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has not always prevailed. Bacon, at least (‘Advt. of certain that I have heard it); "The oceans of Thy Learning'), speaks of “pbysic” and “metaphysic," love"; "Be my last thoughts, how sweet to rest," and this latter word is, or until lately was, used in &c. (the last two in Keble’s ‘Evening Hymn'). Scotland. But can there be any cause for this pre So common a trick of speech was quite certain ference of the plural in all such words? Can it be not to escape the observation of Dickens. Here that the English mind is unwilling to grasp, or is one excellent example : "In the bays of Biscay, finds a difficulty of grasping, the idea of a settled O, roared Captain Bunsby"; and I have met with habit, system, series, institution of things, apart several others. from the individual facts, operations, energies, rules, Perhaps it may be thought that the trick here &c., of which such an idea is the total ? This I spoken of could be paralleled by examples on the have observed and I take it to be due to the same other side, of the s omitted where it has a proper attitude of mind-that uneducated people most place; but I do not think this can be done. Two commonly say, “By the mercies (by the blessings) well-known examples there are, pea and shay, of God I hope to be or do better”; they say (in- factitious singulars of pease and chaise, supposed to deed we all say), “I am in hopes"; they say, "Lead be plural; and I have heard pulsé taken as a us not into temptations"; and, quite to the same plural, “Her pulse are very weak," but I can reeffect, they say (commonly, I believe-certainly I call no other cases.

C. B. Mount. have myself heard it), "Deliver us from all evil”

P.S.-In the Daily Telegraph of February 9 that is, they do not grasp the idea of a common, there is an article on Madame Tussaud's Exhibiall-pervading evil; "all evil" is the whole multi- tion, from which I take the sentence following: tude of evil things. Beside, besides; toward, towards.- In these Skeat naissance as an aid to anatomical science.” This

Ceroplastics was revived in the Italy of the Reexplains the final s as a genitive suffix used ad- disposition to regard such words as after all verbially. There can be little doubt that the pre- singulars is not uncommon. I have valent modern use of the sigmated form is an

seen

“politics" so used more than once, though, reinstance of the same trick. I have examined a number of cases where either of these words occurs of. Very awkward it looks.

gardless of Captain Cuttle, I have not made a note in one or other form in the Bishops' Bible (1573) and the Authorized Version. I find that the modern printing of the Authorized Version (fol. SIR William RYVES : VAUGHAN.—I have come lowed by the Revised Version) adopts a uniform across some conflicting accounts of the family of “ toward," and uniformly gives“ beside” where Sir William Ryves, Attorney General for Ireland the use is prepositional, “besides” where ad- 1619, afterwards Justice of the King's Bench, who verbial.* But this rule was by no means observed died 1647. in the printing of 1611 (I have used the modern In “Black Jack's” famous Blennerhassett pediOxford facsimile edition). Tbis, I find, has “be-gree he is said to have married “Dorothy Bingley, side” in eleven cases, “besides" in ten, of twenty of Rathsillagh," and by her had two sons, William one examined. Of these the Bishops' Bible has and Charles. “besides" in six cases, “beside” in eight in the The Irish Builder of May 15 says he married other seven of the twenty-one the word does not first the daughter of - Latham, of Latham Hall, appear). Thus it would seem that in the late Lancashire, and secondly Dorothy, daughter of sixteenth and early seventeenth century the use of John Waldron. It goes on to give particulars of the two forms was about evenly balanced. There four sons and four daughters by first wife. Of the can be little doubt that our modern popular usage daughters (1) married Sir John Stanley ; (2) would almost always say "besides." Of toward, Elizabeth married Sir Arthur Leigh ; (3) towards I find that out of thirty cases examined married Edward Berkeley ; (4) unmarried. the Bishops' Bible has " toward” in twenty-six, The Irish Builder states that Sir William pur“towards” only in four. The Authorized Version chased the estate of Rathsallagh, in the co. Wickexactly divides them, hereby showing an increased low, which is no doubt identical with Rathsillagh propensity for the sigmated form.

in "Black Jack's" account. Two or three more instances of useless or sense

As regards his first wife, both “Black Jack” Less sigmation I may set down, all repeatedly ob- and the Irish Builder are wrong. Sir William served in the course of our Church service :-“We really married a Miss Jackman, as appears by the are His people and the sheep of His pastures”; entry of her death on November 8, 1624, in 5 “The oath which He sware to our forefathers Funeral Entries, Ulster Office, where her family Abraham ”; “God the Fathers Almighty” (I am arms are impaled with those of Ryves.

I found å bill in Chancery, filed August 28, * One apparent exception I note (Jud. vi. 37): “If it be dry on all the earth beside.” According to the rule, | 1656, by John Farrer, Esq., of Dublin, and Dame this should be “besides"; but I suppose it is taken as Dorothy, his wife," relict and sole executrix of Sir expressing a literal meaning, all round,“ on every side." William Ryves, deceased," against William and

Barbara Latham, in which—after reciting that Sir large class in which weakness and insignificance William Ryves had lent William Latham, of New get the better of strength and greatness by dint of Place, Londonderry, Esq., the sum of 1001.,

trust cunning. The willow.wren, like the golden-crested moneys of John Bingley, Esq., and Dame Eliza- regulus, belongs to the family of Sylviadæ, and beth, bis wife, daughter of Sir William Ryves, and not to the same family as the common wren. It afterwards wife of Alderman William Smyth, of certainly frequents thick hedges, but it is more Dublin ; and that Latham married Barbara, only commonly found in woods, plantations, or shrubdaughter and heir of Sir John Vaughan, Knt.; and beries. It is common on the Continent in summer ; that Latham and Vaughan had, on December 6, but, with due deference to the translator of Grimm's 1639, executed their joint bond to Sir William Household Tales,' it seems to me more likely that to secure repayment of the loan—the bill states the Zaunkönig (king of the hedges) was the common that Latham and Vaughan were then both dead, wren, and not the willow-wren. and that Vaughan had appointed his daughter

F. A. MARSHALL. Barbara and his only son William Latham execu

THE DATE OF THE 'ROMAN DE LA ROSE'trix and executor of his will.

I was a good deal puzzled to discover why Mr. Guillaume de Lorris, the author of the first part of Bingley's wife was called "dame”; but I have

just have died about the year 1260; but the only ground

poem (vv. 1-4069), is commonly supposed to found an extract from 6 Funeral Entries, from that I can find for this assumption is the equally which it appears probable that she may have been previously the wife of Sir Arthur Leigh, who died the continuation by Jean de Meung, who tells us

unwarranted assumption of 1303-5 as the date of without issue by bis wife Elizabeth, eldest daughter himself that he wrote it “ more than forty years ” of Sir William Ryves, on February 27, 1635.

after the death of Guillaume :The Chancery bill seems to clear up the odd mixture and confusion of names in giving to Sir

apres sa mort que ge ne mente

ans trespassés plus de quarente. William either Bingley or Latham for his wife.

vv. 10,624-5. Sir John Vaughan, it seems, had another Moreri and all other writers before Méon, whose daughter, Sidney, the wife of the Hon. Sir edition of the Roman' appeared in 1814, say Frederick Hamilton, by whom she was mother of that Jean was born about 1279-80, and the stateGustavus, first Viscount Boyne; and this I find ment is repeated even in the Nouvelle Biographie confirmed by another bill in Chancery, in which Générale, notwithstanding the remark of Fr. Barbara Latham is stated to be one of the daughters Schlosser, more than sixty

years ago (". Vincent de of Sir John.” Sir John Vaughan was Governor Beauvais,' ii. 165), that the work bears internal eviof Londonderry, and obtained large grants of land dence of having been written some twenty years in the counties of Londonderry and Donegal. He earlier than had hitherto been imagined, viz, not was knighted February 2, 1616, by Lord Deputy later than 1284, when, according to the old tradiSir Oliver St. John, and he died 1643. He was

tion, the author would be only about four or five son of another Sir John Vaughan, who was knighted July 30, 1599, by Robert, Earl of Essex, L.D. I years old. The passage which Schlosser had more

especially in view was doubtless the following :cannot discover the names of the wives of these two

C'est de Mainfroi roi de Sesile, knights.

qui par force tint et par guile It seems that Sir John the younger was taken to

lonc-tens en pès toute sa terre, Ireland by Sir Henry Dockwra, afterwards created

quant li bons Karles li mut guerre Lord Dockwra, and was) probably a relative of

Conte d'Anjou et de Provance, Lady Dockwra, who was Anne, daughter of Francis

qui par devine porvéance

est ores de Seeile rois. Vaughan, of Sutton-upon-Derwent.

Vv. 6660-6, ed. Méon. HENRY L. TOTTENHAM. Guernsey.

Now, Manfred was deposed by Charles of Anjou

in 1266, and as Charles died in the beginning of WREN OR WILLOW-WREN.-In Grimm's 'House- January, 1285, we have the end of 1284 as the hold Tales,' edition 1884, vol. ii., tale 102, the latest date at which this can have been written, translator, Margaret Hunt, renders Zaunkönig thus confirming the statement of Kausler in his “ willow-wren,

as well as in tale 171. The edition of the old Flemish version, that Jean de former tale is essentially the same as the 'Battle Meung wrote his part of the Roman' before be of the Birds and Beasts, which is found in various made his translation of Vegetius . De Re Militari, forms in collections of popular tales. The leader which was, as Méon informs us, in 1285 : “Ainsi of the birds' army is not the eagle, but the wren, que le prouvent plusieurs MSS. du temps” (Méon, the smallest of all familiar birds. The title of the p. xv). It is strange that Méon, in quoting this latter tale is simply The Willow-wren'; the birds very passage of the 'Roman' for the purpose of choose a king, and the little bird obtains that correcting the erroneous notion of Langlet du dignity by artifice. The story belongs to that Fresnoy and others that it was part of the work

F. N.

passage which

of Guillaume (who is on all hands admitted to written between A.D. 1111 and 1117. We have have been dead some years before the defeat of Humboldt's authority for the fact that Columbus Manfred), accepts without hesitation the popular first observed it on September 13, 1482, but, belief, which to this day seems to hold its ground, according to Gelcicb, it was first noticed in that Jean wrote his continuation as late as 1303-5. Europe by Pelegrini, in 1269 ('Studienz EntIs it likely that he would speak of Charles of wicklungs Geschichte d. Schiffahrt,' 1882. Eden Anjou some eighteen or twenty years after his has a whole chapter on "the effecte or propertie death as now" King of Sicily?

that the compasse hath to Northeastyng, or North

westing, wherby is knowen the variation of the HISTORY OF NAVIGATION.-The

compasse " (' Arte of Navigation,' 1561, chap. v.). I am about to quote, from a lectare delivered last Digges gives its value for England as “11+ grades year by the President of the Royal Geographical or neers therabout” (“Pantometria,' 1571). Bur. Society before the University of Cambridge, has rows measured it at Limehouse in 1580, and found made considerable stir in Hungary. We are told it to be 11° 5' E. “There were sea-compasses of by the lecturer that

diverse sorts and for variation” in John Dee's o the first treatises on navigation appeared about 1537 “ late spoiled Mortlake Library, A. 1583" ("The in Portugal, and 1680 in Hungary, and they were intro- Compendious Rehearsall of John Dee'). See also duced in England by Wright in 1600, in which year also chap. vi. and passim in Bourne's op. cit.,

and invented, and a knowledge of the variation of the com. fol. o verso of Wright's 'Certain Errors in Navipass was acquired soon after."

gation,' &c. (London, 1599). Some of the Hungarian papers grew quite eloquent

Finally, the log was invented by Humfrey Cole over the matter, and justly so, as—to quote an before 1578. His instrument is fully described in editorial comment—the dweller on the Magyar Bourne's 'Inventions or Devises,' which appeared Alföld would never, oven in his boldest flights that year. This important invention is not menof imagination, have dared to dream that it was tioned in his life in the 'Dictionary of National one of his own countrymen who had taught the Biography.'

L. L. K. Eoglish mariners the art of navigating the wide ocean. In order to clear away all suspicion of a

6" MACBETA" ON THE STAGE. (See 76 S. vii. 68, hoax, the cautious editor wisely quoted chapter 130.)- In an article entitled "“ Macbeth” on the and verse, so that sceptics might be able to satisfy Stage,' which appeared in the December number themselves with their own eyes that the statement of the English Illustrated Magazine, the authors, bad appeared in print.

Messrs. Archer and Lowe, make a statement which Oa turning to the original—the March number of is scarcely excusable, coming from two writers of the Proceedings of the Society-we find that neither such eminence and so thoroughly steeped in drathe author nor the title of the Hungarian treatise matic literature. In writing about the early repreis given. This is much to be regretted, as the sentations of 'Macbeth' they quote four entries work is wholly unknown to bibliographers. And from Pepys's 'Diary,' as follows: as the passage, as quoted supra, is a long string “ November 5, 1664. To the Duke's house to see of glaring inaccuracies, it is reasonable to demand · Macbeth, a pretty good play, but admirably acted. that some authority should be supplied before we

“December 28, 1666. To the Duke's house, and there accept such startling statements.

• Macbeth,' most excellently acted and a most ex

cellent play for variety. There is no uncertainty whatever about the year “January 7, 1667. To the Duke's house, and saw 1537, in which the first Portuguese treatise ap- Macbeth, which, though I saw it lately, yet appears a peared, as, according to Da Silva's ‘Diccionario most excellent play in all respects, but especially in Bibliographico Portuguez' (Lisbon, 1860), there divertisement, though it be a deep tragedy; which is a are at least three copies of the editio princeps of strange perfection in a tragedy, it being most proper Dr. Pedro Nuñez's book extant (vol. v. p. 440). October 16, 1667, he again saw this most excellent

During the period mentioned, viz., *1537 and play, and was vexed to see Young (who is but a bad 1580, many other works appeared on navigation, actor at best) act Macbeth in the room of Betterton, of which it will suffice to mention the 'Brevé who, poor man, is sick.” Compendio de la Sphera y de la Arte de Navegar,' The introduction of the words variety and diver. by Martin Cortes (Seville, 1556), which was trans- tisement in connexion with Shakespeare's most prolated, as early as 1561, into English by Richard found and serious tragedy seems to have so puzzled, Eden. A copy of this is in the Grenville and even misled, these usually accurate writers, Library. Wright's book was anticipated also by that they seriously doubt whether Pepys’s notices several editions of William Bourne's Regiment refer to Shakespeare's 'Macbeth,' and are more of the Sea,' the first edition of which was published, inclined to favour the hypothesis that the abovewithout date, in 1574 or the following year. quoted notices refer to Davenant's version of the

According to Klaproth, the variation of the com- same play. The question really is beyond all doubt. pass is distinctly mentioned in a Chinese treatise In 1673 appeared a quarto edition of Macbeth,'

saw

as acted at the Duke's Theatre. This edition is works for the Restoration Committee. He proves by a simply a reprint of the First Folio, with songs taken careful survey that the total internal area of St. Michael's from "Middleton's 'Witch'added, which accounts tioned by Lord Grimthorpe, is 23,265 square feet, thus

is 24,015 square feet, while that of St. Nicholas's, as menfor the epithets“ variety” and “divertisement.” showing that St. Michael's exceeds its rival by 750 square On the first page of this quarto the names of the feet.” principal actors are given, with their corresponding If the cubical contents of the two fabrics were parts, identical with those prefixed to Davenant's compared the difference would be still more version of 1674.

MORRIS I. JONAS.
strikingly in favour of St. Michael's.

W. G. FRETTON, F.S.A. CHÂTEAU DE ST. GERMAIN-EN-LAYE. - M.

Coventry. Salomon Reinach, in L'Ami des Monuments (No. 8, vol. ii.), in a sketch of the history of this ROKER. - In quotations of wholesale prices of palace, writes:

fish in the London market this word often occurs ; “We have very few documents with regard to the but, so far as I have been able to ascertain, it has château in the eighteenth century. Here is a fact not yet found its way into any dictionary or ichwhich is, I think, new. In the month of February, thyological work. It appears to be a modern trade1773, Horace Walpole wrote to Madame Dudeffand, ask. ing for information with regard to a natural daughter of name, of late gears getting into common use in James II. named Ward, who died at St. Germain five or London. Some time ago it attracted my attention six years before. Madame Dudeffand wrote to her friend that roker was quoted in London from Grimsby Madame de la Mark, 'who knows every part of St. reports only; and as Grimsby trawlers do not fish Germain and rules there,' as well as to M. de Noailles, inshore (within the three-mile limit), but mostly on her brother. She replied to Walpole on February 27, the Doggerbank, they naturally come into contact 1773, . The oldest of the Irish residing in the palace of with Dutch fishermen. This circumstance gives a St. Germain have been questioned, and none of them remembers to have heard of the name.' It will be seen clue to the origin of the word. The Dutch roch or from this passage that the palace continued up to this rog (ch and g are always guttural in Dutch ; rog is date to serve as an asylum for the friends, and com. the modern spelling) is a generic term for any panions in exile of the unfortunate James II."

species of the Raja genus, but often used withJNO. HEBB.

out any qualifying epithet as synonymous_with ERRORS OF TRANSLATION.—A writer in Black-gedoornde rog (i.e., thorny ray)=thornback, Engl. wood's Magazine for June, 1825, vol. xvii. p. 740,

= Raja clavata, Linn., characterized by being gives the following amusing examples of errors of studded at intervals all over the upper surface translation:

with rounded nail-like tubercles, terminating in "I remember, among other specimens of the French strong curved spines. The English word roker in translators' acquaintance with our tongue, that one of most cases signifies thornback, but is occasionally them rendered the verse of Bessy Bell and Mary Gray' employed to denote any species of the ray family, (quoted in The Pirate '),

with the exception of the skate, the probable reason They built a house on yonder brae,

for this exception being that the latter, although And theek'd it o'er wi' rashes,

not what is termed a “prime” fisb, is more into · Elles se sont baties un maison sur la colline, et esteemed and fetches a higher price than the elles en ont chassé les imprudens. L'homme verd, et thorn back. To Scarborough and Whitby fishertranquille' for The Green Man and Still’ is notbing to this,"

men, who seldom fish on the Doggerbank, the One would like to know whether these blunders word roker is unknown; on the north-east and ever occurred, or whether, as seems more likely, also on the south coast of England the fish is called they have been invented for the sake of raising thornback. The Germ. roche, Low Germ. ruche, a laugh against our neighbours. For the second Dan, rokke, Swed. rocka, are all generic terms for no authority is given. It would surely be possible several species of rays, but also used specifically, to test the statement as regards Scott's Pirate.' the two German words for the thornback, while Copies of the translation referred to must still be the Danish and Swedish apply to the skate.

J. H. LUNDGREN. in existence.

ΑΝΟΝ. .

Lion BAPTIZED.—Jerome ('De Scriptor. Eccles.') THE LARGEST PARISH CHURCH IN ENGLAND.believed, that St. Nicholas's, of Great Yarmouth, one of the baptism of a lion. Tertullian ('Contra It has been frequently asserted, and generally says that some priest in Asia added to the Acts of

the Apostles various tales. Amongst them was bore the palm in this respect

, but from a paragraph Marcion') runs on further, and relates that St. which appears in the Birmingham Daily Times of John the Evangelist convinced this wicked priest January 18 it seems that such is not the case :

of altering the truth of the canonical book, and he “The controversy which has lately appeared in Church excused his conduct on the plea that he so loved Bells, and several other papers, respecting the compara: St. Paul. The lion, as king of beasts, had, no tive sizes of St. Nicholas's, Great Yarmouth, and St. Michael's, Coventry, has been practically

settled in favour doubt, the best right of any quadruped to this reof the latter by Mr. G. R. Webster, the clerk of the markable distinction. Nothing is recorded as to

his moral improvement, whether it progressed pari student of Old or Modern French has met with passu with his religious advancement. It ought to the word épergne in its English sense in any French bave led him at once to lie down with the lamb. text, or has beard the word used in France as we C. A. WARD. use it in England.

A. L. MAYHEW, Walthamstow.

LEIGHTON Family.—In Burke's pedigree of Queries.

Leighton, of Loton and Watlesborough, co. Salop . We must request correspondents desiring information (Barts.), he gives Anne, daughter of Paul Darrell

, on family matters of only private interest, to affix their of Lillingstone Darrell, co. Bucks, as the wife of names and addresses to their queries, in order that the Sir Edward Leighton, who died in 1593; and his answers may be addressed to them direct.

son, Thomas Leighton, is there given as the hus

band of Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Wm. Gerard, MRS. Gibbs, actress, married the younger Col. Knt., of Bryp. In the records of the Inner Temple, man. She was a Miss Logan, and appears to have where there are many entries of the Leightons, been alive in Brighton in 1840. When did she Elizabeth Gerard is given as the wife of Sir Ed-die? What was her Christian name? With the ward, and Thomas Leighton, bis son, as brother information supplied in books of theatrical refer- (not father) of Joyce, who married Walter Wrottesence I am familiar.

URBAN.

ley, of Wrottesley. Having taken much troubleENCORE.—Is the current English use of this to trace correctly the Leighton pedigree for family word merely a blunder; or was encore ever used in notes, as the Scarletts of Sussex and Jamaica are French (or ancora in Italian) in the sense of the be glad if any one can give me the right version of

descended from them in two distinct lines, I shall modern bis ! I should

be glad to be furnished the above, and refer me to proofs. with any English examples_earlier than 1712

B. FLORENCE SCARLETT. (Spectator, No. 314). HENRY BRADLEY. ii, Bleisho Road, Lavender Hill, S.W.

Milton's SONNETS.-Four sonnets of MiltonFAMILY OF LORD CONINGSBY.–Will any corre

(1) To Oliver Cromwell,' (2) 'To my Lord Fair

fax,' (3) 'To Sir Henry Vane,' (4) 'To Mr. Cyriack spondent give me information of the following ?1. Lord Coningsby left two younger sons, viz., end of the life attributed to Phillips, the nephew

Skinner upon his Blindness ' -are found at the Humphrey and Fernando, the former baptized of Milton, which appears in "Letters of State, February 16, 1681/2, at Bodisham, or Bodenham, in Herefordshire, the latter at the same place May Sovereign" Princes and Republicks of Europe.)

Written by | Mr. Jobn Milton, | To most of the 6, 1683. Did either of these leave any family; From the Year 1649. Till the Year 1659. I. To and, if so, where ? 2. A Mr. Coningsby, of North Mymms and Pot- with several of his / Poems; and a Catalogue of

which is added, An Account of his | Life. Together terils, Hertfordshire, and Roger Copingsby was bis | Works, never before Printed. I London : 1 buried at North Mymms on January 13, 1707. He Printed in the

Year, 1694.” For good cause these is said to bave left five sons, viz., Thomas, Humphrey, Roger, Harry, and John. Can any one tell sonnets are excluded from the edition of the minor me anything of these in their marriages or family? poems published with the Tractate on Education

in 1673. Is this, in fact, their first appearance in 3. Was Edward Coningsby, who was married at print? In this case this unjustly neglected little Meldretb, Cambridgeshire, about 1730, any con- volume is entitled to rank as a first edition of a nexion ; and what ?

SYLVAN. 4. There was a Coningsby of King's Lynn, who portion of the poems. had a daughter married, and lived at Bottisham,

DUGGLEBY.—The following undated MS. note Cambridgeshire, and was buried there. Would (or extract) has lately come into my possession :the Edward of Meldreth be one of his sons (Roger)?

“The township of Duggleby has a population of 154 5. A Mr. Copingsby, who lived the life of a re

persons. It lies in a bollow, and has a neat Wesleyan cluse, many years ago, in consequence of the tragic chapel. On the east of the village is a tumulus of conend of a daughter, is mentioned in the county his- siderable size, evidently never opened, and upon the tory of Worcestershire. Can any one give me any origin, of which neither history nor tradition throws any

ligbt." information of his descendants ? If any reader can give me information on one or

Where is Duggleby? What are the meaning all of these points I shall feel much indebted.

and derivation of this place-name? I have met C. W. MARTINDALE.

with Dugleby as a family name in Kent, but am Cambridge.

led to believe that it is of Yorkshire extraction. ÉPERGNE.—This well-known word is evidently be very welcome.

Any information concerning place or family would

GUALTERULUS. of French origin, but it does not occur in any modern French dictionary, nor in Littré, Cotgrave, JOSEPA DRURY.-He was head master of Harrow or Godefroy. I should be glad to hear if any from 1785 to 1805. Lord Byron was one of his

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