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with the same respective velocities and periods of revo- globular form of the world was long denied by many pious lution which they have in the heavens: the wheel-work persons, because the Scripture speaks of the " ends of being calculated to a minute of time from the latest dis- the earth;” its rotation on its axis, and the immobility of coveries. The diurnal rotation of the earth about its axis, the sun in the centre of the system, because Joshua comthe different seasons of the year, and the different lengths manded the sun to stand still

, and the Lord stayed its of days and nights, are likewise here completely exhibited. going down. Galileo was imprisoned, and nearly lost In short, by this instrument, every phenomenon in the his life by the vengeance of the inquisition, for asserting solar system is represented as it actually appears in the truths now finally established, which were then thought heavens.

to militate against some passages of Holy Writ. HapBy means of the orrery a great many persons, who have pily, mankind in general are now convinced that those, not time to apply themselves to the study of astronomy, and many other expressions and descriptions, were and yet are desirous to be acquainted with the celestial made in conformity with the then received opinions, appearances, may in a few days get a competent knowledge and were not intended as philosophical truths, which of several phenomena, and especially be cured of the the Scriptures do not pretend to teach. In common common prejudice against the motion of the earth, and the and social life, were the Apostle's commands,Lie Copernican system. But the principal use of the orrery not one to another ;”. Have your loins girt about is to render the theory of the earth and the moon easy with truth;” + “ Wherefore, putting away lying, speak and intelligible; and to evidence to our senses how all every man truth with his neighbour;"—if these precepts were those appearances happen which depend on the annual or strictly obeyed, what a different world should we behold! diurnal rotation of the earth, and the monthly revolutions What confidence might man then repose in man; with of the moon, in which are shewn the various phases, what security would all his transactions be carried on; the manner of solar and lunar eclipses, the vicissitudes how many anxious cares and painful scrutinies would then and various lengths of days and nights, the variety of the be rendered unnecessary; with what ease would strict seasons, &c.

justice be administered without danger of mistake; how many unhappy engagements would be avoided! Treachery and fraud would be unknown.

A consummation so devoutly to be wished, cannot be TRUTH AND FALSEHOOD.

expected until God shall see fit to change the hearts of

all mankind. But a great approach might be made towards Trutu is a virtue of the highest order, and is opposed love of veracity in the breasts of children, and to lay

it, were parents and teachers more careful to inspire a to falsehood. It is the surest bond of reliance between before them, in the most vivid colours, the beauties and man and man, and points the way to those blissful regions advantages of truth, and the disadvantages and disgrace whither it will accompany its votaries, but where false attendant on a departure from it. How much would hood cannot enter.

this desirable end be promoted, were those to whom Truth has been, professedly, the object of man's re- youth look up for example, to be careful to avoid every searches, from the first moment that his mental powers expression that might wear the appearance of untruth, began to unfold themselves until the present hour. But, even in jest ; uniformly to consider every deviation from in many cases, he wilfully shut his eyes to it when it veracity as a fault of a pernicious nature, and to deal presented itself to him ; and in others, falsehood offered leniently with him, who, having committed an error, itself to his notice in the garb of truth, and was welcomed should honourably, though not impudently, avow it, and by him as the reality of that which it professed to be.

express contrition! Men, in general, are not qualified to discover the truth

Too much severity towards children is a great inducein many matters of high importance; it lies hidden under ment to them to teli falsehoods; the hope of screening so many coverings, which must be skilfully and com- themselves from punishment prompts them to tell the pletely removed before it can be clearly seen, that none ready untruth, and, frequently, to persist in denial, even but persons of strong intellect, unbiassed minds, profound when the evidence is clear against them. To reclaim them learning, and great wisdom, can hope for success in from this aggravation of their delinquency, a ready and bringing it to light. The faculties of man, likewise, are so humble avowal of their fault should weigh greatly in limited, and his life is so short, that the number of their favour ; reasoning, suited to their capacity, should important truths which each individual can discover by his be used to impress them with an idea of the beauty and own unaided exertions, is very small... In many cases, honourable nature of truth, and the baseness and then, he must depend for it on the skill and probity of cowardice of a lie. They should be seriously informed, another. It not unfrequently happens that the interest of that falsehood is sooner or later detected, however permany who are qualified to discover truth, lies in the con- tinaciously persisted in ; that some unexpected circumcealing of it, and imposing falsehoods on the world in lieu stances, some unguarded discrepancy in the fabricated of it. In interest have originated the many gross im- tale, will usually be found," that will betray its fallacy and positions that have been foisted on the world for truths, cover the liar with disgrace. That even if the attempt to the great injury of the physical, the moral, and the should succeed, as far as relates to man, and the falsehood religious health of mankind.

Impostures, which are escape detection here, there is an eye that sees all things ; practical falsehoods, have done more to retard the there is a Being who cannot be deceived; who has the advance of mankind in true wisdom, to encourage vice

, power to punish a fault which he abhors, and who will and to excite hatred, malice, persecution, wars, and most assuredly do so, if it be not truly repented of and bloodshed, than all other things whatever.

forsaken. Even wrong views of any particular truth will materially hinder the reception of other truths, though they should be made as clear as the noon-day sun ; thus, the

• Col, iii. 9. + Eph. vi. 14.

But, truth is frequently violated by those who would, To be strictly observant of truth is to be like Him who by no means, utter a wilful falsehood; and that in ways is the God of Truth. It is not sufficient that we abstain that are productive of much mischief. Against such from palpable falsehoods ; every attempt to deceive is a breaches of veracity a good man will most sedulously practical lie; and every exaggerated statement, or wilfully guard.

false inference, is an offence against that veracity which Breach of promise is a violation of truth, frequently virtue and religion enjoin ; even falsehoods, told to productive of pernicious consequences of a most serious avoid some great calamity, or to avoid it from others, are nature. It is a very common practice for parents and wholly unjustifiable. To do evil that good may come, others to quiet the importunities of children, or to induce is properly deprecated by the Apostle ; and we may rest them to do that to which they are averse, by promising assured that whatever present inconvenience may attend things which they have no intention of performing: this a resolute perseverance in duty, that God who has comis committing a great evil to avoid a present incon- manded us to hold fast the truth, will not suffer us to be, venience ; and, in a short time, it does not even answer ultimately, losers for obeying his injunctions. that purpose ; for children who have thus been deceived, The least indulgence in wilful falsehood destroys congrow suspicious, and refuse to credit assertions which fidence. Thus Paley observes :-“I have seldom known experience has told them cannot be depended on. Thus any one who deserted truth in trifles that could be trusted guilt is contracted, an evil example set to the young, and in matters of importance ; the habit of lying, when once irreparable mischief occasioned, to escape a small present formed, is easily extended, to serve the designs of malice inconvenience which is afterwards incurred with double or interest.' He, then, who would avoid the loss of conforce.

fidence which attends falsehood, must carefully practise It is not at all necessary to use harsh refusals, when veracity on all occasions. children are importunate for that which is improper or inconvenient ; if they are old enough to understand reason, they should be gently informed why it is so, and if they cannot be convinced, a mild but firm refusal

BIOGRAPHICAL MEMORANDA. must be persisted in. This may displease for a short time, but it lessens neither affection for, nor confidence in,

(Continued from page 711.) the person who thus "refuses ; nor does it set an evil example to those whose young and tender minds are

PETER SCHOEFFER, peculiarly susceptible of impressions, whether bad or A native of Gernsheim, was employed by John Faust, good.

after his (Faust's) dissolution of partnership with GuttenBut breaches of promise to those of more mature years, berg; and being of a mechanical turn of mind, with are a species of falsehoods that frequently produce the considerable genius and industry, he soon ingratiated most lamentable results. Persons of a warm and affec- himself with his master, who gave him his daughter in tionate disposition sometimes hastily make promises marriage, and admitted him a partner in his business. which it would be inconvenient to keep; they therefore Schoeffer is universally acknowledged as the first wlio appear to have forgotten them: but the persons to whom invented and brought metal types to perfection by casting they are made have not so treacherous a memory; they them in moulds; he had for a time the whole direction have trusted in them, have cherished the expectation of and management of the printing press at Mentz, Faust their fulfilment, and perhaps made arrangements, under being absent at Paris and other places for months togethat expectation, which occasion the disappointment to be ther to dispose of their works. Peter Schoeffer continued exceedingly severe and pernicious.

the business after the decease of Faust, in 1466, and it Exaggeration is another and very common species of remained in his family for two or three generations. falsehood. So fond are men in general of highly coloured Schoeffer printed many works of great merit and iinporpictures, and so desirous are narrators to render their tance, and made many improvements in the art; bui as stories interesting, that few, even of those who may, to his genealogy and the origin of his family, or of what on the whole; be considered as men of probity, can rank they were, we have not sufficiently authenticated keep to the severe truth; they love to give to their documents to determine : it has, however, been generelations something of the air of the marvellous, especially rally admitted that at least, if not the inventors, Gullenif they themselves have been actors in the scene. It was berg, Faust, and Schoeffer, were the first persons who this propensity that induced some of the ancient historians brought the art of Printingto any degree of perfection. to insert narratives in their pages which modern in- The inscription set up at Mentz is a strong proof that credulity rejects as fables; the ground-work of them is, printing with metal types was first practised in that city. perhaps, true, but they have been so embellished as to render them improbable.

JOHN FAUST. To impute actions that are in' themselves indifferent to improper motives, is a species of falsehood remarkably John Faust was a native of Mentz, and is commonly prevalent. Wherever envy has a place, the actions of the described as a goldsmith in that city; but his ingenuity envied persons are viewed with a jaundiced eye, and com- induced him to join with Guttenberg in the pursuit of a mented upon with a prejudiced mind: they are never sup- complete method of printing books ; his separation from posed to be what they appear, but are alleged to proceed Guttenberg through the venality,t as some have said, of from some evil design, some interested and base purpose. that ingenious mechanic, was probably an event that Such assertions are falsehoods of a malignant nature, brought Schoeffer into connexion with him, and also into calculated to injure the reputation of an innocent person, subsequent importance and fame. and to gratify the spleen of a wicked disposition. Scandal In regard to Schoeffer, he must be allowed the honour and calumny originate in a great measure from this source, and a more prevalent vice is scarcely to be found.

+ The act of doing a thing for gain.

• Rom. iii. 8.

[Dec. 31,

of having invented punches and matrices, by means must have cost some pains and expense in the accomplish-
of which this admirable art was carried to perfection. ment.
The first fruits of this new process, which constitutes Young Caxton, feeling that elevation of mind which
the origin of the true typographic art, was Durandi education induces, could not be content to remain secluded
Rationale divisorum Officiorum, published by Faust and in a forest,
Schoeffer in 1459, which was followed some years after
by the “Catholicon Joannis Januensis."

“Where many a flower is born to blush unseen,
The next work was The Bible," so much sought for

And waste its fragrance on the desert air," by those fond of early specimens of typography, and At about fifteen years of age he was apprenticed to one which appeared in 1462.

These three works had been preceded by two editions ROBERT LARGE, an eminent mercer in London, and a conof the " Psalter," the first in 1457, and the second in High Sheriff, and subsequently became Lord Mayor of

siderable merchant, who was shortly afterwards elected 1459; but both executed with characters engraved on wood, London. At this time, mercers were general dealers, and by a mechanism which Faust and Schoeffer possessed, and books composed part of their stock in trade ; these in common with Guttenberg. These two editions of the

were to Caxton a treasure of no little value, as he was Psalter, so exceedingly rare, are master-pieces of Typography, and astonish connoisseurs, both on account of the passionately fond of reading to gain information, and the boldness and precision with which the industrious Schoeffer same feeling continued with him to the end of his life, cut the characters, which are in imitation of the finest thereby giving him the greatest advantages in the com writing of the time; of the beauty and elegance of the pilation of the numerous works which he issued from his initial letters, printed in three colours, blue, red, and ceived, from a bequest of that gentleman, twenty marks,*

own press. On the death of his master, in 1441, he repurple; and of the accuracy and neatness of the impression. which, at that period, was a very considerable sum ; but Some works, however, are accounted to be older than those above-mentioned, though neither the place nor the of them was, that they were the marks of approbation for

what was of more consequence than the pecuniary value name of the printer is indicated. Of this kind are his good conduct and behaviour during liis servitude. a Bible, in two volumes folio, which was preserved in the Mazarine library at Paris; Speculum Vitæ Humanæ," in Shortly after this Caxton went abroad, as agent or factor fifty prints ; “ A History of the Old and New Testament," of the Mercers' Company in Flanders, in which occu

There he represented in forty figures engraved on wood, with Latin pation he spent about twenty-three years. explanations engraved on the same blocks; ". A History and such reputation for commercial experience, that,

acquired the knowledge of the continental languages, of St. John the Evangelist,” on forty-eight prints of the in 1464, he was honoured with a diplomatic authority same kind; “ Ars niorendi,” in twenty-four cuts, printed

to conclude a treaty of trade and commerce between only on one side-each page consists of a wood-cut, re

Edward IV. and Philip, duke of Burgundy. In the presenting an example of the miseries of human life, with document of his commission, in conjunction with Risome explanations engraved on the same print; the leaves chard Whitehill, they are styled ambassadors and special are pasted together, two and two; this work was sold for forty pounds sterling, at the sale of M. Mariette, in commissioners. After this affair had been settled, Caxton 1775. The last three works were certainly prior to authorship, and finished his translation of Le Fevre's

was at leisure to pursue his choice, and he then commenced printing with moveable types, and may be as old as the year 1440. The Bible must have been printed between known to be printed in English ; and notwithstanding it

Recuel des Histoires de Troy."† This is the first book 1450 and 1455. It has been stated in different works, and often repeated, that Faust went to Paris to sell a part of and as abounding with information, it is deemed proper to

was not printed in England, yet it was printed by Caxton, the second edition of his Bible of 1462 ; and having sold notice it here. It was printed in 1471. His next book the copies at a low price, in comparison to what was then

was The Game of Chess, which will be noticed hereafter. given for manuscript Bibles, and also at different prices, w as prosecuted by the purchasers under a pretence of their ward the Fourth's sister, to the Juke of Burgundy, Caxton

On the marriage of the Princess Margaret, King Edhaving been overcharged. It is even asserted, that being became an officer of her household, but the exact nature of accused of magic, in consequence of the perfect resem: his employment is not ascertained ; it was, however, above blance observed in the characters, he was obliged to fly that of a menial ; he acknowledges in his writings that he the country. He died in 1466, after which, on all books printed at Mentz, Schoeffer's name is found inscribed Henry IV. was driven by the

earl of Warwick to seek an received a salary, besides odier emoluments. When asylum at the court of the duke of Burgundy, Caxton was

introduced to bim, and received from that monarch tokens WILLIAM CAXTON.

of his approbation, both for his diligence in the affair of

the commercial treaty, and the ingenuity which he had William Caxton was born in the weald, or woody part displayed in the “ Art of Printing. of the county of Kent, about the year 1410. We have It has been regretted that he confined himself to the no account of his parents, but from their local situation German school of printing, and did not inspect the more in a romantic part of the country, it is generally supposed tastesul performances of the Roman, Venetian, and Parisian

hey were of the class of peasantry; nevertheless, they presses, as it is probable in that case he would have contrived to obtain for their son a good education, as in selected the Roman character for his fonts rather than ais works he expresses his gratitude to them for having the German : it is supposed he consulted the masters of lone to him this important parental duty in his youth; the Cologne press, who had gained their instructions at and considering the time and place in which they lived, it

alone. *

• Nouveau Dictionnaire Historique.

# Value, 13s. 4d.
Le Fevre's Selections from the Histories of Troy.

Mentz. The first book he printed in England was on the CRITICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF SOME OF THE Game of Chess." It was dedicated to the duke of Cla

ENGLISH SYNONYMES, rence, King Edward's brother.

Caxton diligently proceeded in the practice of his art IN COURSE OF COURSE.-In course describes the sucfor the space of twenty years, in which time he produced cession of order; of course, the succession of dependence; between fifty and sixty specimens of his labour. A great in course announces a sequence merely; of course, a conpart of them are translations from the French, and upon sequence ;- in course suggests a regular connexion; of the whole, well chosen to infuse a taste for literature, and course, a necessary one. The nobility attended in course; promote good morals.

He died in 1491, and was buried that is, according to the order of their precedence. The at St. Margaret's, Westminster. Though his claims as a nobility attended of course ; that is, in virtue of their scholar are small, and no improvement of the typographi- office. I praised him in course; that is, when it came to cal art is ascribed to him ; yet he deserves the gratitude his turn. I praised him of course ; because his merit of his country, for his share in naturalising one of the required it. The soldiery marched out of the town in most admirable of all inventions, and from which so much course; that is, in regular ranks. The soldiery marched peculiar honour and benefit has accrued to this island. out of the town of course; that is, because, at assize or The “ Biographia Britannica” contains a very elaborate election times, the law requires their absence. account of Caxton and his performances, in the manner of an antiquarian inquiry, to which, for a more full account, material or physical attainments, and acquirement, to moral

ACQUISITION-ACQUIREMENT.-Acquisition is applied to our readers are referred. Mr. Caxton's first performances are very rude and bar

or mental ones. We say, acquisitions of fortune ; but barous. He used a letter resembling the handwriting acquirements of literature. To win a province, is an then in use.

His d, at the end of a word, is very singu- acquisition ; to learn a language, an acquirement. The lar. He used the characteristics which we find in English merit that leads

to wealth, passes for an acquisition ; that manuscripts before the Conquest. Instead of commas

which leads to fame, passes for an acquirement. and periods, he used an oblique stroke, thus,'; which the Dutch printers do to this day in their gothic impressions. His letter was peculiar and easily known, being a THE AURORA BOREALIS, OR NORTHERN mixture of secretary and gothic. Like other printers of

LIGHTS. his time, he never used any direction or catch-word, but placed the signatures where that now stands ; and rarely, when the sun begins to shed a sort of golden lustre by his refracted

The word Aurora is used to signify the morning or break of day, numbered his leaves, and never his pages. In most of

rays on the atmosphere; hence its name aurora, being derived from his books he only printed, as the custom then was, a small the Latin name for gold; and boreulis, signifying northern ; conseletter at the beginning of the chapters, to intimate what quently, the literal and simple meaning is the northern twilight.the initial or capital letter should be, and left that to be

Whether the original term was intended to have any allusion to made by the illuminator, who wrote it with a pen, with the season of the year, we will not take upon ourselves to say; bnt

the greatest display of this phenomenon generally occurs about red, blue, or green ink ; but in some of his books he used the time that the sun sinks below the horizon of die polar hemitwo-line letters, of a gothic kind. As he printed long sphere, or at the period when he is approaching within 18 degrees before the present method of adding the errata at the end thereof, so that it is at the twilight of the Arctic countries, between of books was used, his extraordinary exactness obliged the latitude of about 63 degrees, and the North Pole," that this him to take a great deal more pains than can easily be appearance is most commonly observed ; or about the time of the imagined ; for after a book was printed off, his method The AURORA BOREAlisis an extraordinary luminous appearance, was to revise it, and correct the faults with red ink. This shewing itself in the night time, mostly towards the north, but being done to one copy, he then employed a proper person weather, and is seen most plainly in the northern parts of Enrope,

sometimes towards the south ; it is best observed in clear ti'osty to correct the whole impression. His books are printed particularly in Russia. It resembles a kind of faint lightning, or on paper very fine and good, and not unlike the thin iwinkling in the sky, running up towards the zenith, in streaks of vellum on which they used to write their books at that light, alternately shining and disappearing ; it is this vaulting kind time.

of light, or pale flashes, that has caused mariners to call these The general character of Caxton seems to have been frequently visible in some years than in others, and when most

appearances by the name of the “ Merry dancer's.” It is more that of a modest man, humble and very industrious, and remarkably conspicnous the horizon towards the north will genenot without a considerable share of piety and religion. rally be dark or lusky, with a kind of vapour, or thick atmosphere, He preferred the printing of such books as had these and no star-light in tliat quarter. We will first give some of the objects in view ; to use his own words, -"BOOKes to opinions of the learned on this subject, and then, with great defe

rence to them, bazard one of our own. which be found many good ensignments and learnynges, and GASSENDI, in describing it as seen in France on the second of şood ensamples for al maner of peple generally, special September in 1621, first gave it the name of " aurora borealis." bookes to know al vyces, and branchis of them, and also al Fatlier Boscovicu calculates the height of that observed by the vertues.” In his disposition he was polite, and grateful for Marquis of POLINI; on the sixteenth of December, 1787, at 825

miles ; and Mr. BERGMAN makes the average height of several favours, which he never failed to acknowledge; and if observations 468 miles. EULER sapposes them to be several his genius did not beam on his native country, a sun of thousand miles above the surface of ihe earth; and Marian thinks refulgence and creative influence, it assuredly reflected they are at least 600 miles. the modest rays of a steady satellite, true to its primary, relation to the earth. Dr. Blagde e says that the aurora borealis

Þr. THIENEMAN considers that this meteor has no determinate his beloved country; and so long as typography shall occupies a high region above the surface of the earth, because it continue, he must have an imperishable name in the can be seen at a great distance; and he adds that the accumulation records of distinguished characters. There is a tablet in of electric matter seems to lie beyond the verge of our atmosphere. Westminster Abbey, with a suitable inscription, erected He informs us that instances are recorded in which the northern

lights have been seen to join and form luminous balls, darting to his memory by the Roxburgh Club, Earl Spencer about with great velocity,

and even leaving a train behind like the President.

cominon fire balls. This ingenious philosopher, conjecturing that

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distant regions are allotted to the electrical phenomena of our not so constant, on account of the long absence of the son, and of atmosphere, assigus the appearance of fire balls' to thrat région that exciting motion which bis beams give to all Auid elements; which ties beyond the limits of our-crepusculur. 'atmosphere ; and the appearancé too of those dancing lights, about the time of the a greater elevation above the earth to that accumulation of electri- equinoxes, more than at any other lime, shews the effect that the city, in a lighter and less coudensed form, which produces the sun lías on this element when he shoots his 'rays, or withdraws wonderfully diversified streams, and coruscations of Ocean them from the slanting course they take through the hyperborean "Those dancing meteors,' tliat ceaseless shake':

skios; just as the moon at full and change affects the grosser A warning blazę, refracted.o'er the heavens,".

element, the water of the ocean ; so‘at the verpal, but particu.

larly' at 'thic autumnal equinoxes, aurora borealis is most full It is hardly worth while to mentiou the absurd notion of those who and brilliant, and like all other meteors has ità existence in the havę assigned the cause of the aiuora borealis' to the nomenon has been visible when no sucli erliptions were in active in ether as to become invisible ; in plain volcanoes, or burning mountains in the polar regions, for the phe atmosphere that is, never more than fifty mites above the surface

of the earth; for beyond that it would instantly be so expanded

it would extin; operation.

guislı; for it is only by operation on the a thin that it can be : Dr.: GRANVILLE, ivho calcutated the yearly number of these observed ; and inless there be a contact with the elements that appearavces at St. Petersburg, in Russia, mentions one of extraor: coinpose the circamambient t: air; the hinnan eye could not disceru follows: "The sky was illuminated from 'the Irorizour to the it; its dissipated particles might exist in thie void; (if such a term zenitli, extending east sind west to a considerable disthides may be used by and our atmosphere, but could only have been

embodied, and visible as siicli, liide passing through it.' Wliat Massos of fire, in the form of colunmış, and as brilliant als tie ever, therefore, 'becomes of the aurora borealis, or whithersoever briglitest phosphorus, danced in the air, and streaks of a decper it ascesus, the substance, cause, and effect of it, are simply the light, of various sizes, vose from the horizon and tla-lied between succession of electrical discharges paşsing Hirong! the atmosphere; then. 7: The brightness of the former seemed at times to grow and were thosc dischai yes to meet with a very moist medium, the faint an:1 din, Abihis conjuncture, the broad streaks would sad, particles of that medium wonld concentrate, and clouds, tempests, denly shoot with great vclocity up to the zenith with an nndulating tighting, and ibuñiler' woululensue: in fret, scarcely

, cver have inotion and a rýramittattorn. Fivin' the cohimms taslies of light, those phenomena heen treifent:amt Brilliant without a successioni like a succession of sparks from an dectric.jar, few off and of compostuous weather, that there is a great portiou of the ctis appeareil indhile the streaks changed their form fiequently, and checimo ttui.in dlje, polaringions way, touarıls the comedor, is rapidly broke out in places where none were seen before, shooting manifest by thig magnetic ilhence'; and, peiliup's hie variation of along ihe heavens, and then disappearing in a moment. Thic sky tlic miriner's compass results froin the circinnatince of the greater in many places became tinged with a deep purple, the stars shone portion being constantly over the hırgest'íract of land lying from very brilliantly, the separate lights gradually emerged into each i England westward of the polo; harjuliolr

, it & westward lovgi; other, when, the apporal resplendency of the horizo increased, tidle, lies directly the north, and canses, the moeille, to point and becane-waynificent This phenomenon' Jasted nearly tour exacily true, but by going sull farther towards ille d'est, the hours : and at one time a large triangle of the strongest light ocen- uredle will joint eastward of the pole pied the horizon, illuminating, in the most magnificent manuer,

That the rays of the northern lights rise mirch higher than the only the catire vaalt othéavini", This circumstantial account is sufficient from which to draw a the rays of a canylle being extended to the sides of a room, the

combined particles from whenee ihey proceed, is manifest by rational conclusion 'as tu..the cause and nature of the anrora bore. Higlot of a fire to the clouds, and that of the sun toʻthis globe. wis; and with great deterence to the learned authorities previously The 'hemisphere is often il moninated till it'is as light as bright quoted, we need ont hesit te to pronounce it' an almospherical mooishie; the particles uruve in different directions, and appear effect of etectricity, and no:liyhor, in the region of space than oui in tifferent forms; they frequently send tirth sheamers, which uwa ataide phere, which, as swell as:the earth, convaips this subule dance like lucid pillars; and sometimes they appear, like armies Muid. On thuis very simple fict we may account for the amura tighting against each other. The hemisphere is sometimes, as red borealis, and also for the inclovation of the inugnetic needle towards as a fiery oven; but in general these plienómena are more brilliant are nurtlı.. ;

and ine lights are more bright and frequent in the temperate and Precisely the saine thing will. bappen in our own districts, when frigid, zones, than they are in the torrid, as observed above. I a clorallers, sky and open atníosphere allows the earth to einit the ofectie Huid without abstrpetion, or rather attracts it from thic but often continue for irours. Thougl this inay appear iqysterious

These linlits do not go out immediately, like a flash of lightning, bowels of the earth into the ethereal regions; then will faint it is readily explained. This meteor consists of a thiâ vidro-sulphur cernscations't dance in the air, and frequently Hash on the sight leonis vapour, whichi, being raised bigh in the atmosphere, nunchi like sudden twinklings of the cyce: This thuid, if imbibed in a higher than the clouds, by fermentation caused by the wiyl, takes ciond would charge it with that element whịcli constitutes light. re, and the explosion of oue portion of it kindling with the next, hing, and by suchlen explosion causes thunder; but in a vast the tlashe's succeed one another till Ilie whole quantity or vapoor expanse, where the humid vapour's are lew, and those condensed, within their reach is set on fire. Thus the humidity of the meteor into solidi, as towards the prodes; the immense accumulation of or nitro-sulphuicons matter, being destroyed, the combination electie matter las roop to expand and traverse the atmosphere, ceases, and, of course,' the phenomena. i. and its reflection causes that danciog light which shines throngli, and is refrácted by a more homid t; air, such as that by which we

• HYPERKORLAN, northern. are surrounded :: or need those eruptions of electricity to ascend

Compassing a thing round, surrounding. to snch: a b cight: in order to be seen, as some of these learned Qoctors have supposed; for this refraction not only causes the indulating and varied forms, and motions of the light, but also carries i obliquely to an {mmense, distance, The cause of the TO OUR READERS AND THE PÚBLIC. alternato appearance and disappearance of the illuminated Columns and bodies of light, is the dispersion of one accumulation of the electric fluid into the vast, expanse, and the successive sup-1 Webeg to inform our readers and the public, that onr early Ny of another. Tinc eatık, by its rotalory and crbical motinis numbers of the ensuing year will contain a " Brief Descriptica imbibes and contains a vast quantity of the electric Buid, and when of the Varieties of the Human Race," illustrated by Graphic surcharged s must emil or yield it by the universal law of gravita- Stcrches ; a beautiful Engraring of The School of Athens," tion to that meriiuin which is void, and, consequently, piesse's tuken from the celebrated Paintiny in the Vatican, at Rome, luge 1or an equilibrium; this fuid is collected in greater abundance towards the poles of the globe, because there the evaporation is

Raplaut, in which are comprised uprards of sixty Portraits of the most eminent Philosophers of Greece, together with a descrip

lion, und The Biography of the most distinguished characlers CREPUSCULAR, from the Latin word crepusculum, Twilight.

8. 86.
+ CORUscation, a quick, sudden, and short darting of splen- 4
dour; a flash, or glittering light.

Moist, having the power to wet.
SURCHARGE, too heavy a burden, or more than can be well

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LONDON: Printed for the Proprietors; and Published by W: EDWARDS, borne.

1:': 12, Ave Maria-Lane, Paterposter-row. Il GRAVITATION, the act of tending to the centre.

Printed by CLAY, Brcad-streetHill, Cheapside.

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