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EXTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1855, by

DIX & EDWARDS,

In the Clerk'y Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York.

HOLMAN & GRAY,
PRINTERS AND STEREOTYPERS,
Cor. Centre and White Sts.

88

ARE ALL MEN DESCENDED FROM ADAM. 79
A WATER STUDY...

192
AMERICAN ORATORS-Rufus CHOATE.. 347
ABBOTT'S LIFE OF NAPOLEON.

429
AMERICA FOR THE AMERICANS.

533
AMERICAN TRAVELERS

561
AUSTRALIANA

598
ABOUT Barys

629
BESSIE.

240
BAG OF WIND..

250

BEARBROOK ARCHIVES :--A FAMILY

Party. FEAST OF THE CRANBER-

RIES ....

299

BALL AT THE TUILERIES

360

BIRTI PLACE OF MOZART..

510

BEAst3 OF THE PRAIRIES..

526
CURIOSITIES OF PURITAN HISTORY-
TOLERATION....

368
COMPENSATION OFFICE.

459
COCXT DE CAGLIOSTRO.

497
CRUISE IN THE FLYING DUTCHMAN.... 516
CAPE COD_THE SHIPWRECK..

632
STAGE Coach Views.... 637
DIPLOMACY AND Cannon Balls. 113
DOUBLE VEIL..

405
DAMES OF VIRGINIA

472
DESIRE OF THE MOTH.

631
FIFTY-Four HUNDRED YEARS AGO... 608
GLIMPSES of French LIFE—THE RES-
TORATION.

155

GREAT Cities..

254

Genius OF CHARLES DICKENS..

263
Hard SWEARING ON A Cuorcu STEEPLE. 41
HAWAIJAN ISLANDS .

241

Household SKELETONS-A MEDITATION 384

ISRAEL POTTER; OR FIFTY YEARS OF

EXILE

1.-Continued— The Shuttle.

63

II.-Sampson among the Philistines-Some-

thing further of Ethan Allen, with Israel's

flight towards the ilderness—Israel in

Egypt.

176

11. Continued - In the City of Dis-Forty.

five Years--Requiescat in Pace. 288

In DOORS AND OUT..

287

LIVING IN THE COUNTRY. 119, 320, 426, 617

LAST WORD OF GEOLOGY

449
LATE EMPEROR OF RUSSIA...

588

MY THREE CONVERSATIONS with Miss

CHESTER.

.144, 273

MOUNTAIN WINDS..

164

MINING VANITIES.

167

Mormox's WIFE.

641

NEGRO MINSTRELSY-ANCIENT AND

MODERN...

72

NATIONAL DEFENCE..

122
NATUBE IN Motiox.

132, 279
NooN AND MORNING.

649
NOTES ON PROPER NAMES.

323
NEW ENGLAND SPRING FLOWERS (se-
cond paper)..

398
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF DESIGN.. 505
OUR GIVEN NAMES.

57

OTTILIA

186

OUR NEW ATLANTIS.

378
OURSELVES IN A French MIRROR. 391
OLIVER BASSELIN

457
ONLY A PEBBLE..
PROFESSOR PHANTILLO, A ROMANCE OF
THE WATER-CURE.

23

PSYCHAURA,.

71
PROMETHEUS AND EPIMETHEUS

129

PEDAGOGUE IN GEORGIA..

187

PROGRESS OF OUR POLITICAL VIRTUES. 197

Rich MERCHANT OF CAIRO.

50
ROBERT OP LINCOLN

576
SPENSERASA

31

SECRET SOCIETIES—The Kyow-No-

THINGS.

SENSITIVE SPIRITS

295
SOXNET

359
STEAM ENGINE, THE

365
SLAVERY IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE... 609
SCIENCE AND NAVIGATION.

621

SHOULD WE FEA

THE POPE?.

650

The OCEAN AND ITS LIFE.

1

THE OLD SCULPTURE AND HIS PUPIL. 22

To MOMMY WHEAT..

60

THE CHILD THAT SLEEPS,

97

Two LITTLE STARS...

143

THE OLD WOMAN WHO DRIED UP AND

BLEW AWAY.

183

THE MORMONS .

225

The CossaCKS.

236

TWICE MARRIED; My Own Story, 313,

409, 541, 578

TRIP TO THE Moon.

337

The Poets.

404

TOLLIWOTTE's Guost-A REMINIS-

CENCE OF BEARBROOK..

421

THE ALPS.

468

TURKS Two HUNDRED YEARS AGO... 478

TuE NIGHT CHASE.

485

THE CHALLENGE.

504

VOICES OF THE WINTER WIND.. 397

WINTER.

11

Was NAPOLEON A DICTATOR.

12
WILLY AND I..

40
WHITE LILY.

248
WIND AND SEA..

273
WATER LILY, THE

346
I. American Literature.
Mile-Stones on our Life's Journey-Salt-

Water Bubbles-Leaves from the Tree
Igdrasyl-The Wide-Awake Gist, and
Know-Nothing Tuken for 1855– Wisdom,
Wit, and Whims—Maxims of Washington

- Webster and his Master-pieces- The

Art, Scenery, and Philosophy in Europe

-Bayard Taylor's Lands of the Sara

105
Out-doors at Idlewild– You have heard or

Them-Mr. Simm's Southward Ho!-Par
ley's Household Library-Harry's Vaca
tion-In-Doors and Out; a View from
the Chimney.Corner-Beautiful Bertha-
Ellen Montgomery's Book-Shelf—Tha
Boat Club-Martin Merrivale-Life of
Horace Greeley— The Know-Nothing-
Fanny Fern's Ruth Hall—The Newsboy
-Poeins by Paul H. Hayne--Mr. William
Winter's Poems-Pebbles from the Lake
Shore, by Charles L. Porter-Humanity
in the City-The Universe No Desert, the
Earth No Monopoly—'Way Down East-
The History and Poetry of Finger-Rings

- Brushwood Picked up in the Continent
--History of Louisiana, under the Spanish
Domination-Grace Greeuwood's Merrie

England-Day-Dreams of a Butterfly. 212

Notes on Duels and Duelling--Poems by

Alice Carey-Life of Richard Cwur-de-

490

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Lion-Father Clark, or the Pioneer

Preacher-Lilies and Violets-Physical

and Analytical Mechanics-Fudge Doings

-Ups and Downs-Mayne Reid's Forest

Exiles--Brother Jonaihan's Cottage-

Hagar the Martyr-Nelly Bracken-

Country Life and other Stories-- Angel

Children, or Stories from Cloudland-

Exposition of the Grammatical Structure

of the English Language-Thoughts to

Help and Cheer–The American Sports-

man-Pius Ninth, the Last of the Popes

- The Bible Prayer-Book--The Light of
the Temple-Sermons, chiefly Practical,
by Rev. Charles Lowell—The American
Almanac-History of Printing-Diction.

ary of English Literature.

327

Woliert's Roost, by Washington Irving-

The Coquette, or the History of Eliza

Wharton-Miranda Elliot, or the Voices

of the Spirit—The Bells: A Collection of

Chimes-The Sons of the Sires-Professor

Barnard's Report-Youman's Classical

Atlas-John H. Griscom's Anniversary

Discourse before the New York Academy

of Medicine.

444

James's Inquiry into the Nature of Evil

Cosas de Espana-Bartlett's American

Agitators and Reformers—Professor Bar.

nard's Letters on College Government-

Harvestings in Prose and Verse, by Sybil

Hastings-Melville's Israel Potter-Roe's
Long Look Ahead-The History of Con-
necticut, by G. H. Hollister-Burnham's
History of the Hen Fever-Mrs. Stowe's
Primary Geography-Read's New Pas.
toral-Memoirs of Lady Blessington-
C. W. Elliott's St. Domingo—Professor

Darby's Botany of Southern States. 546
A Batch OF NOVELS.-Dollars and Cents,

by Miss A. B. Warner-Blanche Dear-
wood-Alone, by Miss Marion Harland-
Our World-Southern Land, by a Child
of the Sun—The Old Inn, by Josiah
Barnes--Cone Cut Corners-Ironthorpe,
by Paul Creyton- Tales for the Ma-
rinos, by Harry Gringo-Don Quixotte-
Grace Lee, by Miss Kavanagh-Mammon,
by Mrs. Gore-Kenneth, by Miss Yonge
- Douglass Jerrold's Men of Character

„Amyas Leigh, by Charles Kingsley-

Eastford, or, Household Sketches, by

Wesley Brooke.

A FEW Histories.- Barry's History of

Massachusetts-Holland's History of

Western Mussachusetts-Zschokke's His-

tory of Switzerland-Lamartine's History

of Turkey-Astie's Louis the Fourteenth,

and the Writers of his Age-Life of Sam

Houston-Fowler's History of the War-

Hase's Church History-Lives of the

Chief Justices of the United States. 664

SOME MISCELLANIES.-Maginn's Miscella-

nies-Kern's Landscape Gardening-

Hayward's Papers and Reports of the

Massachusett's Medical Society-Mrs.

Charlotte Bronte Nichol. .

665

low's Poets and Poetry of Europe,

Thomas Hood's Poetical Works-May and

December, by Mrs. Hubback-Poetical

Works of Coleridge, Keats, and Watts. 331

The Chemistry of Human Life-Examina.

tion of the Principles of Biblical Inter-
pretation of Ernesti, Ammon, Stuart, and
other Philologists

446
Marian Evans. Translation of Feuerbach's

Essence of Christianity-Samuel Phillips'
Banking House-Cardinal Wiseman's f'a-
biola, or the Church of the Catacombs-

Miss J. Austen's Pride and Prejudice. 552
Translations.
Afraja; a Tale of Scandinavia--The Youth

of Madame de Longueville, from the
French of Victor Cousin.

109
The Plum-Woman-The Rat-Caicher: 220
The Literary Fables of Don Tomas, de
Yriarte.

333
General History of the Christian Religion
and Church.

447
II. Foreign Literature.
English and French Books.

221
The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World

--Sir George Stephen's Letters on the
Abolition of the Slave Trade in the British
Islands-Dr. Doran's Habits and Men,
with Reinants of Records touching the
Makers of both-Third Volume of Me-
morials anu Correspondence of Charles
James Fox-The History of the Irish
Brigade–Fables of Pilpay-Archbishop
Whately's Detached Thoughts and Apo-
thegms--The Conversion-Confessions of
Louise de la Valliere.

333
Cain: A Poem, by Charles Boner. 448
III. Editorial Notes-Cursive and Dis-

cursire.
Editorial Afflictions-Maga's Aspirations-
Grumblers-- The Great Potipbarian Fraud
-Political Quietists-Foreign Conveyan.

cers-Penmanship, and Contributing: 98
Hardhed on the Italian Opera-Is War a

Necessity ?
Degeneracy of American Literaturo-Incon-
sistency-Physical Strength.

439

IV. Correspondence.

Fitch and Fulton.

103

The Smithsonian Institution:

210

Mujor Paul Retribution Wherrey. 668

V. Fine Arts.

Landseer's Twins-Ary Scheffer's Tempta-

tion of Christ-Lockwood's Last Judg.

ment-Hall's April Shower-Rodger's

Statues, Ruth, The Skater, and Love in a

Pet-Miss Hosmer's Medusa and Daphne

- H. K. Brown's Statue of Washington

Leutze's Washington at Monmouth--The

Crayon—The Albion Engraving.

H. K. Brown's Equestrian Statue of Wash-

ington—The Crystalotype-The Illustra-

ted Magazine of Art- The Crayon. 334

Horace Vernet's Brethren of Joseph-Ma.

clise's Sacrifice of Noah.

554

VI. Music.

Academy of Music-German Opera. . 558

VII. Drama.
American Museum-Wallack's-Broadway
-Burton's.

559
Title and Contents of voi. 5.

PUTNAM'S MONTHLY.

Z Magazine of Literature, Science, and Art.

VOL. V. JAN. 1855.-NO. XXV.

THE OCEAN AND ITS LIFE.

'Αριστον μεν ύδωρ.-PINDAR.

HIGH
IGH on the terrible cliff that over- and darker grew the fierce whirlpool.

bangs the Charybdis of the ancients, All eyes were bent upon the gaping stood King Frederick, of Sicily; and by gulf, all lips were silent as the grave. his side the fairest of Europe's fair Time seemed to be at rest; the very daughters. Often and often had he hearts ceased to beat. But lol out of gazed down into the fierce seething the dark waves there arises a snowcauldron beneath him, and in vain had white form, and a glowing arm is seen, he offered the gold of his treasure and and black curls hanging down on the the honors of his court to him who nervous neck of the daring seaman. would dive into the whirlpool and tell And, as he breathes once more the pure him of the fearful mysteries that were air of heaven, and as his eyes behold hid beneath the hissing, boiling foam. once more the blue vault above him, But neither fisherman nor proud knight he stammers words of thanks to his had dared to tempt the God of mercy, Maker; and a shout arose from cliff to and to venture down into the dread cliff, that the welkin rang, and the abyss, which threatened death, sure, ocean's roar was hushed. inevitable death, to the bold intruder. But when their eyes turned again to But better than gold and honor, is fair greet the bold man who had dared what maiden's love. And when the king's God had forbidden, and man had never beautiful daughter smiled upon the ventured to do, the dark waters had gazing crowd around her, and when her closed upon him. They saw the fierce sweet lips uttered words of gentle en- flood rush up in wild haste; they saw treaty, the spell was woven, and the the white foam sink down into tbe dark, bold heart found that would do her gloomy gulf; they heard the thunderbidding, forgetful of worldly reward, ing roar and the hideous hissing below; and alas! unmindful, also, of the word the waters rose and the waters fell, but of the Almighty !

the bold, daring seaman was never seen He was a bold seaman, and his com- again. panions called him Pesce-Oolo, Nick the And so it is even now. Little is fish, for he lived in the ocean's depths, known of the fearful mysteries of the and days and nights passed, which he great deep, and the hungry ocean despent swimming and diving in the warm mands still its countless victims. For the waters of Sicily. And from the very calm of the sea is a treacherous rest, and cliff on which the king had spoken his under the deceitful mirror-like smoothtaunting words, from the very feet of ness reign eternal warfare and strife. his fair, tempting child, he threw him- Oceanus holds not, as of old, the Earth, self down into the raging flood. The his spouse, in quiet, loving embrace ; our waters closed over him, hissing and sea-god is a god of battles, and wrestles seething in restless madness, and deeper and wrangles in never-ceasing struggle

VOL. V.-1

with the firm continent. Even when apparently calm and slumbering, he is moving in restless action, for "there is sorrow on the sea, it cannot be quiet.” Listen, and you will hear the gentle beating of playful waves against the snowy sands of the beach; look again, and you will see the gigantic mass breathe and heave like a living being. No quiet, no sleep, is allowed to the great element. As the little brook dances merrily over roek and root, never resting day and night, so the great ocean also knows no leisure, no repose.

It is not merely, however, that the weight of the agitated atmosphere presses upon the surface of the vast ocean, and moves it now with the gentle breath of the zephyr, and now witha the fierce power of the tempest. Even when the waters seem lashed into madness by the raging tornado, or rise in daring rebellion under the sudden, sullen fury of the typhoon, it is but child's play compared with the gigantic and yet silent, lawful movement, in which they ascend to the very heavens on high, where “He bindeth up the waters in his thick clouds," and then again sink uncomplaining to the lowest depths of the earth.

As the bright sun rests warm and glowing on the bosom of the cool flood, millions of briny drops abandon the Inighty ocean and rise, unseen by human eye, borne on the wings of the wind, up into the blue ether, But soon they are recalled to their allegiance. They gather into silvery clouds, race around the globe, and sink down again, now ömpetuously in a furious storm, bringing destruction and ruin, now as gentle Tain, fertilizing and refreshing, or more .quietly yet, as brilliant dew pearls, glittering in the bosom of the unfolding rose and filling each tiny cup held up by leaf Haird blossom. Eagerly the thirsty earth drinks in the heavenly gift; in a thousand veins she sends it down to her lowest depths, and fills her vast invisiible reservoirs. Soon she can hold the Vich abundance of health-bringing waters no longer, and through the cleft and eliff they gush joyfully forth as merry, chattering springs. They join rrill to rill, and rush heedlessly down Tthe mountains in brook and creek, until Tthey grow to mighty rivers, thundering wver gigantic rocks, leap fearlessly down lofty precipices, or gently rolling their .mighty masses along the inclined planes

of lowlands, become man's obedient slaves, and carry richly laden vessels on their broad shoulders, before they return once more to the bosom of their common mother, the great ocean.

How quietly, bow silentlynature works in her great household. Unheard and unseen, these enormous masses of water rise up from the broad seas of the earth, and yet it requires not less than one-third of the whole warmth which the sun grants to our globe, to lift them up froin the ocean to the region of clouds. Raised thus by forces far beyond our boldest speculations, and thence returning as blessed taim, AS humble mill-race, or as aetive, rapid high-road carrying huge louds from land to land, the ocean receives back agailu its own, and thus complete, one of its great movements in the etemal shange through water, air, and land.

But the mighty ocean rests not even in its own legitimate limits. When not driven about as spray, as mist, as river, when gently reposing in its eternal home on the bosom of the great earth, it is still subject to powerful influences from abroad. That mysterious force which chains sun to sun, and planet to planet, which calls back the wandering comet to its central sun, and binds the worlds: in one great universe, the force of general attraction, must needs have its: effect upon the waters also, and under the control of sun and moon, they perform a second race around the globe on which we live.

When the companions of Nearchus, under Alexander the Great, reached the mouth of the Indus, nothing excited their amazement in that wonderful country so much as the regular ríse and fall of all the ocean-à phenomena which they had never seen at home, on the coasts of Asia Minor and Greece. Even their short stay there sufficed, however, to show them the connection of this astonishing change with the phases of the moon.

For "sweet as the moonlight sleeps upon this bank,” it is nevertheless full of silent power, Stronger even than the larger sun, because so much nearer to the earth, it raises upon the boundless plains of the Pacific a wave only a few feet high, but extending down to the bottom of the sea, and moves it onwards, chained as it were to its own path high in heaven. Harmless and powerless this wave rolls along tbe placid surface of the ocean. But lands arise, New Holland on one side, South

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