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dramatic entertainments are derived, Then wine and joy were seen in each man's the origin of this art was no other eyes, than the song which was commonly And a fat goat was the best singer's prize. fung at the festival of Bacchus. * Thespis was first, who, all besmear'd with goat was the sacrifice offered to that god : after the facrifice, the priests, And with his carted actors, and a song,

Began this pleasure for posterity : and all the company attending, sung Amus’d the people as he pass’d along hymns in honour of Bacchus; and, Next Æschylus the different persons plac'd, from the name of the victim, tpayos And wlth a better mark his players gracid, a goat, joined with won a song, un- Upon a theatre his verse expressid, doubtedly arose the word Tragedy.

And show'd his hero with a buskin dressid, These hymns, or lyric poems,

Then Sophocles, the genius of the age, sung sometimes by the whole com

Increas'd the pomp and beauty of the pany, and fometimes by separate Engag‘d the chorus song in ev'ry part, bands, answering alternately to each And polith'd rugged verle by rules of art. other; making what we call a chorus,

DRYDEN. with its strophes and antistrophes. In order to throw some variety into this The chorus, it appears, was the entertainment, and to relieve the fing- basis of the ancient Tragedy. It was ers, it was thought proper to intro- not an ornament added to it, nor a duce a person who, hetween the songs, contrivance to render it more perfect; hould make a recitation in verse. but, in fact, the dramatic dialogue Thespis was the first that made this in- was an addition to the chorus, which novation; and Æschylus, who is pro- was the original entertainment. In perly the father of Tragedy, intro- process of time, the chorus, from duced a dialogue between two per- being the principal, became only the fons, in which he contrived to inter- accessory in Tragedy; till, at latt, in weave some interesting story, and modern Tragedy, it disappeared enbrought his actors on a stage adorned tirely. This, which forms the chief with proper scenery and decorations. ditinction between the ancient and All that these actors recited was called the modern stage, has given rise to a episode, or additional song, and the question much agitated among the songs of the chorus were made to re- partizans of the Ancients and the late no longer to Bacchus, their ori- Moderns-whether the drama has ginal subject, but to the story in which gained, or suffered, by the abolition the actors were concerned. This be- of the chorus. But this queftion, togan to give the drama a regular form, gether with the subject of the three which was soon after brought to per- Unities of Action, Place, and Time, fection by Sophocles and Euripides, and a review of the principal writers It is remarkable in how short a space in Tragedy, both ancient and mo. of time, Tragedy grew up among the dern, shall be confidered hereafter. Greeks, from the rudest beginnings It has been already intimated, that to its most perfect state: for Sopho- the original of the stage was the epic cles, the greatest and most correct of poem t; and I shall close this essay all the tragic poets, flourished only with a passage on the subject from twenty-two years after Æschylus, and Dryden's fine dedication of the Æneid was little more than seventy years to the marquis of Normanby, afterpofterior to Thespis,

ward duke of Buckingham. Nare

ration,' says this excellent poet and At first, the Tragedy was void of art ; A song, where each man danc'd

and fúng critic, doubtless, preceded acting,


laws to it. What at first And of god Bacchus roaring out the praise, was told artfully, was, in process of Şought a good vintage for their jolly days: time, represented gracefully to th See Upiperfal Magazine, Vol. LXXXIX, page 3.

his part;

+ Ib. page 4

fight and hearing. Those episodes of pied by them according to the proHomer, which were proper for the portions of the drama : if he finished stage, the poets amplified each into his orb within the year, it sufficed to an action : out of his limbs they teach them, that their action being formed their bodies: what he had less, and being also less diversified with contracted they enlarged: out of one incidents, their orb, of consequence, Hercules were made infinity of pyg- must be circumscribed in a less commies : yet all endued with human pass, which they reduced within the fouis : for from him, their great limits either of a natural or an artificialcreator, they have each the divinæ day: fo that as he taught them to particulum aura.' They Howed from amplify what he had shortened, by him at firit, and are at last resolved the faine rule, applied the contrary, into him. Nor were they only ani- way, he taught them to shorten whatmated by him, but their measure and he had amplified. Tragedy is the symmetry were owing to him. His miniature of human life : an epic one, entire, and

great action was co- poem is the draught at length.'

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early original, imagining they ancient writer, is an evidence in fa-
are noticed in the 108th pfalm, where vour of their antiquity among the
the Royal Prophet declares, he will Romans. In Lib. ii. cap. 35. de Re
cast his hoe over Edom. They go Rustica, he says, that olives gathered
ftill higher; fuppofing them to be by the naked hand, are preferable to
used in the times of the Judges, Ruth those gathered with gloves. Athe-
iv. 7. where it is said, it was the næus speaks of a celebrated glutton,
custom for a man to take off his shoe, who always came to table with gloves
and to give it to his neighbour, as a on his hands, that he might be able
token of redeeming or exchanging to handle and eat the meat while hot,
any thing. They tell us, the word and devour more than the rest of the
which in these two texts is usually company:
translated shoe, is by the Chaldee pa These authorities shew, that the
raphrast in the latter, rendered glove. ancients were not strangers to gloves ;
Casaubon is of opinion, that gloves though, perhaps, their use might not
were worn by the Chaldeans, because be so common as among us. When
the word here mentioned is in the the ancient severity of manners de-
Talmud Lexicon explained, the clined, the use of gloves prevailed
cloathing of the hand.' But it must among the Romans; but not without
be confessed, all these are mere con- fome opposition from the philosophers.
jectures ; and the Chaldean paraphrat Musonius, a philosopher, who lived
has taken an unallowable liberty in at the close of the first century of
his verfion.

Christianity, among other invectives Let us, then, be content to begin against the corruption of the age, with Xenophon, who gives a clear and says, ' It is a shame, that persons in distinct account of Gloves. Speaking perfe&t health should clothe their hands of the manners of the Persians, he and feet with soft and hairy coverings." gives us a proof of their effeminacy; Their convenience, however, foon that, not satisfied with covering their made their use general. Pliny the head and their feet, they also guarded younger informs us, in his account of their hands against the cold with thick his uncle's journey to Vesuvius, that gloves. Homer, speaking of Laertes his secretary fat by him, ready to at work in his garden, represents him write down' whatever occurred rewith Gloves on his hands, to securemarkable; and that he had gloyee on

his hands, that the coldness of the It was taken up by a knight, who weather might not impede his busi- brought it to Peter, king of Arragon, ness.

who was afterward crowned at PaIn the beginning of the ninth cen- lermo. tury, the use of gloves was become so As the delivery of gloves was once universal, that even the church thought a part of the ceremony used in giving a regulation in that part of dress ne- possession ; so the depriving a person cessary. In the reign of Lewis le of them, was a mark of divesting Debonnaire, the council of Aix or- him of his office, and of degrading dered, that the monks should only him. Andrew Herkley, earl of Carwear gloves made of theep-skin. life, was, in the reign of Edward the

That time has made alterations in second, impeached of holding a corthe form of this, as in all other ap- respondence with the Scots, and conparel, appears from the old pictures demned to die as a traitor. Walfingand monuments.

ham, relating other circumstances of Let us now proceed to point out his degradation, says - His spurs the various uses of gloves in the se- were cut off with a hatchet; and his veral ages; for, beside their original gloves and shoes were taken off,'.&c. design for a covering of the hand, Another use of gloves was in a they have been employed on several duel: on which occasion, he who great and folemn occasions : as in the threw one down, was thereby underceremony of investitures, in bestow- stood to give defiance ; and he who ing lands, or, in conferring dignities. took it up, to accept the challenge. Giving possession by the delivery of a The use of single combat, at first glove, prevailed in several parts of designed only for a trial of innocence, Chriftendom in later ages. In the like the ordeal fire and water, was, year 1002, the bishops of Paderborn in succeeding ages, practised for deand Moncerco were put into poffeffionciding right and property. Chalof their fees by receiving a glove. lenging by the glove was continued It was thought so effential a part of down to the reign of queen Elizabeth, the episcopal habit, that some abbots as appears by an account given by in France, presuming to wear gloves, Spelman, of a duel appointed to be the council of Poitiers interposed in fought in Tothill-fields, in the year the affair, and forbade them the use 1571. The dispute was concerning of them, on the same footing with some. lands in the county of Kent. the ring and sandals, as being pecu- The plaintiffs appeared in court, and liar to bishops.

demanded a single combat. One of Monsieur Favin observes, that the them threw down his glove, which custom of blessing gloves at the co- the other immediately took up, carronation of the kings of France, which ried off on the point of his sword, still subsists, is a remain of the eastern and the day of fighting was appointpractice of investiture by a glove. A ed; but the matter was adjusted in remarkable instance of this ceremony an amicable manner by the queen's is recorded in the German history. judicious interference. The unfortunate Conradin was de Though such combats are now no prived of his crown and his life by the longer in use, we have one ceremony usurper Mainfroy. When, having still remaining among us, in which afcended the fcaffold, the injured the challenge is given by a glove; prince lamented his hard fate, he af- viz. at the coronation of the kings of Terted his right to the crown ; and, England: upon which occasion, his as a token of investiture, threw his majesty's champion, compleatly armglove among the crowd ; begging it ed, and well mounted, enters Wett- i might be conveyed to fome of his re-' minfter-hall, and proclaims, that, if Janods, who hould revenge his death. any man thall deny the prince's title


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to the crown, he is ready to maintain indeed, tell us in what the danger and defend it by fingle combat. After confifts. A friend from Germany which declaration, he throws down explains the matter. He says, it is his glove, or gauntlet, as a token of an ancient established custom in that defiance.

country, that whoever enters the ftaThis custom of challenging by the bles of a prince, or great man, with glove is still in use in some parts of his gloves on his hands, is obliged to the world. It is common in Germa- forfeit' them, or redeem them by a ny, on receiving an affront, to send fee to the servants. The same custom a glove to the offending party, as a is observed in some places at the death challenge to a duel.

of the stag; in which case, the gloves, • The last use of gloves to be men- if not taken off, are redeemed by tioned here, was for carrying the money given to the huntsmen and hawk, which is very ancient. In keepers. This is practised in France ; former times, princes and other great and the late king never failed to pull men took so much pleasure in carrying off one of his gloves on that occathe hawk on their hand, that some of fion. The reason of this ceremony them have chosen to be represented is not known. in this attitude. There is a monu We meet with the term Glove-moment of Philip the first of France fill ney in our old records ; by which is remaining; on which he is repre- meant, money given to fervants to fented at length, on his tomb, hold- buy gloves. This, no doubt, gave ing a glove in his hand.

rife to the faying of giving a pair of M. Chambers says that, formerly, gloves,to lignify making a present judges were forbidden to wear gloves for some favour or service. on the bench. No reason is assigned for To the honour of the glove, it has this prohibition. Our judges lie un more than once been admitted as a der no such restraint; for both they term of the tenure or holding lands. and the reft of the court make no dif- One Bortran, who came in with Wil. ficulty of receiving gloves from the liam the conqueror, held the manor sheriffs, whenever the fefsion or as- of Farnham Royal by the fervice of fixe concludes without any one re- providing a glove for the king's ceiviog fentence of death, which is right-hand on the day of his coronacalled a Maiden Aflize. This custom tion, and fupporting the fame hand is of great antiquity.

that day while the king held the-royal Our curious antiquarian has also sceptre. In the year 1177, Simon preserved a very singular anecdote de Mertin gave a grant of his lands concerning gloves. Chambers in- in confideration of fifteen fillings, forms us, that it is not fake, at present, one pair of white gloves at Easter, to enter the stables of princes without and one pound of cummin. pulling off the gloves. He does not,

Men of GENIUS not necessarily. unhappy, nor generally neglected en

Account of their Talents ; with Strictures on the Misfortunes of feverak celebrated POETS.


WHoever has liftened to the had frequent opportunities of quel

proverbial complaints of man- tioning maxims long reeeived as inkind, and informed himself of their controvertible facts, and of observing general sentiments and opinions, with the strange contradictions between the a defign rather of investigating their experience of rational enquiry, and truth, than of fanctioning them by a the obstinate opinions, of prejudiced balty and indolent adoption, must have old age. In laort, though I am far

from believing (notwithstanding the in any other situation of life, might united authority of a Roman pon- have led him to itill more disgrace. till, and an Athenian orator +) that ful actions, and a ftill more fatal the popularity of an opinion is the catastrophe. teft of its absurdity, yet I am well After this exordium, I need scarcely convinced that innumerable are the inform the reader, that the ensuing groundless prejudices, which super- essay is meant to be directed agaiost ficial observation and cynical discon- the declamatory and mortifying obtent have imposed upon the supposed fervations, fo often reiterated, and so fagacious part of mankind, and ri- generally believed, concerning the pened into fallacious axioms. peculiar perfecutions of men of genius;

Merely to trace the source of these the neglect, contempt, and wwgratipopular errors, would perhaps be an tude they generally receive from the easy and unpro table taik: to ex- world; and the álmot inevitable mi plode them, indeed, were an Herculean fortunes which cloud the literary calabour; but it would also be of the reer. highest benefit to mankind. Every li The names, it is true, of a Savage, terary adventurer seems, therefore, and a Chatterton, the fabled horiors called upon by the virtues, for which of the fate of Otway, the elegant he stands pledged to fociety, (the complaints of a Shenstone and a Hamvirtues I mean of liberal sentiment, mond, and many other intances, seem and zeal for the public good) to to give but too much countenance to brandith his weapon against these the mortifying opinion of the infeli. deadly pests. To this call (from which city of genius; yet even these, and the obscurity of an anonymous essayist they are among the strongest of poought not in my opinion to be deemed pular examples, will.but indifferently an exemption) I Hatter myself I have lupport an opinion that superior tanot been inattentive. My missile lents, or even the necessary concomiweapons have repeatedly been di-' tants of disposition, have any imme rected, not always I hope with an diate or real tendency to impede the erring aim, against the cuirasies of progress of fortune, or prevent the prejudice and delusion; and I some- ordinary enjoyments of felicity. times entertain the pleasing suppofi The life of the firit of these chation, that my shafts may humble in racters is undoubtedly marked with the dust many a mental enemy to vir- many transitions, which none but a tue and felicity, though in the midst of man of genius could ever have exthe promiscuous warfare, the hand shall perienced: but they are the foítunate be unnoticed by which they are di- shades of his life only that are to be atşected.

tributed to this source; the darker lines An ambition like this I need not of misfortune and disappointment, were be alamed to own :-an ambition generally reflected by his imprudence like this stimulates the attack against and his vices; and had not Savage a popular prejudice, by which many been a poet, and a man of parts, his an effort of youthful genius has been poverty (notwithstanding the mystery filled and oppressed, the mind of of his birth) might have been for many a votary of science has been ever unalleviated and unpitied ; and overshadowed by gloom and defpon- want or justice might fooner hava dency, and many a victim of difli- cut short the thread of his wretched pated pleasure has been encouraged exiitence. The talents of the poet, to attribute to the muses that ruin, or though far from being of the firit rethole misfortunes, which his vices fpectability, enforced the claims which have alone occafioned; and which, nature might in vain have reiterated

* Pope John XXIII.

+ Phocion.

B 2


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