

Farther Particulars of the present State of the NEGROES in

the UNITED STATES of America :

Continued from page 267.


Y wishes have not been disap- created nien of all nations, of all

pointed. The progress of these languages, of all coleurs, equally focieties is rapid in the United States : free: llavery, in all its forms, in all there is one already forrhed even in its degrees, is a violation of the diVirginia * ; even there, men have vine laws, and a degradation of hudared to publish that truth which has man nature.' fo often made avarice to tremble Believe it, my dear friend, these that truth which formerly would have truths, conveyed in all the public pa: been stifled in a Bastille : God has pers, will complete the extirpation of

A fimilar fociety is lately formed in the state of Connecticut, probably not known to M. de Warville.




that odious slavery, which the nature a committee of education, to oversee of things in that country is deitroying the schools ; fourth, a committee of with great rapidity. For you may employ, who find employment for well imagine, that, in the rage of those who are in a situation to work. emigration to the western territory *, What friend of humanity does not the negroes find it easy to fly from leap with joy at the view of an object slavery, and that they are well re- fo pious and sublime? Who does not ceived wherever they go.

perceive it is dictated by that spirit of The solemn examples given by perseverance, which animates men of great men, will contribute much to dignity, habituated to good actions, this revolution of principle. Wnat not from oftentation, but from a conproprietor of human beings does not sciousness of duty ? Such are the men bluth for himself, on seeing the cele- who compose these American societies. brated general Gates assemble his nu- They will never abandon this good merous slaves, and, in the midst of work, until they have carried it to its their caresses and tears of gratitude, last degree of perfection; that is to restore them all to liberty; and in fay, until, by gentle and equitable such a manner as to prevent any fatal means, they hall have placed the consequences that might result to blacks in every respect on a footing them from the sudden enjoyment of with the whites. Yet these are the so great a benefit i

celestial societies which infamous avaThe society of Philadelphia, which rice blushes not to calumniate. may be regarded as the father of these

The perseverance with which these holy institutions, has lately taken more focieties have extended their princieffectual measures, both to instruct the ples in their writings, brought forblacks, and to form them to different ward, last year, a debate in congress, employments. • The wretch,' say on the subject of procuring a revocathey, in their address to the public, tion of that article in the conftitution, ! who has long been treated as a beast which suspends the power of congress of burthen, is often degraded so far for twenty years on the subject of the as to appear of a species inferior to flave trade. that of other men; the chains which I ought to have mentioned to you, bind his body, curb likewise his in- in my letter, an eloquent address to tellectual faculties, and enfeeble the the general convention of 1787, from social affections of his heart.'

the Society of Pennsylvania. I will To instruct and counsel those who cite to you the close of it: are free, and render them capable of • We conjure you,' say they, by. enjoying civil liberty; to excite them the attributes of the divinity, insulted to induttry; to furnish them with oc- by this inhuman traffic; by the union cupations suitable to their age, sex, of all the human race in our common talents, and other circumstances; and father, and by all the obligations reto procure to their children an edu- fulting from this union; by the fear cation suitable to their station, are the of the juft vengeance of God in naprincipal objects of this society. tional judgments ; by the certainty

For this end they have appointed of the great and terrible day of the four committees : firit, a committee diltribution of rewards and punithof inspection, to watch over the mo- ments; by the efficacy of the prayers rals and general conduct of the free of good men, who would insult the blacks; second, a committee of guar- majesty of hearen, if they were to dians, whose business it is to place offer them in favour of our country, the children with honest tradesmen as long as the iniquity we now pracand others, to acquire trades; third, tise continues its ravages among us;

* In all the constitutions of the New States forming in the wettern territory, it is heslareit, thac there fhall be neither Slavery nor involuntary servitude.


by the sacred name of Christians ; by doubt that these adversaries were the the pleasures of domestic connections, deputies from the south. I except, and the anguish of their dissolution; however, the virtuous Madison, and by the sufferings of our American especially Mr. Vining. He defended, brethren, groaning in captivity at with real eloquence, the cause of the Algiers, which Providence feems to blacks. have ordained to awaken us to a sen I must not forget to name among timent of the injustice and cruelty of the advocates of humanity, messrs. which we are guilty toward the wretch- Scott, Gerry, and Boudinot. You ed Africans ; by the respect due to will be astonished to find among their consistency in the principles and con- adversaries the first denunciator of the duct of true republicans ; by our great Cincinnati, Mr. Burke; he who unand intense desire of extending happi- flded, with so much energy, the faness to the millions of intelligent be- tal consequences of the in quality ings who are doubtless one day to peo- which this order would introduce ple this immense continent; finally, among the citizens; and the same by all other considerations, which re man could support the much more ligion, reason, policy, and humanity horrible inequality established between can suggest; we conjure the conven- the whites and blacks. tion of the United States to make You will be fill more aftonished to the suppression of the slave trade a learn, that he uniformly employed the subject of serious deliberation.' language of invective. This is the

Addresses from all parts of the weapon that the partizans of slavery United States, signed by the most re- always use in America, in England, spectable men, have been presented and in France. to the new congress. Never was a One of the most ardent petitioners subject more warmly debated; and, to congress in this cause, was the rewhat never happened before in Ame- spectable Warner Misin. His zeal rica, it gave occasion to the most was rewarded with atrocious calumatrocious invectives from the adver. nies, which he always anfvered with faries of humanity. You will not mildness, forgiveneis, and argument.

On replacing the Sugar of the Cane by the Sugar of Maple,

[ From the SAME.] On this continent, my friend, so

Such is the beneficent tree which polluted and tormented with sla- has, for a long time, recompensed the very, Providence has placed two happy coloniits, whole position depowerful and infallible means of de- prived them of the delicate fugar of Itroying this evil. The means are,

our islands. the societies of which we have been They have till lately contented {peaking, and the sugar-maple. themselves with belowing very litt'e

Of all vegetables containing sugar, labour on the manufacture, only bringthis maple, after the sugar-cane, con- ing it to a state of common coarse sutains the greatest quantity. It grows gar; but since the quakers have difnaturally in the United States, and cerned in this production, the means may be propagated with great faci- of destroying slavery, they have felt lity. - All America seems covered with the necessity of carrying it to perit, from Canada to Virginia; it be- fection ; and success has crowned their comes more rare at the fouthward, on endeavours, the east of the mountains ; but it is You know, my friend, all the diffound in abundance in the back coun- ficulties attending the cultivation of try.

the cane. It is a tender plant; it has T + 2


many enemies, and requires constant to that of the islands, in grain, co, care and labour to defend it from nu- lour, and taste. merous accidents : add to these, the The cultivators in the state of Newpainful efforts that the preparation and York perceive, in an equal degree, manufacture costs to the wretched the advantages of this production ; Africans ; and, on comparing these they have made, this year, a great to the advantages of the maple, you quantity of sugar, and brought it to will be convinced, by a new argu- great perfection. ment, that much pains are often taken Whenever there shall form from to commit unprofitable crimes. The north to south a firm coalition, an maple is produced by nature ; the fap ardent emulation to multiply the proto be extracted, requires no prepara- duce of this divine tree, and especially tory labour; it runs in February and when it shall be deemed an impiety March, a season unsuitable for other to destroy it f, not only America may rural operations. Each tree, without supply herself, but she may fill the injury to itself, gives twelve or fifteen markets of Europe with a sugar, the gallons, which will produce at least low price of which will ruin the sale five pounds of sugar. A man aided of that of the islands—a produce by four children, may easily, during washed with the tears and the blood four weeks running of the sap, make of slaves. fifteen hundred pounds of sugar *. What an aftonishing effect it would

Advantages, like these, have not produce, to naturalize this tree through failed to excite the attention of the all Europe! In France, we might friends of humanity; so that, besides plant them at twenty feet distance, in the focieties formed for the abolition a kind of orchard, which would at the of Navery, another is formed, whose fame time produce pasture, fruits, and express object is to perfect this valu- other vegetables. In this manner an able production.

acre would contain 140 trees, which, Mr. Drinker t of Philadelphia, even when young, would produce made, last year, fixty barrels of ma- three pounds of sugar a-year. This Ble sugar on his estate on the Dela- would give 420 pounds the acre, ware; and he has published a pam- which, at three-pence sterling the phlet on the best method of proceed- pound, and dedu&ting one half for ing in this manufacture.

the labour, would yield annually 521. Edward Pennington, of Philadel- 6s. sterling, clear profit; beside other phia, formerly a refiner in the West productions, which these trees would Indies, has declared this sugar equal not impede. This calculation might be

* M. Lanthenas, one of the most enlightened defenders of the blacks in France, has made some calculations on this subject, which cannot be too often repeated. Supposing, says he, that a family will produce in a season 1500lb. of sugar, 80,000 fa. milies will produce, and that with very little trouble, a quantity equal to what is exported from St. Domingo in the most plentiful year, which is reckoned at one hundred and twenty millions. This supposes twenty millions of trees, rendering five pounds. each, estimating the acre of the United States at 38,476 square feet of France; and fupposing the trees planted at seven feet distance, about 30,000 acres appropriated to this use, would fuffice for the above quantity of sugar.

† Some of the following facts took place in 1789 and 1790, as my friends have written me from Philadelphia. I thought proper to infert them in this letter, to which they belong.

| A farmer has published, that no less than three millions of the maple trees are deltroyed annually in clearing the lands in the fingle state of New York. It is certainly worthy the care of every legislature in the union, to prevent the deitru&tion of so useful a tree, which seems to have been planted by the hand of heaven, for the confolation of man.


ble *.

reasonably carried much higher ; but cannot fail to present itself to the I chose to keep it as low as poffi- imagination of every humane and en

lightened man. Our devotees, our Thus we should obtain a profitable ignorant and inhuman priests, who production in Europe, and diminish never fail to be great lovers of coffee so many strokes of the whip, which and sugar, would, by these means, be our luxury draws upon the blacks. saved from the horrible part which Why is it, that, in our capital, where they take in the moft enormous crime the delicacy of sentiment is sometimes on which the fun ever shone, In conequal to that of sensation, no societies fuming these articles, do they not enare formed, whose object should be to courage those whose guilt is more di, fweeten their coffee with a sugar not rect in the operation of producing embittered by the idea of the excessive them and yet, with what coldness, tears, cruelties, and crimes, without with what culpable indifference, do which these productions have not been these pious men look upon our society hitherto procured ?-an idea which of the friends of the blacks!

On a PLAN for the RE-EMIGRATION of the BLACKS of the UNITED

STATES, to America.

[From the Same.] Have already, my friend, given Even on admitting them to all the

you a sketch of the ideas of Dr. rights of citizens, I know not if it Thornton on this subject. This ar- would be possible to effect a lafting dent friend of the blacks is persuaded, and sincere union; we are so strongly that we cannot hope to see a fincere inclined to love our likeness,' that union between them and the whites, there would be unceasing suspicions, as long as they differ so much in co- jealousies, and partialities, between lour, and in their rights as citizens. the whites and blacks. We must then He attributes to no other cause, the recur to the project of Mr. Thornton apathy perceivable in many blacks, -a project first imagined by that even Massachusetts, where they are great apoftle of philanthropy, Dr. free. Deprived of the hope of elect- Fothergill!-a project executed by ing or being elected representatives, the fociety at London, or rather by or of rising to any places of honour the beneficent Grenville Sharp!-and trust, the negroes seem con- a project for restoring the negroes to demned to drag out their days in a their country, to establish them there, ftate of servility, or to languith in and encourage them in the cultivation fhops of retail. The whites reproach of coffee, sugar, coton, &c. to carry them with a want of cleanliness, in- on manufacture, and to open a comdolence, and inattention. But how merce with Europe. Mr, Thornton can they be industrious and active, has occupied himself with this conwhile an insurmountable barrier sepa: foling idea. He proposed himself to rates them from other citizens ? be the conductor of the American ne

* The author ought to have carried the idea further. The fugar maple for fuel is. equal to the best oak; for cabinet work, and many funilar uses, it is superior to mott of the species of wood used in Europe; as a tree of ornament and pleasure, it is at least equal to the elm or poplar. How many millions of young trees, for the above uses, are planted every year in all parts of Europe, to renew and perpetuate the forests, the public and private gardens and parks, to border the great roads, &c. for all these purposes the sugar maple might be planted, and the juice to be drawn from it might be reckoned a cl. ar profit to the world. The experiment of M. Noailles, in his gar. den af St. Germains, proves that this American tree would succeed well in Europe.



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