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LONDON, SATURDAY, MARCH 2, 1889.
of musical notation, the neums (neumce or neu
mata*), used in these MSS., having some resemCONTENTS.-No 166.
blance in form to the Tironian notes, and written NOTES :- Antiphonaries of Metz and St. Gall, 161– Telegram, without a stave, could at all serve the purpose 162-The St. Ediths in the Western Calendar, 163-Fashion
in view, except as a mere aid, subordinate and able Words in 1763, 164-Yahoo-Epitaph-Selling Wives in England A Sporting Bet-The French Church of Lisburn, supplemental to the recollection of traditional 165-Dr. Fell-Great Judges—The Orthodox Direction for Building Churches—Prize Money-Scotch Burgh Records, 166.
billotte, to whose work I shall have occasion to QUERIES:-Lockwood Family-A Sbakspeare Lease, 167 —
refer again, says, p. 193:Wordsworth's Ode on Intimations of Immortality'- " The neumic notation had hardly anything in common, • Banker out the wits" -G. N. Vincent-The Oxen of as regards musical value, with ours. In the latter thé Iphicles-Lady Hill-T. Gilliland-Maxims in Coke-Poetry
mere inspection of a note tells us the precise tone corre-Price, 168- The Sceptical Chymist'-Berkeley-Sir R.
sponding to it, and we need no external help to show Cave-Chromo, 169.
whether we are to sound do or re or any other note. REPLIES :-John Banyan, 169-Last Believer in the Phoenix, Such, however, was neither the effect nor the aim of the 170_Visitations of Norwich-Arms Wanted-Highering
neums. These only indicated: 1. How many sounds each Col. Whitelocke-Schoolgirl's Epitaph, 171-Yorkshire Ex
sign represented; 2. Whether the order of those sounds pressions-Quotation from Dante-Definition of a Proverb - Biography-Rev. J. Hackman-Fotheringbay Castle, 172
was ascending, descending, or unisonant; 3. What was - Book Illustrating -- Vase, 173 - Burchett - Chymer the value of the signs in relation to the mode to which ** Gofer" Bells-Rev. W. Anderson O'Conor, 174-Heraldry. the piece of music belonged. Consequently this value, 175-The Nimbus-Sir J. Friend-Howe Family, 176- Book which may be called numerical value and approximale Maslin-Capt. Marryat " Dolce far niente" - Villon
tonal value, is all that we can expect from the neums. Aldermen of London--History of the Court of Charles II.
This is attested by the language of all ancient writers on Chapman's 'All Fools,' 177—Rose, Thistle, and Shamrock** The one” and “the other”– Burton – Betham - Long
this point. It was impossiblo to learn singing without Perpe Court-" There's a difference I ween"-Sir A. Hart, the help of a master; an air was not read, but learnt by 178–Authors Wanted, 179.
heart." NOTES ON BOOKS :-Young's Dramas of Sophocles'
I regard the antiphonary volumes in the present Way's · Homer's Iliad.' Vol. II.-Ebsworth's Roxburghe
ers Ballads'--Cartwright's 'Pococke's Travels,' Vol. II.-Holt's
and their pupils, rather than as a direct gift to the "Out in the '45' and 'The King's Daughter.'
emperor. Notices to Correspondents, &c.
Of the two manuscripts thus started on their way
to Metz one was arrested in its progress by the illPotes.
ness of Romanus, who sought and found needful
hospitality and nursing in the monastery of St. ANTIPHONARIES OF METZ AND OF ST. GALL. Gall. In compliance with a subsequent order from
I beg permission to reply under this heading to Charlemagne Romanus settled in that community the query 'Pope Adrian I. and Charlemagne' (76b as a teacher of the Gregorian chant; and appaS. vii. 47).
rently there is much reason to believe that his It seems to have been men, rather than books, Antiphonary has remained in the possession of that Charlemagne asked for, and Adrian sent, to the abbey during the eleven centuries that have revive the genuine Gregorian chant among the since elapsed. Franks. A monk of St. Gall in the eleventh Forty years ago the MS. believed to be that century, Ekkehard IV., otherwise named Ekke- of Romanus was—and presumably it still ishardus Minimus, records the circumstance in his No. 359 in the catalogue of the MSS. in the chronicle called 'Casus [i.e., de Casibus] Sancti abbey library. It bears the title, “AntiphoGalli,' cap. iii., as follows:
narium B. Gregorii M."; and, in a second but “Karolus Imperator cognomine Magnus......rogat ancient hand, the following addition :Papam ......ut iterum mittat Romanos cantuum gnaros “Liber pretiosus, item Graduale, et absque dubio illud in Franciam, Mittuntur secundum regis peticionem ipsum Antiphonarium S. Gregorii Magni quod cantor Petrus et Romanus,* et cantuum et septem liberalium Romanus ab autographo Romano descripsit et, a Papa in artium paginis admodum imbuti, Metensem ecclesiam, Germaniam missus, in theca secum ad Sanctum Gallum ut priores ( i. l., as those formerly sent], adituri,” attulit.” As a matter of course the envoys took with them This long-hidden, or by the outside world long-forthe necessary teaching “apparatus,” in the form of gotten, MS. was brought into notice about the year transcripts from the Antiphonarium of St. Gregory 1827 by Herr Sonnleitner, a member of a musical the Great, which, we are told, was at that time society at Vienna, who made a journey to the (say, A.D. 790) carefully preserved at Rome as a library of St. Gall in search of it. The Emperor standard for reference.
of Austria is stated to have caused a facsimile It is questioned, indeed, whether the system from the Antiphonary to be made about the
• Martigny (Dict. des Antiq. Chrét.,' 8.0. “ Chant | * Neuma= Notæ quas musicales dicimus" (Ducange, Ecclésiastique"') calls them Theodore and Benedict, appa- 3.0." Pneuma "), a meaning distinct from that of the rently on the authority of Joannes Diaconus, a Neapoli- | Pneuma treated of in Smith and Cheetham's invaluable tan chronicler in the tenth century.
• Dict. of Christian Antiquities.'
same date for the Vienna Library. The learned for a time, made a feeble effort to defend him, editor of the 'Monumenta Germaniæ agrees and then gave him up to the mad fury of the sister with Sonnleitner and others in pronouncing this university, and bowed to the Cambridge idol teleMS. to be the identical Antiphonary brought to grapheme. The Times newspaper was crowded with St. Gall by Romanus, as is clear," he says, letters on the controversy. So many and so fierce " from many indications” !" ut ex multis indiciis were these letters, that at length the proprietor of patet”). A volume containing the story and de- the Times came down with his bâton, and would scription of the MS., an account of the external have no more of it. Just previously I had got one and internal evidence of its identity with that short letter in the Times offering a new theory, brought by Romanus, and a facsimile (unfortu- which Walford, the Oxford champion, adopted, nately not photographic) of the whole of its 132 and 80 renewed'the battle in favour of poor telepages, with dissertations by Père Lambillotte, S.J., gram. The controversy was carried on in other was published at Brussels in 1867.
papers, and in letters published in the shape of a Father Lambillotte, an enthusiast for the revival pamphlet, now out of print, of which I have only of the true Gregorian chant, after examining, with one imperfect copy-A. O. on bebalf_of telegram, that object in view, many ancient MSS. in Bel- H. doing battle for telegrapheme. The former is gium, France, England, and several parts of Ger- the writer of this note; the latter the then Greek many, paid a visit in 1848 to both Metz and St. professor, William Hepworth Thompson, afterwards Gall.of the former he says only:
successor to Dr. Whewell in the mastership of “I knew that this city had formerly possessed precious Trinity College, Cambridge, of which college I also liturgical documents and renowned Chant-Schools; I had the honour of being a scholar and first hoped that time might possibly have still left it some classman. My first point was to show that on the grief, I found that the revolutionary storm had robbed adverbial theory telegram could stand and maintain it of them all."
his position, thus, o mndéypapuos, ov, just like o From Metz early in September, 1848, F. Lambil- evypajpos
, ov," that which is far off delineated," lotte proceeded to St. Gall; and, the two canons
a very good and appropriate sense. Not so with in charge of the library being absent on their vaca
regard to his rival telegrapheme. An adjectival tion, succeeded, by the intervention of the landam- form andeypáonuos, ov, would have been too great mann of the canton, in obtaining access to the a grammatical monstrosity to be proposed, so his Antiphonary. The ultimate result was a facsimile supporters set him up as a noun substantive made in that and the following year by a M. (Tyleypáona), and they quoted as parallel inNaef, the fidelity of which to the ancient MS.,
stances σκιαγράφημα, δελτογράφημα, ζωγρά“especially as regards the musical notation," was, nua, &c. But all these differ toto ccelo. They after a careful collation, attested in a certificate are compounds of nouns with nouns, not of a noun signed by the dean, director of the library, and with an adverb. Fancy such forms as evypáonua by the librarian.
or 8voypádnua. O shades of old grammarians ! One cannot but wish that a facsimile, by one what would you say to such atrocities? No; teleor other of the processes of recent invention grapheme is a grammatical impossibility. On my based upon photography, could be made from the setting this before one of the most eminent of original. Such a reproduction of even an isolated Greek professors he fully admitted, as bad done page or two would furnish a means of measuring his predecessor in the Greek professorial chair, the accuracy and merit of the one edited by that telegrapheme is a barbarism, an impossible Lambillotte, and help to a sound palæographical term.
But another question arose-indeed, it had judgment of the age of the St. Gall manuscript. been present to my mind from the first-viz., how
The abbey of St. Gall was secularized after the to justify the venerated forms “the telegraph” French Revolution. Its church is now the cathe- and “to telegraph,” which had been in vogue fifty dral of the diocese of St. Gall and Appenzel, while (or nearer a hundred) years previously-through all the library has, I understand, passed into the Porson's time, certainly. They could not standhands of the Municipality, and is under the though Dr. Donaldson and others attempted to management of a commission.
place them on the adverbial theory—any more than John W. Bone, F.S.A. ευγραφή, εύγράφος, ευγραφέω, &c. Let the pre
positional theory be admitted-viz., that time,
like πρόσθε, όπισθε, and several other such forms, TELEGRAM.
is used as a preposition--and all is right; "the Among your researches, critical, historical, anti- telegraph” (Indeypaon), "to telegraph” (ondequarian, &c., will you deign to give space for a ypádelv), "a telegram" (Tylypappa). Confer note on telegram! Telegram made his first appearémypadý, écypábelv, énypajua. The word ance in the autumn of 1857. There was an awful râde governs a case, is prefixed before nouns, and ado at his birth. Cambridge rose as one man to in many of its compounds, as it seems to me, has stifle, kill, and exterminate him. Oxford hung fire the force and discharges the duty of a preposi
tion. On either theory telegram is safe ; on either Wiltoniæ pontifice Ethelwaldo......merito videret." theory telegrapheme is an impossibility. We have On the evening (not the vigil) of St. Edith's Day previously shown that it is so on the adverbial, it vespers of St. Edith herself were sung, and a com. is equally so on the prepositional. Fancy such a memoration (mentio) made of St. Lambert, B. and form as ĉniypáonua. "The very thought might M., whose feast falls next day (September 17). arouse old grammarians from death's deepest For some reason, while St. Lambert has been reslumbers. How I pity poor schoolboys, who still, tained in the present Anglican calendar, St. Edith I fear, have to learn in Farrar's 'Greek Syntax' has been omitted-in fact, both the St. Ediths are the grammatical false bood that telegram is a mon- absent from it. strous barbarism, but that telegrapheme is a correct There are about
eighteen columns of print in the form!
'Acta SS.' about St. Edith of Wilton. The Bol. During the contest in 1857 I had occasion to landists expressly state that there were a number look into an English grammar. Therein I read, of St. Ediths, and therefore Mr. Hawker's error is “Now lettest Thou Thy servant," with the remark most excusable. added, “Observe the force of the imperative St. Edith of Wilton. The ancient town and mood.” I dare say that same English grammar is borough of Wilton, near Salisbury-where_the still on the list of books recommended by educa- magnificent basilica built by the late Sidney Hertional authorities for elementary schools. “O dura bert, first Baron Herbert of Lea, now standsmessorum ilia !” No; the garlick was nothing derives its name from the little river Willey (comcompared with such grammatical garbage prepared pare Williton in Somersetshire), at the confluence for the young. "O dura puerorum ilia" indeed, of which with the Nadder the town is built
. It if they can swallow the same without utter de- formerly returned two members to Parliament. struction to their mental digestion ! A. C. Ellandunum is mentioned as its earlier nameP.S.—The battle of the grams and graphemes, as
e. g., there was a Weolstan, Earl of Ellandunum. witnessed by Tiresias, may follow, if permitted, in While St. Edward the Confessor was building the another note.
church collegiate of St. Peter of Westminster, on Thorney Island, in midstream of the Thames
marshes, his wife Edith was building a stone THE VARIOUS ST. EDITHS IN THE WESTERN church at Wilton in lieu of the wooden one where CALENDAR
she herself and other noble young ladies had been The chief authorities that I can find on the saints educated. Vide the charter of Edgar of A.D. 974, named Edith in the Western Church are :-Porti- and the 'Vita S. Edwardi Confessoris':forium ad usum Ecclesiæ Sarisburiensis,' i. e., the “ Dum S. Edwardus monasterii B. Petri Westmonast. Sarum Breviary; the Bollandist . Acta Sanctorum,' molitur, Editha ejus uxor Wiltoniæ, ubi educata fuit die XVI' Sept., tom.v. (folio), Antverpiæ, MDCCLV., regio opero lapideum monasterium pro lignea ecclesia
inchoavit." pp. 364-72; Memoirs of late Rev. H. S. Hawker, by Mr. Baring-Gould, which books I have con Dr. Todd, of T.C.D., mentions in his valuable sulted ; and also another book, by a German work on St. Patrick that primitive Christian scholar, which is contained in one of the catalogues churches in Ireland were built of wood, or even of issued by Messrs. Parker, the eminent publishers mud and clay. St. Edith of Wilton was daughter at Oxford and London, "S. Editha, sive chronicon of St. Edgar the King, by Wilfrida, bis wife. Vilodunense im Wiltshire Dialekt, aus MSS., Cot- In one chronicle the saint's name is misspelt tod., Faustina B. III., herausg. v. Horstmann.” "Oditha." Wilfrida's name is spelt “Walftrudis"
The late Mr. Hawker, of Morwenstow, in Corn- in the Life of St. Edith,' Ex. MS., Rubræ wall, was a man of whom, as a kind and generous Vallis. She died a virgin and abbess of Wilton, friend (and many are now living who bless his and was buried in the church of St. Dionysius or Dame), as a sacred poet of a high order, as an Denys. Her“ depositio” is said to have occurred eloquent preacher and a profound believer in the on September 16, A.D. 974. Here I may be par: Christian mysteries, I would always speak with doned by your learned readers for poting that, as high respect; but he was a little visionary and Dr. Todd has shown, in medieval church Latin erratic in the historical region, and, as Mr. Baring- depositio is an ambiguous term, and sometimes Gould candidly states, he fell into a very pardon ="burial,” and sometimes = "the putting off of able blunder by confusing two distinct St. Ediths the flesh," i. e., the day not of interment, but of -i.l., St. Edith of Wilton, near Salisbury, and physical death. Anyhow, it was the day either of her aunt, St. Edith of Polesworth, in Warwick St. Edith's death or of her obsequies. She was sbire. They were both nuns, and presided over laid in the church which she herself had founded, their respective houses. The Sarum Portiforium, and her popular cultus rapidly spread. There is a Sept. 16, “Edithæ Virginis Fest.," has a collect well of St. Edith at Church Eaton, in Staffordshire, which I do not here give, as your space is valuable, which was a place of pilgrimage, and believed, like and also various "lections," " Interveniente sancto the “Holywells” in Wales, London, &c., and the