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THE

GUIDE TO KNOWLEDGE.

EDITED BY

W. PINNOC K,

AUTHOR OF

“ PINNOCK'S CATECHISMS,” “GRAMMAR OF MODERN GEOGRAPHY AND

HISTORY," &c. &c. &c.

VOL. I.-Nos. I. To XCII.

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR THE PROPRIETORS,

AND PUBLISHED BY W. EDWARDS, 12, AVE-MARIA-LANE.

1833.

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THE PROPRIETORS of the “ Guide To KNOWLEDGE," solicit philosopher has said, “Not to know what has occurred before our time attention to the following brief outline of its contents, with the is to be always a child ;" and we shall not know how to estimate certainty that an inspection of the work itself will shew that the the present, if we cannot contrast it with the times past. present Address but partially states its claims to public patronage. BIOGRAPHY.-- If any species of writing has to boast of a uni

Among its numerous subjects will be comprised a complete versal suffrage in its favour, it is Biog RAPHY ; for of all historical History of Literature, Science, and the Arts, in which will be information, the history of man certainly affords, in a supreme shewn their Origin, Progress, Theory, Use, and Practice ; at the degree, the union of instruction and amusement; hence this subsame time exhibiting the Invention, the Improvement, and Uses ject has been always considered as one of the most valuable studies of the most considerable and important Instruments and Machi- to which yonth in particular can be directed; it also further nery, together with their Nature, Power, and Operation, exem. points out the rewards of diligence and application, and the misery plified by numerous Engravings :. it will also include a brief and disgrace which generally accompany idleness, and the mis. bistorical View of the Progress of the Human Min), and a con- application of time and talents. cise Analysis of the Belles Lettres and the Fine Arts.

NATURAL History will have for its subjects, the animals, NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, in all its branches, and with all the insects, worms, serpents, birds, beasts, and fishes; all of which latest improvements, will be treated of in simple and intelligible will be treated of fully; and the several systems of Zoology will be language. By our choice of subjects under this head, and by the explained under their proper terms, accompanied by critical and mode of communicating them, we trust that this part of our work explanatory notes, will appear to our readers an object of considerable importance ; BOTANY. - Under this head will be explained the several and, at the same time, it is our hope to render them, by their systems of Botany; and the vegetables of the different parts of clearness, sources of utility and entertainment. In this depart. the world, remarkable for their singularity and beauty, will be ment will be given a series of Essays on Natural History, treated on at large, together with their virtues and uses. thereby forming "a complete system of Natural and Philosophical As RHETORIC supplies life with some of its highest and most Knowledge," by which is understood, a philosophical view of the graceful literary pleasures, we intend to devote some portion of most interesting objects of the visible creation. This department our columns to this equally interesting and important subject, as includes the greater part of the subjects as noticed under the well as to the art of reasoning correctly, technically called head Mathematics, in which will be comprised all new discoveries

Logic. relating to vision, --Fire, Air, Water, Steam, &c.; and to which Though MYTHOLOGY abounds with the wildest inconsistencies, will be added a description of the Microscope, Telescope, Air and most absurd reveries, that an uncultivated mind, and a wild Pump, Fire Engine, Orrery, and Electric Machines.

imagination could devise, yet it is so interwoven with the Belles Among the several branches of Belles Lettres, will be given a Lettres, that without a correct knowledge of the former, it is imseries of articles on the Greek, Latin, and Italian Authors, chrono. possible to make any useful or considerable progress in the latter, logically arranged, together with some of the most beautiful The noble works of the Greek and Roman authors can neither be passages translated.

enjoyed nor understood without an intimate acquaintance with The Guide will also comprise a series of Essays on Literature the religious mysteries and customs to which they perpetually in general, in which will be given the Lives and Characters of the allude ; and both Painting and Scuipture, as well as Poetry, most eminent Writers, in different languages, ancient and modern, derive their chief ürnaments from their connexion with the together with critical Caüliks on their works, the whole designed Mythology of the ancients. as a Directory to gnide the judgment, and form the taste, in GEOGRAPHY.-Under this head wiil be considered the EARTH; Teading the best Authors.

its formation and structure ; its several parts, mountains, seas, One great object of these Essays, is to exhibit a critical review deserts, cataracts, lakes, and rivers; together with all meteors, of Literature, from the earliest times to the present day ; and the phenomena of earthquakes, volcanoes, &c. philosophically subject full of instruction and entertainment. And they will treated; in which will be comprehended the whole system of afford a distinct view of ancient and modern learning, with a just | Cosmogony, and the several theories of the Earth: to which will estimation of most writers, whether in philosophy, history, or be added a concise history of minerals, metals, and gems; of oratory. The plan is entirely new, and exhibits, in one connected fossils buried in the earth, and since petrified; and of sulphur, series, a very great variety of literary information.

salts, &c. In this part will be comprised a complete system of CHEMISTRY will also find a place in our work ; as it is not only Metallurgy, Mineralogy, and whatsoever other arts relate to the an interesting study by itself, but doubly important from its con- study of fossils. nexions with most manufactures and many arts.

Astronomy. Our articles on this science have already been History in general will be an important division of the numerous, and it is with pleasnre we have to say that they have Guide to Knowledge;" and particnlar attention will be paid to been well received by the public; but as this subject opens a wide the history of our own country, - a branch of knowledge which is field, and though there seldom arises a Herschel, we still hope of the utmost importance to all British Youth. Indeed, the study

to find further matter 10 gratify the lovers of Astronomy; and of history will open the eyes of the understanding to a compara

therefore we intend to lay before our readers, from time to time, dive view of all things; hence the attainment of this branch of an accurate account of all astronomical, nautical, and geographical knowledge is certainly of the greatest importance ; for, as a wise

discoveries that shall be made in any part of the world ; together

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with a concise view of the various branches of the MATHEMATICS, * in which will be comprised an accurate and full account of the several mathematical, optical, and other instruments, with their different apparatus, according to the latest improvements. In this part will be given a complete explanation of the structure, nature, and purposes of the several kinds of Telescopes, Microscopes, and whatever other works of art are necessary for examining the subjects treated of in the “ Guide to Knowledge,” the whole of which will be illustrated with a great number of Engravings, taken from the snbjects themselves expressly for this work.

MATHEMATics may be considered as the “ Science of Sciences,from its treating on every thing occupying space, and consequently extending itself to every thing in nature; hence, under this head are comprised many sciences, distinguished by various names, according to the subjects they consider, the chief of which are the following; namely, GEOMETRY, which treats of extension, or mag. nitude, under the form of lines, superficies, and solids; subordi. nate to which are ARITHMETIC and AlgeBRA: these may be considered as one and the same, since both treat of the calculations of quantities; the first by numbers, and the latter by general characters. These, from their treating on, and from their investigating and demonstrating the properties of, magnitudes, multitudes, and quantities in general, are called Pure Mathematics, from their considering quantities abstractedly, without any relation to matter or bodies; but those branches which consider quantity as subsisting in material beings, are called Mixed MATHEMATICS; for example, length in a road, breadth in a river, height in a star, &c.: such are Mechanics, - that branch which considers motion and moving powers, their nature and laws, with their effects in machines.t HYDROSTATICs is that part of Mechanics which considers the laws and power of Anids, and of bodies immersed therein.-PNEUMATICS is that part of Philosophy which treats of the nature and properties of the Air, and comprehends tlie doctrine or laws according to which air is rarefied or condensed.-HYDRAULICS considers the motion of fuids, with the application thereof, particularly in artificial water-works, by which is shewn the several methods of raising water, and of constructing engines for that purpose. — Optics is the science of direct light or vision; CA TOPTICs of reflected vision ; Dioptics, of refracted vision. PERSPECTIVE is that branch which shows the me:hod of delineating images of visible objects on a plain surface, such as they appear in nature.-ASTRONOMY describes the universe', and the phenomena of the heavens. GEOGRAPHY explains the properties of the earth, which are of three kinds, celestial, terrestrial, and human. HYDROGRAPHY is

that part of Geography which considers the sea as navigable. It teaches us how to measure it, and gives us an account of its tides, currents, soundings, rocks, slielves, sands, harbours, &c.-GNOMonics is the art of constructing Dials, instruments that serve to measure time by the shadow of the sun.-PYROTECHNICS, the art of employing fire for use or pleasure; the art of fireworks, both as regards diversion or the uses of war.ARCHITECTURE, the art of building, whether civil or military.Music, the science of sounds, and their effects in the ear. All of which will be treated of under their particular heads. Hence, it will be observed, that many of the necessaries of life, as well as its conveniences, are obtained through the medium of mathe. matical knowledge.

LITERARY REVIEW.-In this department we intend to give a brief account of all the most important works that shall appear on polite literature, the popular sciences, and the various departments of knowledge which are of most general interest and value ; particnlarly those on Natural History, and Natural and Experimental Philosophy.

We also propose to give a series of Essays on Education ; the Languages, Belles Lettres, History, Ethics, and Commerce. This department presents a wide field for highly useful and interesting articles; and we trust that we shall not fail of delighting, instructing, and improving the mind in its best principles. A very important part of our plan will be to pay a particular attention to Chemistry and Mechanics, becanse of their intimate connexion with our Manufactures and the Arts.

Having thus supplied the young Student with knowledge, it will remain now that he learn its application ; and that thus qualified to act his part, he is at last taught to choose it. For this purpose a series of Essays will be added upon Human Life and Manners ; in which he will be cautioned against the danger of indulging the passions, of vitiating his habits, and depraving his sentiments. These Essays will comprise the most important subjects in life, the Proprietors intending that the “ Guide to Knowledge” shall not only be a general instructor in Literature, Science, and the Arts, but also a faithful monitor to unexperi. enced youth, so as to raise in their minds an early sense of the dignity of human nature, to inflame them with a love for virtoe, and to teach them to form just estimates of men and things; the want of which has been too often the occasion of their sacrificing their characters, as they frequently do their fortunes, before they have acquired a proper knowledge of the value of either.

As the Editor's aim is to assist the rising generation, and present it with something that may renter the acqnirement of Knowledge more easy and expeditious, he trusts that an under. taking so laudable, will meet with the general approbation and aid of those gentlemen who are his fellow.labourers in the public service of Teaching, and of forming those minds, the perfect cultivation of which so greatly tends to public peace and private happiness

Our business will be to lead our readers through the paths and passages of these delightful and important studies, and if we can give satisfaction, the reflection will be bighly pleasing to our sentiments and feelings.

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• Every species of knowledge is good and valuable, in proportion as it is conducive to public benefit. That the mathematical sciences are eminently so is a truth of which no one can doubt; this added to the clearness of the reasoning employed, and the certainty of the conclusions obtained, are motives sufficient to induce us to introduce those studies into the “ Guide,as being in every way suited to its readers.

† The knowledge of Mechanics is one of those things that serves to distinguish civilized vations from barbarians. It is by this science that the utmost improvement is made of every power and force in nature; and the motions of the elements, water, air, and fire, are made subservient to the various purposes of life; for however weak the force of man appears, when unassisted by this art, yet, with its aid, there is hardly any thing above bis reach. It is distinguished by Sir Isaac Newton into Practical and Rational Mechanics ; the former of wbich treats of the mechanical powers: namely, the lever, balance, axis and wheel, pulley, wedge, screw, and inclined plane. RATIONAL MECHANICS comprehends the whole theory of motion, shews when the powers or forces are given, liow to determine the motions that are produced by them; and conversely, when the phenomena of the motions are given, how to trace the powers of forces from which they arise. Mechanical Philosophy is the same with what is otherwise called Corpuscular Philosophy, which is so called from corpuscle, a minute particle, a physical atom, being such as compose a natural body.

N.B. The “Guide to Knowledge” will hereafter be printed and ready for delivery on Thursday in each successive week, that the booksellers and newsvenders may have the numbers on Friday, so as to enable them to supply Subscribers on Saturday morning.

The numbers and parts of this work, from its commencementin July, 1832, .to the present time, may be procured by applying to any bookseller or newsvender in the kingdom; but as some of the early numbers are nearly out of print, an immediate application is recommmended to avoid disappointment. 2 All Communications for the Editor, to be addressed to him

at the Publisher's.

IN DE X.

..........

...

Page.
Botany

85, 125, 133, 175, 209
Boys and Girls, Chapter for

32
Bread and Beer

288
Bridges .

259
Britains, Ancient

421, 429
Brnce Cotton, Sir Robert

591
Buckinghamshire...

299
Buffalo

156
Buildings of Various Nations 304, 310, 318
in London

258
Butterflies

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84, 159

C.

E.

...

A.

Page.
ABBOTSFORD, view of

161
Acorns

134
Address to the Reader

2
to Students

35
Aërolités

614
Ages, the Four Great Historical

264
Ainstey of York ......

436
Air......

224
Almanacks

178
Alphabetical Writing

79
American Natives

139
America, Discovery of

287
North, Savages of.. 647
Amusements.

438
Anecdote

39
Anecdotes of two Russian Generals.. 405
Animals, method of catching in Ame.
rica....

34
-, change of colour of........ 132
sleep or torpidity

171
Antipathies

.415, 527, 543, 574
Ants, Colony of

6
Apologue, Eastern

328
Arc, Joan of..

477
Architects, English, Memiors of 350
Architectural Records......383, 391, 396
Arts and Manufactures

284
Arts and Sciences

125
Assyria

91
Astronomy.

17
Comets

137

121
Heavens ...25, 144, 153, 193
History of......

.38, 67, 98, 106
Moon...

117
do. Harvest

119
Planets

..36, 105, 148
Systems of.....

73
Terms of, Explained 520, 528,

640, 645
Use and Importance of .. 510
Athenians, Anecdotes of

463
Athens, Ruins of

384, 391
August, Mirror of .... 518, 536, 544, 552
Autumn

559, 566

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Earth ..

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F.

Cabot, Sebastian

472
Calendar, Roman

179
Calumny

190
Cambridgeshire

329
Camden, his Monument.

407
Cavern at Blackheath...

681
Cedar of Lebanon

120
Ceres, Planet

118
Chameleon

517
Charles I.

591
Chemistry of the Kitchen.

14, 22
Cherries, Introduction of

352
Cheshire, County of

219
Chivalry

189
Christmas Day

214
Christianity and Mahometanism con-
trasted

453
Chronology

158, 167,527
Cicero, Orator..

215
Cinque Ports

485
Cities of Various Nations 301, 310, 318
Clock making

157
Clouds

176
Cloves

209
Coach, Mail

309
Cochineal

645
Cockroach

128
Coffee

209
Colosseum

392
Colossus of Rhodes

400
Comets

.137, 153
Common Council, London

282
Condor ..

317
Confusion

684
Constantine, Emperor

139
Constitution of England

207
Contention....

509
Contentment..

509
Conversation, Adrantages of

211
Cook, Captain, and the Shilling 453
Cornwall

355
Cortez Ferdinand

215
Cosmologica......139, 256, 292, 318, 325
Cotton, Manufacture of

411
Country

204
Crusades

268
Cumberland

363

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B.

G.

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Babylon......

91
Bacon, Roger

479
and his Studies

486
Barbarians

667
Bedfordshire

347
Bees, Honey

317
Beetles

128
Berkshire

307
Biography, Wallace

23
Sir W. Scott

161
St. Patrick

197
Birds, Migration of

132, 172
of Prey

352
Birkbeck, Dr.

301
Blood.

572, 597
Circulation of

127
Boa Serpent...

488
and Tiger

577
Boronghs Disfranchised and New
Boronghs .i.is

312

Gazelle, Hunting the

296
kind.....
Gemini, Constellation.
Geography

1
Ancient

27
History of

9
Holland and Belgium 229
Sandwich Islands
of Dirham..

D.

219
Earth, Rotundity of the 26
England

203
Lancashire

243
Middlesex

207
Netherlands

227
Portugal

227
Rivers and Mountains 233
the World

76, 90
Geology, Rivers and Mountains 233
George III., Blemory and Kindness of 452

Days of the Week

School
December, Mirror of

Month of
Decoy for Ducks

12
69
688
212

.yoor, 132

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