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initial y.

value of y; 6.g., tailzie, spuilzie, bailzie, &c.; in ing seven volumes. The illustrations in the early proper names, Dalzell or Dalyell, Menzies, Mac- volumes are by R. Seymour, and later on by fadzean, &c.; in place-Dames, Kirkgunzoon, Corse- Robert Cruikshank. The closing numbers are malzie, Balzeland, &c. In each of these cases the signed “W. N.” In vol. iii. p. 67 there is an sound is not (and never was) that of %, but of con- article. 'Movements of the Middle Men,' having sopantaly. Bearing this in mind, it seems obvious names something similar to those used by Dickens that the oldest written form of Ealing was Yealing, -Mr. Horatio Stubbs (Sparkins), the linendraper'swhicb, by a confusion of symbol, came to be printed man (in 'Sketches by Boz'), Mr. Buggins (SmugZealing, and modern practice has dropped the gins and Sproggins, also in ‘Sketches by Boz'). HERBERT MAXWELL. This may be one of his contributions. It is not

often a complete set of this somewhat scurrilous Colt, Coltes (7th S. vii

. 4).- The definition in journal is met with, the later ones having a differthe 'Encyclopædic Dictionary referred to in the ent heading and the numbering being very erratic. editorial note at this reference has no illustrative

JAS. B. MORRIS. quotation. The following is from Marryat’s ‘King's Own,'chap. viü. :

SIR ROBERT NORTER (7th S. vii. 27).—Sir " He always carried in his pocket a colt (i. e., a foot and James Galloway, of Carubie, Fife, created in 1645 a half of rope, knotted at one end and whipped at the Lord Dunkeld, and who married Sir Robert Norter's other), for the benefit of the youngsters, to whom he was daughter, was conjoint Secretary of State with & most inordinate tyrant."

William, Earl of Stirling, in 1640. In 'Midshipman Easy,' chap. xii., the word is used

CONSTANCE RUSSELL. as a verb : “Then he colted me for half an hour, Swallowfield, Reading. and that's all.”

Geo. L. APPERSON. Wimbledon.

JEANNE DE CASTILLE (7th S. vi. 427, 518).-See

Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy,' part iii. sect. Is not the "colting.” referred to by MR. HALL iii. memb. 2, subs. 1 (ed. 1660, p. 610), where the as suggesting “a good thrashing” really. “a quilt- story is quoted from Gomesius, in his third book ing," which is to be found in some dictionaries as of the Life and Deeds of Francis Ximenius, somemeaning a beating, and given as of varied deriva- time Archbishop of Toledo." She followed Philip tion, though it appears to me to be very closely to the Low Countries, and although associated with, if not actually to belong to, the “kindely entertained by her husband, she could not series of synonyms for the operation which derive contain her self, but in a rage ran upon a yellow haird their origin from the shoemakers, curriers, and wench, with whom she suspected her husband to be allied trades, as we find it in "a leathering," "a nought, cut off her hair, did beat her black and blew, strapping," "a tanning,"

," "a welting,” &c. ? In- and 80 dragged her about." deed, it is worth noting in this connexion, from the Burton most improperly adds, “It is an ordinary number of epithets applied to the operation, what thing for women in such cases to scrat the faces, slit a deal of chastising has apparently been required the noses of such as they suspect.” (let us hope in times past) in most trades and

J. DYKES CAMPBELL. occupations, for nearly all —except, perhaps, the

THE SPECTRE OF THE BROCKEN (7th S. vi. 406, carpenter's, where sticks are plentiful-- appear to 509).-An instance of this phenomenon is given in be represented, and even in the domestic circle on the Moravian Missionary Reporter for January by can have a choice of "& towelling," "a basting,”

a missionary writing from Teh-Ngau, China :“a cloating," "a rubbing down," a dressing," ** a wiping" when occasion requires. owes its sanctity to the great crag which condenses


“Ngo Mei has always been a sacred mountain, It trimming," or

R. W. HACKWOOD. its surface the heated air from the plains into a vapoury VEINS IN THE NOSE (7th S. vii. 25). -A lady veil as it rises to the higher level; and if you stand on once said to me, speaking of a girl who had a dis- shadow upon the cloud surrounded with a halo of light. tinctly marked dark vein showing across the upper This the people call the living Buddha, and many in their part of her nose, “It is a pity, she will not live to frenzy throw themselves over into his arms, hoping to wear her wedding-dress.” W. C. B. attain Nirvana."

EDWARD DAKIN. When a female child has a visible vein running Selsley, Stroud. across her nose in a line with her eyes it is a sign that she will never be married. I heard this tra

JERNINGHAM (7th S. vi. 407; vii. 89).—I possess dition in Oxfordshire in 1886, but it may not be vol.i. of the 1583 edition of Foxe’s ‘Book of Marindigenous to that county. GUALTERULUS.

tyrs,' and on the fly-leaf is written, “Sur John Ger

len[i]on.” There are other names on the same leaf, DID CHARLES DICKENS CONTRIBUTE TO ‘FIGARO" John Richards, John Yester, A. Sharps." Can IN LONDON'? (76h S. vii. 3.)-Figaro in London the first name be intended for Jerningham or commenced with No. 1, December 10, 1831, and Gernegan? The seventh letter may be g, s, or t, continued to No. 370, December 31, 1838, form- making either Gerlenson, Gerlengon, or Gerlenton, it is difficult to tell which. The name Richards is they fired in battle. His reply was, “They didn't beautifully written, and might be of the early part to fust [at first], but they larnt.” And opposed as of this century. The name occurs again in the body they were to men who aimed as if firing at still of the work, twice in the margin, but the writing game, they well may have found it needful to larn is more that of seventeenth century. John Yester to do the same. My memory is that he told us is apparently old. A. Sharps was my great-grand that the British fired from the position of “charge mother, living, I believe, in Wiltshire about 1799. bayonets."

H. MORPHYN. There is an old engraving extant of the “Boston Family RECORDS (7th S. vii. 68). — The name of soldiers in garrison here, March, 1770, and a mob.

Massacre," a collision between some of the British Hugh Tirell, as well as that of Adam de Hereford, This engraving represents six or eight soldiers with occurs in Camden's list of the English who went to their muskets levelled in the act of firing. The Ireland in 1170 with Dermot, King of Leinster. Thomas de Hereford married Beatrix, daughter pieces are held against the left (!) shoulder, but the of Theobald, first Baron Butler, and received "

men are not aiming. Their heads are erect, and

faces large estate in marriage” from her father (Rothe's have been made between 1770 and 1775. "Baron

to the front. This engraving must

square * Register '). CONSTANCE RUSSELL.

Stubin's tactics for the American army, adopted Swallowfield, Reading.

1779, direct a careful aim. F. J. PARKER. OMNIBOATS : ELECTROLIER (7th S. vi. 466).- Boston, Mass. Electrolier is not quite such a recent addition to the English language as Mr. E. H. MARSHALL -The word mass has several meanings. The mass

ERROR REGARDING THE Mass (7th S. vi. 506). seems to suppose. It was freely used during the Electric Exhibition at the Crystal Palace in 1882. after nocturns; but this is not the sacrament of

proper is said on Christmas Eve, and mass is ordered I sent Dr. Murray a quotation for the word from

the mass.

Other offices said in church had the the notice of that exhibition in the Athenceum of April 22, 1882.


name mass—even a mere reading or lesson of

Holy Scripture was called a mass. The reference CLASPS (7 S. vii. 68).—The clasp with the gold to Sir Walter Scott is not given, but it is very medal mentioned in the G.O. of Oct. 7, 1813, to probable that he made no mistake, and the quota. which MR. APPERSON refers, was undoubtedly tion from Hogg very likely refers to some usual the first ever issued with a modal awarded by the office or reading, and not to the Holy Sacrament. Crown. It is possible, however, that amongst the

W. F. Hobson. sundry and manifold decorations which were, I

Temple Ewell, Dover. believe, in vogue in certain regiments prior to Ainsworth writes :1813 there may have been some which took the

“ And apologizing to Viviana for the intrusion, told form of clasps or tablets, either attached to medals her he came to confess her previously to the celebration or worn alone. The idea of the clasp may not, of mass, which would take place that evening, in a small therefore, have been altogether an original one on chapel in the house.”—'Guy Fawkes,' ch. xi. p. 79, the part of the authorities in 1813. The medal | Lond., 1857.

ED. MARSHALL. for the Sikh war of 1845 was the first silver medal that had clasps attached to it.

M. O. ASTARTE says that Sir Walter Scott has often This word does not occur in the 'Military Dic- said in the evening. If the allasion is to the follow

been laughed at for having represented mass as tionary' published in the “ British Military ing couplet in the introduction to the sixth canto Library,” 1798-1801. J. F. MANSERGH.

of Marmion,' Liverpool,

On Christmas eve the bells were rung; YOUNGER'S COMPANY (7th S. vii. 47). —There is

On Christmas eve the mass was sung, a Joseph Younger mentioned in thé Thespian Scott has anticipated the laughers, as he adds a Dictionary'(1802), who was prompter at Covent note to the effect that “in Roman Catholic CounGarden in 1774, and manager at Liverpool, Ports- cries mass is never said at night except on Chrissmouth, &c."

J. F. MANSERGA, mas Eve.” Whether this is actually so or not Liverpool.

your Roman Catholic readers will know better MANUAL OF ARMS IN USE IN THE BRITISH has made a mistake in so simple a matter.

than I do; but I can scarcely suppose that Scott ARMY, 1770-1778 (7th S. vi. 507). - Almost fifty

JONATHAN BOUCHIER. years ago a party of boys besieged an old soldier of the American revolutionary army with all manner

CASTOR : GO-CART (7th S. iv. 507 ; v. 54, 294, of questions about the War of Independence, and 493; vi. 93, 190).- DR. CHANCE suggested that one question, as I remember, was very much to the these were named from their use for "casting” point of J. F. M.'s query, namely, whether it was pepper, salt, &c. I differed from him; but just true that the British troops did not take aim when now referring to Ben Jonson for another purpose,

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my eye caught the following passage in 'Cynthia's ture. It seems to be an interesting case of a surRevells.' Cupid says to Mercury :

vival which might naturally be looked for in a "Now you are on earth, we shall baue you filch district like Exmoor, which retains to this day spoones and candle-sticks, rather than faile : pray Jove many of the peculiar characteristics noticed in the the perfum'd courtiers keep their casting-botiles, pick- times of the Plantagenet kings. tooths, and shittle-cocks from you; or our more ordinarie

W. H. HALLIDAY, gallants their tobacco-boxes, from I am strangely jealous of your nailes.”—Ben Jonson, 1640, vol. i. p. 162.

Glenthorne, Lynton, I felt, in common fairness, I could not do less Pray is used as a verb in Suffolk, meaning “ to than publish this extract, which supports Dr. lift up." I have seen in southern counties many Chance's theory.

R. R. such a foot-bridge as A. J. M. describes, made to Boston, Lincolnshire.

hinge over or lift away from its position when reCHURCH STEEPLES (7th S. v. 226, 393, 514; vi. field or meadow to another over small brooks. May

quired, or to prevent passage of animals from one 77, 158).—Anent this subject the following may not the verb have been used as a noun ? I see be of interest. It is from the pen of " Morien," Wright gives pray as “a herd of cattle driven from who investigates, in the Western Mail, the origin a common pasture and impounded." The removal of the Welsh plygain, an early service on Christ- of such a bridge would, of course, tend to keep the mas morning :

cattle in one pasturage.

R. W. HACKWOOD. “ It seems to me beyond question that pulglain is pull. cano of the Latin, slightly altered, and to mean the JOSEPH FORSYTH (7th S. vi. 469).—In the late crowing of the young bird. In ancient Latin and Greek Mr. Young's ' Annals of Elgin,' p. 687, is the folmythology the cock was sacred to the dawn. Hence the

lowing: custom of placing cocks on the tops of church spires, &c. Indeed, the sun itself is represented on many ancient

“Ann Harrold, the second wife of Mr. Alexander gems as a young cock. Payne Knight states, Weather: Forsyth, was the daughter of Mr. Harrold, tenant at cocks......though now only employed to show the direc- Mill of Dallas. He went to Perthshire with Mr. Cuming tion of the wind, were originally emblems of the sun, for of Craigmill, and took a farm from the Duke of Perth, the cock is the natural herald of the day. Therefore, and, along with Mr. Cuming, be followed the Duke in the expression pull-cano, made use of after midnight at the unfortunate Rebellion in 1745. With Mr. Cuming he Christmas-the dawn of the new year-conveyed to the was present at the Battle of Culloden in April, 1846, mind then the idea that the sun of the new year was where both were taken prisoners. Mr. Harrold was put coming. The cock is intimately associated, too, in the on board ship, at Inverness, to be carried to England for Welsh

mind with the dawn of the new year. From their trial, where, doubtless, he would have suffered with other earliest childhood the Welsh children are told that that prisoners, but he died on the passage.” day lengthens 'Cam ceiliog' (the step of a cock).”

J. A. C. ARTHUR MEE. LORD Lisle's ASSASSINATION (7th S. vi. 467; Llanelly.

vii. 16).—John Lisle was one of the judges of A“ PRAY" (7th S. vii. 66).—Your correspondent

Charles I., one of Cromwell's lords, and a comA. J. M. calls attention to the use of the word missioner of the Parliamentary Great Seal. His pray as current in the county of Surrey. He like- widow, Lady Alicia Lisle, was one of the victims wise tells us that the word means "a long foot of Judge Jeffreys. In spite of a jury bringing bridge crossing a ford or a bit of meadow-land that her in "Not Guilty” three times, she was at

on a frivolis apt to be flooded.” Finally, he says that he has last found “Guilty of High Treason spelt it phonetically, having never seen it written.

ous charge, and put to death at Winchester in

1685. I am able to supply the "missing link” from an her was to change her sentence from Burning

* All the favour the king would grant entry in the Ordnance map of the county of Somerset

, and I venture to think that my informa- to Beheading.”. See Rapin’s ‘Hist.' (1732), vol. ii. tion may be of some interest to your readers. In the p. 750 ; Kennet's 'Hist.' (1719), vol. iii. pp. 192, centre of the forest of Exmoor, where, at a wild Alicia Lisle" is given in Turner's 'Remarkable

“ The Last Speech of the Lady spot, the infant Exe emerges from a well-known and rather dreaded locality yclept “ the Chains," Providences, part i. chap. cxliii., but she does not

mention her husband in it. J. F. MANSERGH. the tiny stream is crossed by a bridge leading

Liverpool. directly up a steep bill, the road along which has from time immemorial been known as Praynay. DR. GUILLOTIN (5th S. i. 426, 497; 7th S. vi. As such it has appeared on the old Ordnance maps 230, 292 ; vii. 11).—The original maiden, the preof the county of Somerset. Probably the long foot- cursor of the guillotine, and by which its introducer bridge, the “pray” of which your correspondent the Regent Morton was decapitated in 1581, may speaks, was the original bridge at this wild spot be seen at the present day in the museum of the when pack-roads were universal in this part of Scottish Antiquarian Society in Princes Street, England; but for some years the road crosses the Edinburgh. There is an engraving of it, accomstream by a wheel-bridge, though retaining the panied by a description, in Chambers's 'Book of appellation derived from the more ancient struc- Days,' vol. i. p. 728. Of its use, or rather disuse,

Major Galbraith of Garschattachin observes in Bray's 'History of Surrey,' vol. iii. p. 170 ; and in 'Rob Roy,' the probable date of which is 1715: a note on p. 140 of the same volume a like tradition

“But this world winna last lang, and it will be time to is recorded as to Ludwell in Farnham. A notice sharp the maiden for shearing o' craigs and thrapples. I will be found of it in Grose's ' Antiquities,' vol. v. hope to see the auld rusty lass linking at a bluidy barst p. 112. In Brayley's ' History of Surrey,' 1841, again.”—Chap. xxix.

vol. v. p. 297, there is a representation given of it; An appended note explains the maiden to be “a and in Murray's 'Handbook to Surrey,' under rude kind of guillotine formerly used in Scotland." | "Frensham,” route 11, it is also noticed. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A.

G. L. G. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

A full account of this will be found in Thomas CROMWELL FAMILY, U.S. (7th S. vi. 489).—Bow- Allen's ‘History of Surrey,' vol. ii. p. 243 (London, ditch (Suffolk Surnames, Boston, U.Ś., 1861) J. T. Hinton, 1831; also in Salmon's ' Antiquities gives Cromwell amongst names extinct in Boston.' of Surrey.' The latter says :

C. C. B.

" It need not raise any man's wonder for what use it MARRIAGE ONLY ALLOWED AT CERTAIN TIMES to be seen; as well as very large spits, which were given

was, there having been many in England, till very lately, OF THE YEAR (7th S. vii. 6).—In the Roman for the entertainment of the parish at the wedding of Catholic Church in England “the solemn celebra- poor maids." tion of marriages is rbidden from Ash Wednesday

W. R. TATE. till after Low Sunday, and from the first Sunday

Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. in Advent till the day after the Epiphany." See the Catholic Directory,' 1889, p. 7.

Count LUCANOR (7th S. vi. 199, 289, 353; vii. A ROMAN CATHOLIC.

55).-R. R. asks whether MR. TROLLOPE would be

surprised to hear that this version of the story which I do not know how far the Roman Catholic he remembers appeared in Bentley's Miscellany, Directory' was published, but in every annual issue 1839, under the title of 'The Patron King,' by Mrs. is the following notice :

Trollope. Yes! in truth, I had totally forgotten, “MARRIAGES.—The solemn celebration of marriages is as I said, where I had heard it. Of course my reforbidden from Ash Wednesday till after Low Sunday, collection of it came from the source indicated by and from the first Sunday in Advent till the day after the R. R. I had equally forgotten the fact that my Epiphany."

mother had ever written it. I have no idea where I have seen this rule versified, but I cannot re- she met with it. T. ADOLPHUS TROLLOPE. member where. E. WALFORD, M.A.

Budleigh Salterton. 7, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W.


-M. Madier de Montjau, speaking in the French -Mother Ludlam (Ludlum or Ludlow) was a Chamber on January 31 last, is reported to have white witch, who assisted her neighbours by lend- said with reference to the Boulangists that they ing them such culinary utensils and household

were conspiring for “the sort of Government that furniture as they wanted for particular occasions. existed when Napoleon ordered coins to be struck The business was thus transacted. The petitioner having on one side the words ' Republique Fran. went to her residence (a cave, popularly known as çaise, and on the other 'Napoleon, Emperor of Mother Ludlam's Hole) at midnight, turned three the French '" (Daily News, February 1, p. 6, col. i.). times round, and thrice repeated aloud “ Pray

Geo. L. APPERSON. Mother Ludlam lend me such a thing (naming the Wimbledon, utensil], and I will return it within three days." The following morning it would be found at the with

the republic, only followed the example of the

Napoleon the Great, in associating his empire entrance to the cave. which your correspondent inquires was borrowed Roman emperors, especially that of the first four after this fashion, but the borrower failed to return whilst they strove to do away with all the liberty

Cæsars, who endeavoured to keep up all the forms it within the stipulated time. Mother Ludlam, irritated at this want of punctuality, refused to

of the republic.

Julius STEGGALL. take it back at all, and from that day to this has

BURIAL OF A HORSE WITH ITS OWNER (7th S. discontinued her loans. The cauldron was deposited in Waverley Abbey, whence, at the dis- vi. 468; vii. 56). — Under this beading may persolution of the monasteries, it was removed to at Cork on January 10, 1888, for having poisoned

haps be mentioned the case of Dr. Cross, hanged Frengham Church.


his wife. This criminal was said to have left direcFaringdon, Berks.

tions for giving “his body to his hounds and his Anon. will find a full account of this vessel in soul to the devil.” The wish was not obeyed, Aubrey's 'History of Surrey,' vol. iii. pp. 366-7; at any rate in the former case. in Salmon's 'Surrey,' p. 139; in Manning and


STORIES CONCERNING CROMWELL (7th S. vii. establish the right of way through the park. He 26).—It may not be out of place to remind Anon. was successful. Died aged seventy-seven, and a that the same story is told respecting the Lord mezzotint portrait of him was published with his Offaly, one of the earliest ancestors of the ducal favourite expression as inscription, “ He was un, house of Leinster, who was saved by an ape when willing to leave the world worse than he found the castle of his parents was in flames. Hence it.”

W. S. B. the Fitzgeralds to this day bear a monkey for their crest and two apes for their supporters. See

In default of getting nearer to the origin

of this Barke's 'Peerage,' s.v. “ Leinster.”

saying, will the following, from Gulliver's Voyage E. WALFORD, M.A.

to Brobdingnag,' part ii. chap. vi., point in any 7, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W.

way to it ?

“ And he gave it for his opinion, that whoever could MILL'S 'Logic' (76 S. vii. 9).—The outcome make two ears of corn, or two blades of grass, to grow of the intention, expressed in the late Prof. would deserve better of mankind, and do more essential Jevons's 'Principles of Science' was three articles service to his country, than the whole race of politicians which appeared in the Contemporary Review of put together.” dates December, 1877, April, 1878, November,

R. W. HACKWOOD. 1879. They were never published separately. Dr. Johnson, in bis Life of Pope? ("Lives of For some of the impression made by them on the most Eminent English Poets," vol. iv. p. 189, students of philosophy see Mind, vol. iii., 1878. London, 1781), says:-“ Perhaps neither Pope


nor Boileau has made the world much better than LIQUID GAS (7th S. vi. 448; vii. 37).—What he found it."

W. R. TATE. Me. STEGGALL describes as liquid gas is probably

Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. what was known in London about 1824-7 as WORDSWORTH'S ODE TO THE CUCKOO(7th S. portable gas, manufactured by the Portable Gas vii. 67).— I cannot see the difficulty in translation Co. The coal gas companies had for competitors which is mentioned. Vox is certainly applicable, this company and the oil gas companies. The for when the Lacedæmonian plucked the nightinportable gas was, as he states, sent out in iron gale, on seeing so little substance, he cried out,

pová cylinders with hemispherical heads, and were re- τυ τις εσσι και ουδεν άλλο, “Vox tu es et nihil placed when empty. In fact, gas was served to præterea” (Plat., 'Opp. Mor., “Lacon. Apophth.," the houses like milk. I do not remember the Xylandr., fol, p. 233A). The epithet vaga, or special contrivance for lighting. It was a very errabunda, or errans, when one thinks of the simple matter. At one end was a short tube, various applications of them in the best writers, with a cock and burner. The portable gas was may very well go with it.

“Errabunda yox” has ased mostly by small shopkeepers, and the almost a parallel in the "errabunda bovis vestigia” cylinder being put on end under the counter, the of Vergil, ' Vaga seems to suit almost barner was pulled through a hole in the counter anything. So there is also vagans, or erratica, or and lighted. The arrangement was therefore very fugitiva, as for either metre :simple, and it dispensed with gas fittings, then

Alme nascentis peregrine verie, very costly and frequently very bad. It was diffi.

Lætor audito sonitu, cucule, cult to get tubing which would make a bend, and

Aliger, vel si melius voceris,

Vox fugitiva. escapes were therefore common. Besides, the cylinder was its own meter. So far as I re

Or again : member, the collapse of the Portable Gas Co.

Cucule, avione, vel vocanda

Vox medio fugitiva cælo. and of the oil gas companies, which had not been Quite literally, to keep to the two words. bought up by the coal gas companies, was due to what was considered an unexpected and wonderful taken for the cuckoo without the context to ex

In English the "wandering voice” would not be revolution. The price of coal gas per thousand

plain it.

ED. MARSHALL. feet fell from 28s. to 218., a price with which it was thought impossible to compete. After the Though not in Augustan Latin, some approximadeath of portable gas, and its atter extinction, it tion to a rendering is found in post-Augustan is now to be seen employed for railway carriage Greek, as Plutarch, in his 'Apophthegmata Lalighting, besides the purposes_named by your conica, preserves a saying, which perhaps may correspondents.

HYDE CLARKE. have suggested to our English poet his phrase of

the “ wandering voice.”. Among the anonymous * TO LEAVE THE WORLD BETTER THAN YOU sayings, No. xiii, is as follows : pilas tis åndóva, FOUND IT (7th S. vii. 28).-See “Greater Lon- και βραχείαν πάνυ σάρκα ευρών, είπε, Φωνά τυ don,' p. 132. Timothy Bennet, shoemaker, of is cool, kai oớdèv äldo. “ Laco cum plumis Hampton Wick, entered an action against Lord lusciniam nudasset, ac parum admodum carnis Halifax, the then Ranger of Busby Park, to re- reperiret, dixit, 'Vox tu es, et nihil præterea

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