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though it reappears in another Arabian version,
viz., the 'Story of the Fisherman's Son,' in the
Wortley Montagu MS. of The Nights '* -a
purposes : (1) to enable him to escape from the
his royal bride, carried away by order of the
magician as soon as he bad exchanged “new lamps
for old” very advantageously. The slave of the
But the great blunder is, that the genie is sum-
had, of course, to extinguish the light in order to
carry it away. And what the author forgot is that
whenever the lamp was lighted the genie would in-
upon the usual manner in which magical rings are
of Aladdin—which is evidently of comparatively
spirit. Thus in the German story of the 'Blue
old soldier light the lamp he found at the bottom
of the dry well than there appears before him “&
black dwarf, with a hump on his back and a
wants, and so on.
But there is an Indian story, in Mrs. Meer
Hasan Ali's 'Observations on the Mussulmans of
India' (London, 1832), vol. ii. p. 324 ff., in which
a lighted lamp has the same property : Shaykh
pic Saddú, a bypocritical devotee, wandering into a
neighbouring jungle one day, finds a copper cup,
whereon were engraved certain characters which
he could not with all his learning decipher. He
takes it to his retreat, and at nightfall, being just
then ip want of a good-sized lamp, he puts oil and
a wick into the cup, and the instant it was lighted
a“ figure resembling a human being" stood before
| him. “Who art thou,” demanded the shaykh,
" that dost thus intrude at this hour on the privacy
of a hermit ?" The figure replied : “I come at
the summons of your lamp. I The possessor of that
vessel has four slaves, one of whom you see before
you. We are genii, and can only be summoned by
the lighting up of this vessel. The number of your
slaves will be in due attendance according to the
number of the wicks that it may please you to
| light. Demand our attendance at any hour you
* This story is translated in Dr. Jonathan Scott's edi.
* † Sometimes a magical ring has different properties
| according to the finger on which it is placed.
As the element of I Evidently it was a lamp, not a cup, as the shaykh
og varice, with a plate (ix.) represent.
choose, and we are bound to obey." This wicked plate x., which, as is well known, has for years shaykh gives the four genii of his lamp many tasks been an enigma to connoisseurs. to perform, most of them such as were repugnant It may be well first to observe that the famous to them (for it appears these were very scru. original, purchased by the British Museum in 1872 pulous" genii, such as would not have suited Alad. for upwards of 1,0001., is a block-book, execated, din's pretended uncle, the Magbrabí), and one of in the opinion of the Keeper of the Printed Books, the tasks at once recalls Aladdin and the Princess in the best style of art prevalent at the time of Badr-ul-Badúr. He caused them to convey the king's its production," and consists of but twelve separate daughter to him," and she was his unwilling com- sheets, of two leaves each, printed on the inner panion" in his retreat. But there was soon to be side only. There are eleven illustrations, each an end of bis wickedness ; for when the genii, by occupying a whole page, opposite each of which is his order, were beginning to raise a remarkable given an explanatory letterpress. The Holbein mosque, situated at a considerable distance, in Society's reproduction of this small and unique order to carry it to the place where the shaykh volume has the great advantage of an introduction, dwelt, the devotee who had his abode therein-, in which the writer, Mr. George Bullen, F.S.A. a man of undoubted sanctity-sent them off with besides giving much interesting bibliographical ina flea in their ear," in this wise : "Begone," said formation, describes the various plates, and ex. the pious man, in a tone of authority that deprived plains their often recondite meaning. them of their strength. “A moment's delay, and Having myself examined a good deal of this I will
pray that you be consumed with fire. Would literature in preparing my 'Christian Care of the Shaykh Saddú add to bis crimes by forcing the Dying and the Dead," I hope I may say, without house of God from its foundation ? Away this presumption, that the introduction seems to me to moment! else fire shall consume you on the spot.” | be admirable, one explanation only, that of plate 3., They fled in baste to their profane master, whose being excepted. It begins on p. 15 thus :rage was unbounded at their disobedience, as he termed their return without the mosque. He raved, angel who comes to support and console the dying man,
“Following this is an engraving (No. 107 of the good stormed, and reviled them in bitter language, while thus tempted to endanger his salvation through inwhile they, heartily tired of their servitude, caught dulging in the sin of avarice; the accompanying letterup the copper vessel, and in his struggle to resist press being headed Bona inspiracio ang'li contra avaricia'.' them he was thrown with violence on the ground, In this engraving the guardian angel stands, as before, in and his wicked soul was suddenly separated from front of the dying man, with
his right hand raised in ex.
hortation, and with a scroll on the right of the picture his impure body.
bearing the words, ' Non sis auarus.' Above the canopy Here we have the lamp of Aladdin, but put to of the bedstead, on the right, is a representation of its proper use-lighted-in order to summon the the Blessed Virgin, and next to tbis, on the left, is a fullgenii; we have also the princess being conveyed to length figure of the Holy Jesus stretched on the cross (9). Aladdin, as I have before remarked, and a reflec- Next to this on the left, somewhat lower down, are three
figures of sheep, shown principally by their heads. Next tion of Maghrabi's causing the palace to be re to these, on the left, are three figures, namely, of a man moved to a far distant place. It would be interesting and two women (c) just below the second woman is the to ascertain the source whence Mrs. Meer Hasan figure of a maiden (6), and above her, on the extreme Ali derived this singular story, which bears out, I left, is the head of a man (d). What this group of figures think, my opinion that the author of the tale of is intended to symbolize it would be difficult to conjecAladáin has greatly blundered in representing the and with a staff in his hand, is perhaps a representation
ture. The man (e), standing as he does next to the sheep, lamp as requiring to be rubbed, and not lighted. of a good shepherd. They of them, however, appear The appearance of one or more of the four attend to look towards the dying man with feelings of compasant genii of the wicked shaykh's lamp, according to sion, Below this group is the figure of an angel, with a the number of wicks that were lighted, has its scroll bearing the worde,' Ne intendas amicis "' (Do not
concern thyself for thy friends). This angel holds with parallel in another Asiatic story; but this note is both bands an outspread curtain, intended to conceal already too long.
W. A. CLOUSTON. from the dying man's view (a) two full-length figures, 233, Cambridge Street, Glasgow.
one of a woman on the right and the other of a man on the left; both possibly being disappointed expectants of sharing in the dying man's wealth; or else the female
figure representing his wife and the male figure that of THE 'ARS MORIENDI' BLOCK-BOOK (1450),
his physician. The latter appears to be exhorting his PLATE THE TENTH,
female companion to depart from the scene. At the foot While examining not long ago a reproduction of the picture, on the right, is the figure of an ugly of Caxton's Trayttye abredged of the Arte to Lerne
domon with a scroll bearing the words . Quid faciam.' well to Dye' (1490), for comparison with it I took I beg to offer the following as a new interpretadown the Holbein Society's marvellous facsimile, tion of the plate above described by Mr. Bullen, by Mr. F. C. Price, of the Ars Moriendi' named On reference to the work itself it will be found
ing various forms of self-seeking. Plate x. is a all transitory things wholly away like poison, and picture of self-renunciation, as appears from the turn his heart's affection to voluntary poverty, &c. “Bona Inspiracio” of the angel, which faces it, From this part of the angel's address the artist and of which a short account must now be given. completes his plate with a picture of the Eternal
“ Turn thine ears [saith the angel] away from the Son giving up (f) the ever-blessed mother that deadly suggestions of the devil...... Put wholly behind bare Him—that Son of Man who for us men thee all temporal things, the recollection of which can fathomed the greatest depths of poverty, volun. not at all help thy salvation...... Be mindful of the words
tarily renouncing upon the cross (9) all things that of the Lord to them who cling to such things: ‘Nisi quis renunciaverit omnibus quæ possidet non potest meus esse
| were His own, not retaining even dear life. discipulus' (St. Luke xiv. 33).”
As illustrating the foregoing view it is interestThe artist illustrates this principle by selecting
ing to read in Caxton's "Arte to Lerne well to some of the examples mentioned in the verse imme
Dye,' p. 8, that diately afterwards quoted by the angel, who saith:- "the fyfthe temptacyon that most troubleth the "And again, 'Si quis venit ad Me et non odit patrem
seculers and worldly men, is the overgrete ocupacyon of
outwarde thinges and temporall, as towarde his wyf his suum et matrem, et uxorem, et filios, et fratres, et soror
es; chyldren & his frendes carnall / towarde his rychesses or adhuc non potest meus esse discipulus’ (St. Luke xiv. 26).” |
towarde other thynges / which he hath moost loved in his The artist places in the forefront of his picture an lyf / And therfore whosomever wyll' well' & surely deyo apgel saying, “Do not concern thyself for thy ho ought to set symply and all' from bym all'e outwarde friends,” and holding up, with both hands, a cur
thynges & temporell's and oughte all'o to commytte to
god fully." tain (a) between the dying man and an elderly couple—his father and mother-to whom the sick
Those of my readers who are not yet acquainted map, to their own sorrow, has already bidden, it
with the 'Ars Moriendi' can, I should think, seems, & glad farewell. I see no medical emblems
10 scarcely give themselves a greater literary treat with or near the man that would lead me to sup
than by making its acquaintance with the help of pose him to be intended for the physician. Next
the apparatus criticus provided in the edition I have used.
W. H. SEWELL. (6), above the foreground, is represented his wife,
Yaxley Vicarage, Suffolk, like himself young, who looks at him with piteous gaze, her hair being dishevelled—the usual sign of female mourning-anticipating the near approach
Did CHARLES DICKENS CONTRIBUTE TO 'FIGARO of widowhood. I do not think that dishevelled IN LONDON'?-In the elaborate and exhaustive hair is a form of mourning ever exclusively used | ‘Dickens Catalogue' (pp. 38), compiled and pubby "a maiden."
lished by Messrs. J. W. Jarvis & Son, 28, King Besides (as the angel continues), the Lord saith William Street, Strand, 1884, is a notice of Figaro to them who have renounced those things : 1 in London, with this remark :
* Et omnis qui relinquiret domum vel fratres, vel “ This was the precursor of Punch, and is full of sorores, aut patrem, aut matrem, aut uxorem, aut filios, chatty, racy anecdotes and jokes, said to be written by aut agros, propter nomen meum, centuplum accipiet, et Charles Dickens and Gilbert à Beckett.”—P. 23. vitam eternam possidebit” (St. Matthew xix. 29). No mention of this is made in the list of“PublicaFrom this verse the masterly engraver enriches his tions to which Dickens contributed only a portion" plate with fresh instances of self-renunciation, (pp. 32–3), in Mr. James Cook's very valuable namely, (c) two sisters, with braided hair, stand- Bibliography of the Writings of Charles Dickens' ing a little behind the wife ; and yet further back (London, Frank Kerslake, 22, Coventry Street, (d) the dying man's brother, the expression of Haymarket, 1879, pp. 88). "I may remark, in passwhose countenance is very beautiful, of all of ing, that the excellent woodcut on Mr. Cook's whom the sufferer has to take his leave. Children title-page, giving a most spirited likeness-bust of are not supposed to be born of so young a wife ; Dickens, was drawn by M. Faustin, and originnone are represented. But the dying man has to ally appeared in Figaro (Mr. James Mortimer's take leave of his lands, “aut agros." And these (0) London Figaro, on the staff of which I remained are represented by their occupants—sheep that for upwards of five years) on Sept. 27, 1873. The graze them and a bailiff who, staff in hand, shep-mention of this is suggested by the coincidence of herds the flock-perhaps so placed by the artist Dickens and the two London Figaros. not without a mystic allusion to the shepherd who I possess an original copy of “Figaro in London. in the deserts of the East has sometimes to give Vol. I. For the Year 1832" (William Strange, bis life for his sheep (St. John a. 11).
21, Paternoster Row). It consists of fifty-six Remember also (adds the angel) the poverty of weekly issues, commencing with that for Dec. 10, Christ hanging for thee upon the cross, most freely 1831. There was a second volume, which, from giving up for thy salvation His most dearly loved Aug. 16, 1834, to the close, was illustrated by mother and His best beloved disciples. The angel | Isaac Robert Cruiksbank in place of Robert Sey. begs the dying man to imprint on his mind these mour, whose remarkably clever political caricatures things and the examples of the saints, and to put -coarsely engraved, and often at Seymour's own
expense—had been the mainstay of à Beckett's is not new, however, for in a book of dialogues (in serial. It was continued under the editorship of Italian and English) between an Italian master and H. Mayhew, with Seymour once again as its artist; bis English young lady pupil, written by Joseph and I believe (query) that two volumes were thus Baretti (London, 1775), I find, in p. 168, the young published If such is the case, Figaro in London lady, whose real Christian name is supposed to be had an existence of four years, which included the Esther, called “Queeney” (sic) by her master, who period of the ‘Sketches by Boz' and the wondrous says to her, rise of 'Pickwick,' with Seymour as its artist. "Reginuccia mia, a che state voi pensando?"
On Jan. 1, 1833, Gilbert à Beckett started “My dear Queeney, what are you thinking about 1" Figaro's Monthly Newspaper, price threepence, It will be observed that the book is written by an and also edited the Comic Magazine (1832-4), to Italian, and that the Italian in this case precedes the earlier numbers of which Seymour contributed the English which is intended to be a translation numerous designs. It seems quite possible that of it. The question arises, therefore, Did Mr. Charles Dickens may have been a contributor to Baretti use "Queeney” because he had heard it Figaro in London. Is there any proof of this ? If used in England, or did he use it because in similar such was the case, it would be not a little interesting cases “Reginuocia” was then used in Italy ? to find that he and Seymour were engaged on the have some ground for supposing that he did fina same publication while as yet Mr. Pickwick was Queeney” in use in England, for I once met with unborn.
CUTHBERT BEDE. it in an English book of somewhere about the same Notes on EPICTETUS.- Mr. T. W. Rolleston, besides which, it is scarcely probable that an Italian
time, but, unfortunately, I did not take a note of it; in his admirable introduction to the recent volume writer should have introduced the use of an Engof the Camelot Series," entitled 'The Teaching lish word into England. of Epictetus,' has enumerated two previous Eng for all that, have been used similarly in Italy.
But “Reginuccia" may, lish renderings of the Helot sage, one [he
F. CHANCE. says] by Mrs. Carter, published
in the last century,
Sydenham Hill. the other by the late George Long, M.A. (Bohn Series).” It may not be amiss to add that the CoLT, COLTES.- A recently published History translation of Mrs. Carter was first published in of Walsall' gives obscure details of some local 1758, and that many years anterior to this Dr. colts, by which it appears that a shilelagb, or club, George Stanhope, Dean of Canterbury, born 1660, is personified as a warrior. This seems to suggest died 1728, a voluminous author and translator, a a reference to a good thrasbing," which I have prominent member of the Established Church, dis- heard termed "a colting," but do not see it so detinguished alike for the strength of his intellect and fined in Bailey, Halliwell, Skeat, or Stormonth. the refinement of his imagination, published a work We read that the excesses of the above colts bebearing the following title : “Epictetus bis Morals, came a Star Chamber matter; that at one time with Simplicius his Comment. Made English their number amounted to a thousand; but they from the Greek by George Stanhope, 1694.” An: became extinct in 1870.
A. HALL. other edition of this, with a 'Life of Epictetus,' [In the 'Encyclopædic Dictionary' & rope's end followed in 1700, 8vo.
kootted and used for punishment is given as a figurative The translation of Stanhope is clearly the work meaning of colt.] of a parist, but of a purist who, with all his elegance of phrase and delicate turn of expression, tions be of use to Dr. Murray if he lives to get to
REVEREND AND REVERENT.— Will these quotadoes not lose sight of the real end of literature.
R? Anent the doctrines of the Pyrrhonists, which
Reverent for reverend:in the introduction of Mr. Rolleston are stated with clearness, brevity, and precision, we shall announced the universal corruption of the capital of the
“ The contempt for female modesty and reverent age make no apology for inserting the excellent remark East.”—Gibbon, ‘Decline and Fall,' chap. xxiv. (vol. iv. of Plato :
p. 144, ed. 1788). “When you say all things are incomprehensible, do you Reverend for reverent:comprehend or conceive that they are thus incompre
Keep thou meek Mary's mien, divinely fair, hensible, or do you not? If you do, then something is
Thy Saviour to approach with reverend care. comprehensible ; if you do not, there is no reason we
Williams, ' Cathedral,' p. 172, ed. 1839. should believe you, since you do not comprehend your own assertions."
C. F. S. WARREN, M. A.
Bush.—Dr. Murray explains this word to mean QUEENIE AS A PET NAME. – Of late years the “a shrub, particularly one with close branches fashion has been somewhat prevalent of giving to arising from or near the ground; a small clump of little or young girls, instead of their own Christian shrubs apparently forming one plant." Nothing name, the pet name of “Queenie." This practice can be more exact or accurate than this. He further