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with the earl marshal in the court of chivalry, and the office was transmitted by inheritance.

8. EARL MARSHAL. Of the duty and rank of this officer mention has already been made.

9. Lord High ADMIRAL. In former times the post of lord high admiral was of great trust and honour, and usually conferred on a prince of the blood, or one of the highest class of nobility. He had the management of all maritime affairs, the government of the royal navy; with power of decision in all inaritime cases, both civil and criminal. He judged of all tranfgreflions done upon or beyond fea, in any part of the world, upon the coasts, in all ports or havens, and upon all tivers below the first bridge from the sea. By him all naval officers, from an admiral to a lieutenant, were commissioned; as were all deputies for particular coasts, and coroners for viewing dead bodies found on the sea fhore or at sea. He also appointed judges for his court of admiralty. To the lord high admiral belonged by law and custom, all fines and forfeitures of all transgresfions at fea, on the sea fhore, in ports, and from the nearest bridge on rivers to the sea ; also the goods of pirates and felons condemned or outlawed; and all waiís, stray goods, wrecks of fea, deodands; a share of all lawsul prizes, ligan, jetsam, and flotfam, not previously granted or belonging to lords of manors adjoining the fea; all great fithes, as lea hogs, and others of extraordinary bigness cailed royal fishes, whales and sturgeons only excepted.

Since the Revolution, the office of lord high admiral has been constantly, as it had before been frequently, put into commission, and the commissioners are generally styled lords of ihe admirolt. A spacious building, situate near Whitehall and formerly called Wallingford Houte, is retained for their official use, and for the residence of some of the commissioners.

They are feven in number; the first lord having a salary of 40001., and a house in the admiralty office; each of the others receiving in salary and allowances socol. per annum, and the four senior having also houses in the admiralty.

The business of the board of admiralty is to consider and determine on all matters relative to his majesty's navy, and departments thereunto belonging; to give directions for the performance of all services that may be required, either in the civil or naval branch; to fign, by themselves or their secretaries, all orders neceflary for carrying their directions into execution; and generally to Tuperintend and direct the whole naval and marine establishments of Great Britain.

The establishment also consists of two fecretaries, a chief clerk, and several established and extra clerks, a secretary to the VOL. II. с

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first lord, two marine clerko, a tranilator of foreign papers, messengers, porters, watchmen, and other officers. There is likewise a separate establishment for the marine service, and a solicitor who also acts for the navy office.

The duty of the secretaries is to lay before the board all memorials, letters, and other papers transmitted to this office; to receive and minute down the orders of the lords commissioners, and to fee to the official execution thereof; to counterfign all instruments, where the same may be necessary; and generally to attend to the dispatch of all business arising in the naval or marine department. These officers being constantly resident and always in attendance, their office is extrmely laborious; the salary of the first secretary is 4000l., that of the second 2000h

The duty of the established clerks is to prepare memorials, instructions, orders, letters, and other instruments, conformable to the minutes of the board, and the direction of the secretaries : cach clerk, the junior excepted, has a separate branch of the bufiness under his charge, and is assisted therein by one or more of the extra clerks, according to the degree of labour in the branch alligned to him. The chief clerk, besides the charge of one of these branches, has the general superintendence of the whole official business in the naval department. He likewife has the care of the maps, charts, and books of the office, and the payment of most of the contingent expences. The fourth of the established clerks, besides the duty of his branch, acts as receiver of fees and accountant to the office, and is employed to check the bills of the admiralty messengers. The junior clerk on the establishment, having no branch of the official bufiness assigned to him, acts in the capacity of assistant to the chief clerk. Two of the extra clerks are appointed to affist the secretaries; one of them acts as French and Spanish tranflator; and they are all employed from time to time in other services, as occasion requires. The attendance of the clerks is daily from ten o'clock or earlier, till five or later if required. They also attend by rotation in the evening, to make up, for franking, and to dispatch the public letters ; and the extra clerks, belides the like daily attendance, are also required to be at the office every evening by turns, to affist in the entry and dispatch of such letters. The chief clerk has for salary Eocl. per annum, and an addition of 150l. during the war, and apartments in the house. The appointments of the other clerks vary from sool. to 1506. each, and the extra clerks receive gol. per annum. The secretary to the first lord receives 300l., and the translator 100l. a year. The duty of the first marine clerk is to prepare all the memorials, instructions, drafts of orders, and commissions required for the marine corps; also to examine and check the tradesmen's bills for their cloathing, accoutrements, and contingencies; and his attendance is daily from between twelve and one to about four o'clock.

The duty of the second marine clerk is to write all letters relative to the corps, to enter and dispatch the same, as well as the several orders and instructions; also to prepare half yearly lifts of the marine half pay officers, and to arrange and take care of the marine papers: and his attendance is daily from about eleven o'clock till past four. The salary of the firit is 300l. and of the second 1501., with an advance of one fifth in time of war.

The head messenger, besides the duty usually belonging to such a situation, has the superintendance of all the inferior departments of the office; and his attendance is constant. The duty of the remaining officers is implied by their titles; and they attend the housekeeper excepted) whenever their services are required. The salary of the messenger is 120l., those of the others very moderate.

For the purposes of information and utilitý, connected with niaval affairs, the admiralty employ an hydrographer, who has an annual salary of 500l.; an assistant hydrographer, and a printer whose stated income is 1201.

To this class also may be referred the telegraph, which ferves for the conveyance of orders to, and receipt of intelligence from, Deal and Portsmouth. The original invention of this mode of communication belongs to the French; but that used by the admiralty is more simple in ufe, durable, and easily repaired. It occasions a great saving in the expenditure which was formerly made for expreffes, and insures the inestimable advantage in maritime affairs, of celerity in the transmission, and promptitude in the execution of orders. Both the Deal and Portsmouth stations are under the care of an inspector, who has a falary of 300l.

Befide the secretaries and two clerks in the marine department, there 'is an establishment annexed to the admiralty for the pay of his Majesty's marine forces. This establishment confifts of a paymafter, an agent, and three deputy paymasters, one at each of the out ports.

The duty of these officers is, in conjunction with the treafurer of the navy, to conduct the payment of the marines; the treasurer of the navy paying such of the non-commiffioned officers and privates as are on thip board; the paymafter of the marines paying the general and lieutenant-general of that corps; also the half-pay, the clothing, the charge of recruiting in Ireland, the salaries of most of the civil officers, the allowances

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to widows, and feveral of the contingencies of this service; the agent of the marines paying the sublistence and arrears of all the officers on full pay (the general and lieutenant-general excepted) the charge of the recruiting service in Great Britain, and the contingencies in the different quarters; the deputy paymasters at the several divifions paying the fubfiftence of the non-commitsioned officers and privates, for which purpose they draw bills on the agent, and issue the faid fubfistence to the squad ferjeants once a week, to diftribute among the men.

When the marine corps was first established in 1755, under the direction of the board of admiralty, the offices of paymafter and agent were executed by one person, and continued so nearly two years, when they were separated, and an agent appointed for each divifion; which arrangement exifted until 1763, when the number was again reduced to one, and has remained fo ever since, not only without any prejudice, but even with bencfit to the service.

The paymaster of the marine forces is supplied with money for carrying on the service in the following manner: once a month he presents to the lords of the admiralty an account of his receipts and payments during the former, with an estimate of the sum neceflary for the succeeding, month. The admiralty direct the navy board to imprest a certain fum into his hands, generally about the expenditure of the former month. The navy board direct the treasurer of the navy to issue the money to him accordingly; out of which he advances a certain sum to the agent for carrying on the services under his direction, and applies the remainder to the services carried on by himself, as before mentioned. The agent delivers to the paymaster a monthly account of his receipts and payments, and once a year a general account of the whole, distinguished under proper heads, with the vouchers; from which, and from his own ditbursements, the paymaster makes up an annual account, which he presents, with the vouchers, to the navy board for their examination and allowance, which clears him, and is final.

The detail of the paymaster's business is carried on by his first clerk, so as feldom to occasion his attendance; but the agent attends the business of his office both morning and evening without intermission, except for an hour or two in the day. The paymaster has in salary and emoluments about gool. 'a rear; out of which he pays certain salaries and allowances to áis clerks, and other expences of his office, and retains the remainder for his own use.

The agent of marines has in falary and emoluments about Osol. a year; out of which he pays for clerks and other congingencies ucarly 2001. a year. The salary of the deputy paya wafters at the oit ports is at the rate of 5l. for each company belonging to the division, and amounts to 1251. a year at Portla mouth, the fame at Plymouth, and 100l. a year at Chatham, paid out of the marine poundage and floppages.

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In the admiralty are two other officers, the receiver and comptroller of his majesty's rights and perquistes.

The duty of the receiver is to recover and receive for his Majesty's use, all rights and perquisites of the admiralty seized and taken in the time of war, or otherwise ; and, also, all such other sums of money as have been usually paid, or ordered by decree of court to be paid to the register for the time being; and to take all such measures as are neceffary for this purpose, and observe such orders and directions as he shall from time to time receive from the lords commissioners of the admiralty : and he is to appoint agents at all such ports and places as he Thall think necessary. He has a salary of 300l. a year nett, and an allowance of 50l. more for a clerk.

The duty of the comptroller is to take an account of all ships 2nd goods condemned as perquisites of the admiralty, and to note the burthen of such mips, and the quantities and qualities of the goods, together with their tackle, apparel, and furniture ; to take an account of all other perquisites of the admiralty, and to compare and examine them with the sums charged by the receiver; to peruse, examine, and controul the accounts of the receiver; and generally to execute such orders and instructions as he shall, from time to time, receive from the lords of the admiralty: and he is likewise to appoint agents at all such ports and places as he shall think neceilary. He has in salary and fees 250l. a year.

10. SECRETARIES OF State. The secretaries of state have an extraordinary trust which renders them very considerable in the eyes both of the king and of the subject. Requests and petitions are for the most part lodged in their hands to be reprefented to his majelty, and they make dispatches thereupon, pursuant to his directions. They are privy counsellors, and a council is seldom, if ever, held without the presence of one of them; they wait by turns, and one always attends the court, and, by the king's warrant, prepares all bills or letters, not being matter of law, for him to lign. Until the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the secretaries of state were not members of the privy council, but only prepared business for the council board in a room adjoining; which done, they came in and stood one on each hand ; and, till they had gone through their proposals, nothing was debated. There was but one fecretary of late, till Henry VIII. toward the clofe of his reign increased the number to two + x), of equal rank and authority. On the union with

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