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constituting the structural part of the composite Angles to the exclusion of the Saxons; and it has by; and these are several buildings, not simply a teen alleged, moreover, that it is not always easy to "house." On this ground, therefore, CANON distinguish between Anglian and Scandinavian Taylor's explanation of “wooden house names and words. But there is one thing abunto be inadmissible. But even sinking the farm dantly clear,-that no derivationist of English placepart of the idea altogether, and substituting." build- names is in a very good position if he be desirous to ings” for "house" would not meet all the diffi- conduct his inquiries in the only legitimate and culties attending the importation of the word viðar, reasonable way, and that is on the same lines as or the meaning “wooden." For what were such the compilation of the New English Dictionary.' buildings, and alike in the Scandinavian lands and He has not the materials. There are copious lists in England, actually and universally framed and of the place-names occurring in different north conmade of? There is but one answer to the ques- tinental districts or provinces. There are none such tion,-wood, and wood only. And if so, what in England, save, perhaps, the Domesday list, which becomes of the distinctiveness, the essence of the is not too accessible to the general reader. And meaning, of the name itself ? It would be some- until such lists are made, and are made available to thing like calling a house in Old Whitby the “Red- the general student, we can have nothing but what tiled House” by way of distinction. Neither do is, for the most part, made up of essentially guessI think either of Sir J. A. Picton's suggestions work derivations. The foreign lists referred to are at all happier on the score of meaning. It seems not only useful in their way to the English inquirer, but a very poor compliment to the common sense they are altogether indispensable. But without of the colonists who settled this district, and named the corresponding English lists they lack more their several settlements, to assume that they could than half their possible utility. The lists of field, do no better in the way of name-giving than the and common field names alone would be of almost nonsensical platitude of “the farm-settlement of a unimagined utility. But there seems to be no wether," or that “ of the weather.” For my own one—no society even - to take the matter up. I part, and after thirty-five years of consideration know that it has been suggested once and again, and study of the place-names of this North York- and that in either case the response bas beep, shire district, I am satisfied that in the strangely

Our hands are too full as it is." The work of preponderating majority of the place-names ending some of these societies, however, must now be in by-not to advert to others now-where the getting fast on. Can none of them be put on this prefix is not manifestly a qualifying word—as in -as yet new-quest ! J. C. ATKINSON. Mickleby, Overby, Netherby, Kirkby, or Kirby, Danby in Cleveland. Newby, &c.—it is unquestionably a personal name. The simplest inspection of a carefully compiled list EGYPTIAN HIEROGRAMS ON ENGLISH PICTURES of such names in their earliest known forms is 1 (7th S. vi. 445). - Although the winged globe and sufficient to establish this point. Add to this that caduceus is not to be found in the great collection the same personal name is perpetually found in the of "Imprese Illustri' by Ruscelli (Venice, 1584), general class of like names, both with the in this evidently arises from its not having been flexional genitival form and the genitivals, and a appropriated by any particular princely or noble suggestion is at once afforded as to the possible or house. It was, however, a convenient emblem for probable explanation of the prefix in Wetherby-a a painter

or engraver to put on a portrait, as a flattersuggestion which loses no force from the circum- ing innuendo that the exalted position of the perstance that the names which follow Wedrebi in the sonage portrayed was as much the result of merit as Domesday list are Wedreslei and Wedresleie, and of the accident of high birth. With the substitution from the further circumstance that such Scan. of a winged cap of honour for the winged globe, it dinavian names as Ketell Vedur, Vedra-Grímr, will be found in Alciat. See page 146 of the and the like, are to be met with. It may also be French translation of his ‘Emblems' (Lyon, added that Sir J. A. Piction's collation of the 1549), illustrating the emblem “A vertu, fortune Essex dame Wetbersfield (or Weathersfield, as it compaigne": used constantly to be spelt in the days of my boyhood, when I lived there), is not happy.

D'æles, Serpens, et Amalthées cornes

Ton Caducée (O Mercure) tu ornes: I have a list of a dozen different forms of Monstrant les gens d'esprit, et d'eloquence, that name by me, and while these vary in the Auoir par tout des biens en uffluence. equally extravagant and extraordinary manner I do not find it in Paradin's 'Symbola Heroica' known to students of such matters, the Domesday (Antwerp, 1563), but it turns up again, beautifully -and, I suppose, ultimate-form known is Westre-engraved by Crispin de Pas, in the Nucleus felda.' SIR J. Á. Picton also speaks of the pre- Emblematum Selectissimorum quæ Itali vulgo dominance of “Saxon" names of places in the Impresas (sic) vocant,' by Gabriel Rollenbagen, of Wetherby district. Is that so? I had thought Magdeburg (Cologne, 1611). The cut by De Pas, the district was one that had been occupied by the afterwards used by Wither in Eogland, illustrates

the motto “ Virtuti fortuna comes,” and bears this the states of modern Europe probably originated epigram:

in the territory we now call °France. However Virtuti fortuna comes, Sudore paratur

that may have been, they certainly reached us in Fructus honos oneris, fructus honoris onus. a French dress. When, therefore, we speak of the When the symbol is found on a royal person's por: romance hero, not of the trait, the globe takes the place of the cap, and

magnus imperator, means that personal merit has made him or her

Boni fructus bonus sator, worthy of the right to rule. Simply this, and no

Et prudens agricola deep mystery of " Egyptian hierograms "such as it is better to say Charlemagne. The distinction it would seem is surmised by your correspondent is not a vain one. There is but a very shadowy J. E. J. is the real solution of the query.

likeness between the “Christi miles fortis,” in

FREDK. HENDRIKS. whose honour the priests of Aachen sang, and the Dr. Guillotin (5th S. i. 426, 497; 7h S. vi. Kirkwall to Palermo and from Breslau to Cadiz.

hero whose deeds were chanted by minstrels from 230, 292). - In the “Scelta d'alcuni Miracoli e

ASTARTE. Grazie della Santissima Nunziata di Firenze descritti dal P. F. Gio. Angiolo Lottini, in Firenze,

“BRING” AND “TAKE” (7th S. vi. 225, 313, 1619," small 4to., there is a plate, at p. 208, to 454).— It is a noticeable fact that those who have illustrate cap. lxvii., in which an instrument spoken Gaelic in their youth almost invariably use exactly like the modern guillotine is represented. bring where others would say take. A typical inThe chapter is beaded, “Dovendosi tagliar il collo stanco occurs to me. Once, in a strange place, a Francesco, è miracolosamente impedito il taglio and in somewhat peculiar and trying circumdella Mannaia "; and on p. 210 the miracle is stances, I was along with a friend whose Gaelic described :

idiom still troubled him. We sadly needed a “ Posciachė tagliata dal Giustiziere la corda. & cui place of refuge and entertainment, and when at legata la grave mannaia attiensi, e questa con grâ ruina the end of our own resources, my friend suddenly e prestezza sopra dell'esposto collo cadendo: non pur la stopped in front of a stalwart policeman, and in pelle non gl' intacco o recise : ma all' opposto di quanto theatrical tones observed, “You'll require to bring fare quel taglio solea, si rattenne, in piente la carne offese, nè in parte alcuna fe nocumento."

us to a place of refreshment, sir !” Being thus Though more than a century later than the partly entreated, partly commanded, and very drawings referred to by Mr. Gibbs, this passage wilderment of expression, did as requested, and

nearly threatened, the official, with a docile beis valuable as showing the general use of the our troubles were over. Compare, however, with instrument in Italy.


this, the appeal of the dainty Rosalind to the shepVery good representations of the guillotine, herd in "As You Like It, II. iv. 69, and it will "standiug in no need of being further perfected," appear that the idiom is not necessarily an Irishare in Holinshed's 'Chronicle,' 1577, vol. ii. p. 654, ism after all : &c., wbicb, although a valuable book, is not I prythee, shepherd, if that love, or gold, rare, as it is to be found in almost every library Can in this desert place buy entertainment, of any pretension.

R. R. Bring us where we may rest ourselves, and feed. Boston, Lincolnshire.

THOMAS BAYNE, The whole history of the guillotine, with its

Helensburgh, N.B. anticipations and results, may be seen in J. W.

Friar's LANTHORN (7th S. vi. 168, 257, 338, Croker's History of the Guillotine,' from the 473). — The ignis fatuus or Will-o'-the-wisp is Quarterly Review, 1844, Lond., J. Murray, 1853. supposed in popular superstition to be generally a

Ed. MARSHALL. soul which has broken out of purgatory, and not CHARLEMAGNE (7th S. vi. 426). –There cannot Popular Antiquities, vol. iii. p. 398 of Bohn's

particularly the soul of a priest. I refer to Brand's be any doubt that the name of the great Frank edition. I think that the explanation to which should be written Charles That is the best English equivalent for his although ingenious enough. by Englishmen. MR. GRIFFINHOOFE alludes can bardly be correct,

E. YARDLEY. Dame; and so he was almost always written and spoken of until recent days, when it became Belgian Custom (70 S. vi. 249, 336, 456).a fashion to imitate French ways. If your Is not this so-called Belgian custom of hanging out correspondent will take the trouble to look up a bundle of straw suspended by a long string from the references given in the index to the pub- a window, as a sign of repairs going on above, also lications of the Parker Society, he will find many! an English practice? If my memory serves me examples of the way his name was written in the rightly, I have noticed more than once, when sixteenth century. It would be easy to give seven-travelling on the river steamers on the Thames, a teenth century examples almost without limit. similar bundle of straw suspended by a cord over

The romances concerning the great founder of one of the archways of Waterloo Bridge (which at

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the time was undergoing repair), and I took it that Borrow's note-books, MSS., and correspondthat it was intended as a friendly warning that if ence went to America, to the possession of Prof. we chose to steer directly underneath it we might W. J. Knapp, Yale University, New Haven, who snffer for our temerity by a brick or a stone falling is an enthusiastic student of Borrow. Prof. Knapp upon our heads.

J. S. UDALJ intends to publish a full biography of Borrow, and Inner Temple.

will correct many errors that have been made in SiR MICHAEL LIVESEY (7th S. vi. 408).-Sir

the inadequate notices of him that have appeared M. Livesey was one of the Commissioners and

in this country. An interesting article on Borrow

from his pen appeared in an American magazine, Council of War appointed for the county of Kent, by ordinance of Parliament, April 23, 1645. He

the Chautauquan, November, 1887. Borrow was is frequently mentioned in The Declaration of Col.

born July 5, 1803, and so was more than “twentyAnthony Weldon,' 4to., 1649. Weldon was major

one when ' Romantic Ballads' was published.” in Livesey's regiment of horse, and quarrelled with


Norwich, his colonel, whom he accused of misconduct as a soldier (pp. 13-26). See also Weldon's petitions

| “Faustus : his Life, Death...... Translated from in the Record Office. Livesey was present at Crop the German of F. M. von Klinger by G. B.,” 1825, redy Bridge and Alresford. He took part in the 8vo., heads the list of Borrow's works appended to defeat of the Earl of Holland's rising in July, the sketch of his life in the 'Dict, of Nat. Biog.,' 1648 (Rushworth, iv. 2, 1182). After the Re- vol. v. p. 408.

G. F. R. B. storation he fled to Holland. In September,

| BOOK ON BANK-NOTE ISSUE (7th S. vi. 359). — 1663, he is said to have been living at Arnheim

By far the best book on American bank-note issues (Cal. State Papers, Dom.,' 1663-4, p. 266).


is J. J. Knox's 'United States Notes,' New York,

Scribners. Mr. Knox is a man of the highest CHARTISTS (7th S. vi. 187, 273, 432).-William order. For remarks on note issues in general see Lovett, cabinet maker, who died at 137, Euston the Annual Report of the U.S. Director of the Mint, Road, London, August 8, 1877, drew up, in 1837, and, secondarily, the U.S. Comptroller of the Curthe address and rules of the Working Men's

C. W. Ernst. Association, and for some time acted as the secre- Boston, Mass., U.S. tary. A volume in the British Museum, marked 8138a, contains thirty-two pamphlets relating to

'New ENGLISH DICTIONARY,' VOL. III. (7th S. the proceedings of the association. For an account VI.

7. vi. 347).—The following instances of the employof William Lovett (who suffered imprisonment for

ment of elect may be of use to MR. BRADLEY :— his political and social opinions) and his writings "Poet (laughing). Ha, ha, ha, ha......if he should, and the consult the ‘Bibliotheca Cornubiensis,' pp. 324,

elect had but wit enough to stand out."-Aaron Hill, 1269.


" The Snake in the Grass,' ed, 1760, p. 97. 36. James Street, Buckingham Gate, S.W.

“Young Apollo, Laureat supreme, but conferring Bays

of a new Model, on a Laureat elect, to encourage him."The First PUBLISHED WORK OF GEORGE

Ibid., p. 88.

" Poet, Who? I! If ever I make songs, in a fright, I'll BORROW (76 S. vi. 428).--The' Romantic Ballads' put up for Poet-elect, to the Opera.”-Ibid., p. 99. was not the first published work, but it was the

F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. first that bears his name. He had published in 1825 · Faustus : his Life, Death, and Descent into

TAE SCENES OF JOHN CONSTABLE'S PICTURES Hell,'translated from the German, London, Simp

(7th S. vi. 426).—MR. COBBOLD, in writing to you kin & Marshall, 1825. It was a translation of Von

respecting this matter, has perhaps followed the Klinger's 'Faustes Leben,' &c. There are two

course which appeared best to him, but I regret that issues of the Romantic Ballads.' It was first

he did not previously communicate to me his intenissued in May, 1826, as 'Romantic Ballads, trans- |

tion of so doing. That he has been treated with dislated from the Danish, and Miscellaneous Pieces,' cour

3 courtesy I at once admit, but this has been through by George Borrow, Norwich, S. Wilkin, 1826, 8vo.,

a misunderstanding. Upon receiving his letter I pp. xi, 187. Then part of the edition was handed

då at once sent it to the writer of the article, and to a London publisher, and issued with a new title

asked him to reply to it. I now for the first time page, ending, “ London: John Taylor, Waterloo

learn that “he thought it better to do nothing in Place, 1826." I think copies of this issue are more

the matter.” I had been waiting to hear the result common. Probably something of the same kind

from him, which accounts for no correction having was done in the matter of the Faustus,' for I have

appeared in the Art Journal. It is now, unfortuseen a copy with a preface dated “Norwich, April, I

nately, too late to insert it in last year's volume. 1826." There is no doubt that he also wrote 'Cele

Marcus B. Huse, Editor. brated Trials, &c., to the Year 1825,' which Sir PITSHANGER, EALING (7th S. v. 448 ; vi. 33, Richard Phillips published in six volumes on 317, 414).-I am concerned only with the alleged March 19, 1825. I am not sure if it is known equation of y=%, which I regard as a misapprehen

sion. We are referred to the Scottish Dalziel, also no reply; but, aided by his comrades, builds the written Dalyell ; the name is topographical. Dal cruel stones higher and higher until they reach her ziel, in Lanarkshire, was written Dalgheal, i.e., white breast. Again she appeals in vain, and implores mead or fair meadow, our Shenley. Here dal is him, for the sake of their unborn babe, to set her the Celtic" part, share, or section, equating the free. Steadily, remorselessly, her murderers close Teutonic dale, deal, dole. Now gheal may well pair the walls around her till the living tomb is finished, off with the Teutonic" yellow," cf. gelt, gilt; but and her dying voice is heard reproachfully whisperthe suggested z is, I think, a misreading. Speaking ing genealogically, Dalziel reads "I dare.” Well, Treat me not thus cruelly, Manolli, oh! Manolli, I dare not define my thoughts anent this legend. The dreadful wall has now closed o'er me, Zell is common on the Continent; it is, I under Naught but darkness is before me, stand, a form of cell, celle, celles, common in France;

Manolli, my Manolli—husband, master, Manolli ! Celtic kil.

A. HALL After the victim has been thus immured the build

ing goes on without interruption, and is soon comKIRK-Grims (7th S. vi. 265, 349). -I am not pleted to the satisfaction of Prince Negru. Shortly aware of any church in England of which the story afterwards, when the ten masons are employed mentioned by your correspondent is told, but there putting the finishing touch to their work, Negru is a similar legend in Transylvanian folk-lore, which asks them if they would be able to build a still more is as follows. The Hospodar Negru, who reigned glorious temple. Exulting in their skill, they boastfrom 1513 to 1521, was taken by the Turks as a fally call from their lofty position that they would hostage to Constantinople, where, by the assist- be able to do so. On receiving this reply the Hosance of a Greek architect, a superb'mosque was podar, who had no desire that his church should be built by him for the Sultan Selim I., which so eclipsed, has the ladders removed, so that his unpleased that potentate that he dismissed him to fortunate servants should be left tó perish. With his own country with rich presents, so as to enable much ingenuity Manoel and his fellow craftsmen bim to build a church in his principality. Accom- make artificial wings of pieces of scantling, and, panied by the Greek, whose name was Manoel, and trusting to these frail supports, launch themselves nine master-masons, Negru left Constantinople, and into the air. They are killed by the fall, and, with on arriving in his own territories selected a site on the exception of Manoel, are turned into stones. the river Argisch, where the ruins of an ancient He as he is dying imagines he hears his wife's templo stood, for the erection of his new church. voice calling her last sad refrain, “ Manolli, my The builders set to work, but, wonderful to relate, Manolli," and, as tears rise to his glazing eyes at the walls which were constructed in the daytime the mournful sound, he is transformed into a founwere thrown down at night. Manoel at last had a tain, which to the present time is known as Manoel's dream, in which he heard a voice, which said that Well. Madame Gerard, in her recently published all their labour would be in vain unless they built work ‘Beyond the Forest,' gives extracts from the up in the masonry the first woman who should doïna, or folk-song, entitled 'Temple Argisch,' appear in the morning. He informed his nine which contains the foregoing story. comrades of this, and they bound themselves with a

R. STEWART PATTERSON, solemn oath to do as the voice had directed.

Cork. The following morning Manoel, to his horror, There seems to have been a general superstition beholds his own wife Annika approaching the fatal that the stability of a building could be ensured by building, and, falling on his knees, he implores the the sacrifice of a human being, and we have many beaveps to send rain, so that a raging flood would legends that charch towers and other constructions impede ber progress. His prayers are heard, but are assured of lasting by the fact that some one it is all in vain, for the faithful wife, who is carry- (usually the wife or child of the master-builder or ing her husband's breakfast, struggles through the architect) is built up into the wall or buried alive rising waters and howling tempest, till at last, beneath the foundation. This may account for smiling and triumphant, she reaches where he some of the ghosts that, on the best authority, are stood, and is greeted by him with the accustomed accused of haunting this or that church. Of course kiss. With a breaking heart-remembering his in great buildings it is too often a deplorable inciTow, but disguising his anguish as best he could- dent that life is lost by some untoward accident, he carries her up the scaffolding, and then pro and this may have given rise to the popular belief. poses to her, as if in a merry mood, that she would It holds to this day. I was asked if it was not true place herself in a niche and see them build around that a man bad been thus buried beneath one of her.

The poor young wife claps her hands in glee the towers of the great Brooklyn bridge, and I had at the idea. The wall gradually rises around her some difficulty in convincing the inquirer that it feet, then the masonry reaches her knees. Fear was pure fable. has now taken the place of merriment in her heart, Closely connected with this story of life-tribute and she begs to be released. Her husband makes is the saying that blood makes a durable mortar,

and a master-builder of this city, who had heard the An estate in Ufford, in the county of Northampsaying without knowing its origin, went to much ton, was purchased in 1554 by Francis Quarles, trouble and no small expense in obtaining bullock's Esq. (Bridge's 'Northants,' ii. 600). He and his blood with which to mix the mortar for a job of descendants resided at Ufford down to the beginsome importance he was about to undertake. He ning of the last century. Mr. Justin Simpson has did not get the results he expected, and returned printed full extracts from the registers of Ufford the use of water.

and neighbouring parisbes of the baptisms, marThe church-ghost has not made his appearance riages, and burials of members of the Quarles family in this country. We are yet too new. In the from 1577 to 1703 in the Reliquary, xi. 23. How twenty-fifth century, perhaps, he may be one of our came Pierre Phillipe van Ufford, nephew of domestic institutions, adapted from the elder civiliza- Angelique Quarles, by his surname ? tion of Europe, but accustomed to American ways.

Jos. PHILLIPS. JOHN E. NORCROSS. Stamford, Brooklyn, U.S.

ANONYMOUS POEM (7th S. vi. 469).—The 'Lines It is a curious instance of the wide spread of the on a Skeleton,' forty in number, are too many for belief in blood as a cement of ancient buildings insertion. They can be seen in “Fugitive Poetry, that Alá-ud-din Khilji, the King of Delhi, A.D. 1600-1878, compiled and edited by J. C. Hutche1296–1315, when enlarging and strengthening the

son," p. 130, “Chandos Classics." walls of old Delbi, is reported to have mingled in

ED. MARSHALL, the mortar the bones and blood " of thousands of goat-bearded Moghuls whom he slaughtered for the and readily accessible, we are not justified in occupying

[The book mentioned by MR. MARSHALL is so cheap purpose.” So writes a contemporary historian. our space with the verses, many copies of which have Much of this masonry still exists.

been sent. There is among our contributors a remarkH. G. KEENE. able consent of opinion as to the merits of the poem.

One of tbem shall be forwarded to YORICK if he will QUARLES (7th S. vi, 225, 373).—The entry of the send a stamped and addressed envelope ). baptism of Francis Quarles runs :“May 8. 1592 bapt fuit Franciscus, filius Magistri

CAILDREN (7th S. vi. 467).—The Latin charter Jacobi Quarles."--Par. Reg., Romford, co. Essex. of Norwich School, granted by King Edward VI.,

“ Francis Quarles, gent., of Romford, Essex, bachelor, 1547, uses “pueros” only. The Mayor and Alderabout 26, and Ursely Woodgate, of $t. Andrew, Holborn, men 'made, " accepted, and passed

Ordinances, spinster, 17, daughter of John Woodgate, of same, gent;; Laws, and Statutes" on June 14, 1566. In these, - Col. Chester's “ Marriage Licences,' Bishop of London's which are long and in English, the word "boys Office.

does not occur; but “scholar," "scholars," and “21 June, 2 Charles I.— True Bill that at St. Cle. “ child," " children" are always used. One headment's Danes, co. Midd., on the said day, Frances ing is, “ Certain ordinances necessary to be deFrancis Quarles, gentleman, when he was in 'God's and clared to such as offer their children to be scholars." the King's peace, and secretly and without his observa

0. W. TANCOCK. tion picked his pocket of fifty shillings.' The note

Norwich. Franc'us Quarles pross,' at the foot of the bill, indicates that on this occasion Francis Quarles figured at the Old BUONAPARTE's HABEAS CORPUS (7th S. vi. 467). Bailey as the prosecutor of a female pickpocket. How it - It is stated in Scott's “Life of Napoleon, fared with the Frances Riehardson when she had put chap. xcii., that when he was on board the Belleherself on a jury of the country does not appear, ' po. se being the only minute, by the pen of the clerk' of Gaol rophon, after Waterloo, and attempting resistance Deliveries, over her name." - Middlesex County Re- to his banishment to St. Helena, a suggestion was cords,' ed. by John Cordy Jeaffreson, vol. iii. p. 9. made that he should be brought up on a writ of

"1639, 1 February, 15 Charles I.–At the request of habeas corpus, which, he being an alien and a the Right Hon. the Earl of Dorset, signified by his prisoner, was not acted upon. Probably some letter, Francis Quarler, Gent., was admitted Chronologer, with a fee of 100 nobles per annum, during the pleasure rumour of this was in Lamb's mind. But that of the Court." —Rep. 54, fol. 86, Remembrancia pre- Buonaparte himself could have made any such served among the Archives of the City of London.' application is quite unlikely. On July 31, when He was buried in the church of St. Leonard Foster, the resolution of the Government was told him, in the City of London, but the registers of this Scott says that he inquired to what tribunal he parish have long since perished.

could apply." The Bellerophon sailed from Tor“In P. C. C.- Francis Quarles, late of Ridley Hall, co.

bay on August 4. On the 7th he was put on Essex, deca Adm’on to Ursula, the relict, 4 Feb., board the Northumberland, which then set sail for 1644/5."

St. Helena. There is another possibility, which In the Calendar (Rivers) for the year 1645 the seems more than such to me, that Lamb was altoword “poor" is prefixed to the entry of the name. getber in joke : "the twelve judges" looks very


like it. Lastly, it would appear that the fact 34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell.

which H. S. s. C. himself states, that the applica

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