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the surname Byrktwysyll, and also Byrkbye and teeth with it; but lett none goe into your Mouth for it Byrkheade. I also notice the surname Twissilton. is terrible jll tasted, but of no Danger at all if any goe Byrkbie is “ birch-town," and Byrkheade is “ birch, but it is not good to be vsed but now and then."

downe the throate: it will make the teeth pure white ; hill ”; but what is Birch-twizzel or Twizzel-town? I have not yet seen any satisfactory explanation of These “ dentifrices.” are to be applied with rag or this word.


with the finger to the teeth. Sheffield,

From 'A General Practise of Phisicke,' pub

lished by Thomas Adams, 1617, fol., I extract a Mother LUDLAM'S CAULDRON.-In vol. iv. of receipt which proves very conclusively that the Mr. Stallybrass's excellent translation of Grimm's tooth-brush was not in common use at that date: * Teutonic Mythology,'p. 1304, mention is made

To make and to keepe the teeth cleane. of “Mother Ludlam's cauldron, now in Frensham "Take two drag. of Date stones, red Corall prepared Church.” The passage is in brackets, so may be three drag. Lupine, and the rootes of the yellow Floweran addition of the translator's. Where can I see deluce, of each three drag. beate all that is to be beaten any account of this vessel ?


and afterwards make a confection of it with clarified

hony which must be so hard that you may make small Rev. DR. THOMPSON, OF KENSINGTON. (See

placents or trocisces of it; dry them in the shadow: when 6th Ş. x. 496 ; xi. 80.) –Was above head master you will vse them, then dissolue one of them in wine or

vineger, and wash the teeth therewith euery morning of Kensington Grammar School (in or about the when thou has first rubbed them well with a cloth." year 1786), or had he a private school ?

All this writer's directions for managing the C. S. K.

teeth insist upon scrupulous cleanliness, which is COACHING Prints. - I have recently picked up to be attained by" washing,” by“ rubbing with a a series of coaching and sporting prints, mounted coarse cloth,” and by rubbing them “last of all on a roller, and shall be glad if you or any of your with a peece of Scarlet dipped in Hony." The readers can give me information respecting them. final direction runs thus :The seller said the artist was Halkyn, but I have “The teeth also are alwayes to be kept cleane and no further evidence beyond the fact that they bear pure, and not to picke them with an iron, but with a a great resemblance to his other productions. The toothpicker made of Lentiscus, which is the tree whereof imprint runs as follows: “ London, published for droppeth Mastick, which is much commended for the

teeth: remember also to wash the teeth after euery the proprietor by S. & I. Fuller, Temple of Fancy, moale." 34, Rathbone Place, 1822." C. P. PEAK.

Many other seventeenth-century books might be Josiah BURCHELL.-Can any reader of ' N. & quoted from, for the same purpose, down to Mistress Q.' give me information respecting the parentage

Hannah Woolley, who told her pupils in "1682 of Josiah Burchell, who for fifty years held the

that office of Secretary to the Admiralty and for forty them every morning with water and salt...... You may, if

"you ought to keep your teeth very clean by rubbing years represented Sandwich in Parliament? One you please, try Mr. Turner's Dentrifrices, which are every of his daughters married Admiral Sir Charles where much cried up.” Hardy, Knt. Any information respecting his "The Toilet of Flora......for the Use of the Ladies,' ancestors will be valued. J. FARLEY ROTTER,

London, 1784, gives a receipt for making Mero, Wilts,

A Coral Stick for the Teeth.

"Make a stiff Paste with Tooth Powder and a sufficient Replies.

quantity of Mucilage of Gum Tragacanth: form with

this Paste, little cylindrical Rollers, the thickness of a TOOTH-BRUSHES.

large goose-quill, and about three inches in length. Dry (7th S. vi. 247, 292, 354.)

them in the shade. The method of using this stick is to I have a very curious MS. collection of receipts, tion as it wastes."

rub it against the teeth which become cleaner in proporcommenced circa 1623, and once in the possession of Elizabeth, Lady Morton, who presented it in preparation of certain roots that are used to clean

Directions are also given in this work for the 1679 "to her Deare Brother William Finch at the teeth.” Lucerne and liquorice roots are Lincolnshire." It contains several fied. They are to be boiled and cut into pieces of tooth-powders; but no mention whatever is made six inches long. Each end of the root is then

to of brushes wherewith to apply them to the teeth. be slit with a penknife into the form of a little The following are samples :

brush," and they are to be slowly dried, to prevent “ Dr. Myrons Dentryfris or powder for the teeth to their splitting. keepe them wbit:** Burno a peece of Corke till it looke like a Coale, then

“ They are used in the following manner. One of the take it out of the Fyre and it will fall to ashes where with ends is moistened with a little water, dipped into the rub your teeth.”

Tooth-Powder, and then rubbed against the teeth till "ge Joslin Perceis,to make cleane the teeth where If stronger measures are needed (for the removal

they look white." soever they bee Black or foule :

“Dip a little Rag in Oyle of Sulphere and rub your of tartar, for instance),

occur :

for "

“the best instrument is a small piece of wood like a ago bearing on the notes of Prof. BUTLER and butcher's skewer rendered soft at the end. It is gener- MR. WARD:ally to be used alone; only once in a fortnight dip it into a few grains of gunpowder, which has previously been “It was a favourite saying with a crabbed old Greek bruised."

that A Great Book is a Great Evil. He said this be

fore the grand invention of printing, when the making Otherwise,

and reading of books, if not a great evil, was certainly & "take a large skewer, on the end of which is tied a piece great trouble......Now all these great books are very of linen rag, dip the rag in the medicine and rub the teeth curious, many of them very useful, and some of them inand gums with it.”

valuable, yet they are very seldom opened by any man It is possible that these prepared roots, slit nowadays, except to be dusted, although their names are “into the form of a little brush," may be the con- work, to the spirit of which they may perhaps be altonecting link between the tooth-stick (the use of gether opposed. This neglect is partly owing to the cirwhich seems to be general among savages) and the cumstance that these books can rarely be met with out modern tooth-brush.

ALFRED WALLIS. of public libraries, where a man cannot sit down comfort

ably to read them; partly to their occasional perplexity In a manuscript volume of the private accounts of thought and uncouth manner of speech; and partly of Francis Sitwell, of Renishaw, from August 20, also to their size—to their being such very great books, 1728, to March 2, 1748, the following entries which makes it a work of months (sometimes of years)

to get quite through some of them. Nevertheless they

were not without their effect on the world. Many of 1729, Sept. 6. “Disbursed at London (among many the important truths which they contain have been pre other items) a silver tooth-stick 8d."

served and illustrated in later writings more portable in 1729, Oct. 9. “Disbursed at London (among various form and easy of digestion.” items) a tooth Brush 4d."

R. W. HACKWOOD. This entry is only ten years later than the entry NAMES IN THE DE Banco ROLL (7th S. vi. 327). I gave relating to tooth-powder at p. 292, and dis- -The following memoranda may afford some little tinctly shows that tooth-brushes are not of recent aid towards unravelling the meaning of the words introduction. In the same volume I find :

quoted. Oct. 31. Gassein powder 28.”

Orsmythyburn. Or is the A.-S. word for ore, Whether this is tooth-powder is uncertain. On unwrought metal. Smyth, from smitan, originJune 24 in the same year F. Sitwell pays 38. 6d. ally signified any artificer who used the hammer:

a Bottle for my teeth," which I cannot ex. isen-omið, an ironsmith; ora-smið, a coppersmith, plain. ALBERT HARTSHORNE.

a coiner. “Hu nys this se smið, Marian sunu ?”

“Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary ?” BIG Books BIG BORES (7th S. vi. 206, 391).-|(Matt. vi. 3.) Orsmythyburn, then, means the As an illustration of the Rev. W. E. BUCKLEY'S brook beside the smithy." note on the origin of large-paper copies, I may per

Oseleye points to osle, or ousel, a blackbird. haps be allowed to give particulars of two large- Osel-leye=the field of the blackbird. paper books in my collection :

Tonsclugh, the cliff or cleft near the ton, or 1. "H Kaivn Alaon«n, Novum Testamentum Græco-cluster of houses. Latinum, interprete Erasmo Roterodamo...... Editio Kahirst or Keyhirst. Hirst is a wood or planNova, Lato Margine, Notis Philologico - Theologicis tation ; A.-S. cu, Scottish ky, a cow. Kahirst Annectendis Accommodatissima et Utilissima. vultu nondum hactenus visa...... Fo., Gissæ Hassorum, the cattle were driven.

Tali seems to indicate a small plantation into which UDC.LXIX." The text measures 6 in. by 4 in.; the paper enclosed from the waste.

Croke tak. A tak, or intake, was a plot of land

Croke probably refers measures 14* in. by 9% in. Many of these to its crooked shape. enormous margins have been utilized in the way

Redistrother seems to imply a locality strewn intended.

or overgrown with reeds. 2. “Les Tenures de Monsieur Littleton. London, Im Cuphaughford. MR. PERCEVAL is probably printed for the Companie of Stationers, 1612.”

correct in his explanation of this and of Shelyngley The text measures 4* in. by l} in.; the paper Belyley and Bellion seem to me to be corrupmeasures 87 in. by 64 in. A great many of the tions from Belling or Billing, the name of an margins are covered with interesting early and late Anglian or Anglo-Saxon tribe who have comseventeenth-century explanatory notes.

memorated themselves in place-names in many J. ELIOT HODGKIN. parts of England.

J. A. Picton. Richmond, Surrey.

Sandyknowe, Wavertree. Taking up by chance the first number of one of MR. PERCEVAL may find of service to his query, the first illustrated periodicals (the Saturday Maga- so far as anent “The Redistrother," a note of some zine for July, 1832), the opening words of the in- searches of mine into the meaning of the word troduction bave just caught my eye. They may struther, used both by itself and as a compound be worth recording as the voice of half a century in place-names. It is evidently a descriptive

term, but I have not found it in any glossary or Pounds (7th S. vi. 408).—There is a pound at dictionary.

Sandford St. Martin, enclosed to prevent its beSeveral places in Scotland have the word as coming a nuisance. MR. VIDLER gives no credit part of their name. In England also it seems not to the enclosure Acts, which, by the abolition of the unknown. Chaucer's merry clerks in the ‘Reve's common field system, have helped to make the imTale' were natives of “Strother":

pounding of cattle almost thing of the past, nor John highte that on, and Alein highte that other,

to the establishment of the rural police, who clear Of o toun were they born, that highte Strother. the roads of straying cattle by bringing the owners

· Canterbury Tales,' ll. 4011-2. who leave them unguarded before the magistrates. This town, the Reve goes on to say, was

Poundbreach is an offence by statute 6 & 7 Vict., Fer in the North, I cannot tellen where. c. 30. I think that disused pounds lapse to the Neither could Tyrwhitt. I suspect it was in lord of the mapor, upon whom there was an obligaNorthumberland or Durbam, where, at any rate, a tion to supply them.

ED. MARSHALL. family bearing that surname was of great conse There is a pound at Madresfield, near Malvern. quence in the fourteenth century. A writ relative It is made of posts and rails, not at all unlike the to the former county in 1318 names, " William picture in ‘Pickwick,' and has been repaired within atte Strober.” In 1329 “ William del Strothir” | the last twelve months. There used to be one was one of a Newcastle jury. In 1355 “ William near Rose Cottage at Newland, near Hall, but it de Strotbre" was mayor of Newcastle, and “Henry was a brick enclosure, and has disappeared before del Strother” was sheriff of Northumberland in railways and villas, I believe.

W. C. B. 1359. (See Bain's ‘Calendar,' vol. iii. Nos. 613, 992, 1586, and vol. iv. No. 35.). There is a place

There is a pound in the Garston Old Road, on the border of Northumberland and Durham, Grassendale, near Liverpool, in which I have once seven or eight miles out of Newcastle and half as or twice seen an unfortunate animal. far from Ebchester, marked “Strother Hills" on a

J. F. MANSERGH. recent map by Bartholomew. Maybe the Reve's

Liverpool. town of Strother is not far off. Let some North Will Mr. Vidler bo good enough to say why umbrian say, and so solve a minor Chaucerian he ventures to attack a class of gentlemen who problem.

have not, on the whole, deserved ill of their At Lochmaben, close by the Barras, or tilting-country, by averring that it is due to the "greed ground, there is a swampy tract once known as the of the landlords” that village pounds have been in Struther (* New Statistical Account of Dumfries many cases “swept away," as he poetically states ? shire,' p. 393). A charter in 1486, recorded in Latin Such abuse is cheap. Would a pound, when no in the Register of the Great Seal' (vol, ü, No. 1650), longer of service in its original function, revert to refers to it as a marsh (marresia) commonly called the manor in which it was situated, and where it “ a strudire." In Stirling's Library here there is a only existed as a source of expense to the locality? seventeenth-century MS. volume of historical col. If it would so revert, why should it not do so, lections, now ascertained to be the work of Lord being, as I suppose it was, dedicated of yore by Fountainball. Its contents embrace a “perfect the lord of the manor to a single public function, inventar of pious donationes.” This “perfect in- and not surrendered for any and every use ? If its ventar " notes the foregoing charter, describing the dedication was restricted, would not Mr. VIDLER subjects it conveys as ane aiker of Land wi the prefer to thank the lord and his forerunners for marishe com'only called the Strudder." One day the use of the land during some centuries, or, at in September last, during a forty-mile walk from any rate, refrain from insulting a class ? I take it Glasgow to Lead hills, I passed a farm in Dalserf that the land a pound occupies is generally part of parish called the Struther, though an ancient in the public highway, and belongs to the local habitant near thereby told me that the Struthers authority having charge of that bighway. In that was the correct title. I went some little distance case it is no business of the lord to maintain it. out of my way to take in the physical geograpby

0. of the place. Behind the farmhouse lay, bemmed

* LORD Bateman' (7th S. vi. 428, 478). in by ridges, a longish, low-lying damp strip of E. F. S. will find the notes to the music of Lord land, no doubt the veritable original struther. Camden's 'Britannia' (Gibson, 1695, col. 928), MR. TROLLOPE, published not twenty-five years

Bateman’ in the square duodecimo mentioned by in describing Fifeshire, mentions the place there named "Struthers (so called from the abundance of ago, but in 1851, by David Bogue, Fleet Street, and Reeds that grow there)."

Mustapha Syried, Constantinople. Judging from Whether Camden's etymology be correct or not,

the price now asked, I should say this edition is

WM. GRAHAM F. Pigott.

very scarce. it is beyond doubt that a struther is a marsh, and it is probable that the Redistrother”

HAMPTON POYLE (7th S. v. 269, 349, 476 ; vi. the “reedy strather.”

Geo. NEILSON. 55).—Though having no wish to tread “upon the


thorny paths of philology,” as my friend A. J. M. Henry VIII. in recognition of the acceptable serstyles it on p. 384, yet Cicero tells us that those vices he had rendered to the Church of Rome by who spend the day in darting at a mark occasion | writing a volume against Luther in defence of parally hit it. In other words, sometimes a guess or dons, papacy, and the seven sacraments. haphazard shot is correct. It may be that Poyle is Later on Henry assumed by Act of Parliament derived from palus, a marsh, or a lake. There is the additional appellative of “Supreame head of Palus Mæotis, or the Sea of Azov (ý Maiôris deurń, the Church of England," which, together with that Æschylus, 'Prom. Vinc.,' 427). There are the of “ Defensor Fidei," were borne by his son Edplace-names Liverpool, and Poole in Dorsetshire. ward VI. From Hampton Poyle being situated in a very Queen Mary continued both these titles at first, damp part of Oxfordshire, and on the banks of the but afterwards omitted the former, retaining, howCherwell, this interpretation is rather favoured. ever, that of “Def. Fid.,” which has been a bereA. H. classes it amongst several other place-names ditary title from the time of Henry VIII. to the with Pylle, which is a small village in Somerset- present day.,

E. S. H. shire, near Shepton Mallet, on the ancient Roman Castle Semple, fosse way; and within a short distance of it is another village, Pilton, also on the Roman fosse

Under this head the following may be added, on way. To my mind there does not appear very

the authority of the O'Connell Correspondence' much resemblance. The Cherwell, leaving Hamp

(vol. ii. p. 128), edited by W. J. Fitzpatrick ton Poyle, flows into the Isis at Oxford, after pass

London, John Murray), to which work a correing Magdalen College :

spondent of ‘N. & Q. has referred (7th S. vi.

409):Fluminaque antiquos subterlabentia muros.

"Georg.,' ii, v. 157.

“Shiel was Master of the Mint when the omission of

the Defensatrix Fidei: Dei Gratia' from the Aorin John PICKFORD, M.A. occasioned much clamour. In Parliament he openly RADICAL REFORM (7th S. v. 228, 296; vi. 137, claimed all sectarian motive.”

accepted the responsibility of the omission, but dis275, 415).-For “at least seventy years back" at

FRED. WALCOTT. the penultimate reference I would venture to suggest the substitution of “sixty years back," for PROGRAMME (7th S. vi. 446).-I feel I am treadboth the first and second editions of “The Boy's ing on dangerous ground; but is not the mme in Own Book' were published by Vizetelly, Branston programme retained because we have derived that & Co. in 1828.

G. F. R. B. word more directly from the French than the other

compounds mentioned by L. L. K.? Whether or DEFENDER OF THE FAITH (7th S. vi. 328, 418). no, I fancy it would be better to retain it as it is, -I am inclined to think the title conferred on as that particular word is bisyllabic instead of triHenry VIII. by Pope Leo X. was the revival of an syllabic, as if altered we shall run the risk of having ancient one, that of Defender of the Church, altered it pronounced as I shall never forget hearing a high from its original form, but having the same significa- civic magnate pronounce it on the occasion of some tion. Whitlocke, in his notes on this interesting proceedings with which, years back, I had somesubject, says:

thing to do, and at which, there being no printed “We find antiently in the church, to be ordained cer.

ordo rerum, he continually bothered me at every tain advocates of causes, who were called Defenders of turn with “I say, Mr.—~, what's your prog'-răm?" the Church,' as appears by a canon of the council of Possibly, as there was a small“ feed " included in Carthage; and by the law of the Emperor Charles, who the arrangements, he was not in this instance so constituted defenders of the Churches, against the powers far out; but the word, coming thus, and in the of secular and rich men; and another law appointing defenders of the church and servants of God." **

| loudest of tones, into a mixed company from over The title of God's Vicar was given by Eleu

the usual lace scarf and official collar, sounded, to

say the least of it, queer. R. W. HACKWOOD. therius to Lucius, our first British king; and this is mentioned by several authors of our law-books The spelling program is not unknown in standard as a title proper for our kings, and frequently given literature. Carlyle, who, to be sure, was someto them,

times a law to himself in such matters, does not The title of Christ's Vicar was afterwards taken hesitate to use it. In his chapter on “Model by King Edgar in his charter to the monastery of Prisons” in 'Latter Day Pamphlets' there is an Winchester ; but to come nearer to our own time, easily found example. After calling upon the in a writ of King Richard II, to the sheriffs, the authorities to whitewash their scoundrel-populaold style rung: “Ecclesia, cujus nos Defensor sumus tion and to cleanse their gutters—“if not in the et esse volumnus."

name of God, ye brutish slatterns, then in the Pope Leo X. and his cardinals, by a golden bull name of Cholera and the Royal College of Surgeons” dated 1521, and still extant in the Vatican at Rome, -he sums up with the placid remark, “Well, here conferred the title of Defender of the Faith on sure is an Evangel of Freedom, and real Program

of a new Era.” Surely there can be no reason likely it is common enough, and perhaps in Jamiewhy this spelling should not become general. son, but I have not got him to refer to. I suppose,

THOMAS BAYNE. then, that wene is simply Hogg's spelling of wane; Helensburgh, N.B.

it is to be noticed that he makes it, throughout the

Kilmeny, rhyme with the ending -ane. The BIRMINGHAM MAGAZINE (6th S. x. 496). —Some word waik still requires explanation.

Maik, of account of the Monthly Intelligencer will be found


offers difficulty. in the Philatelic Record for February, 1886 (vol. viii. p. 23).

P. J. ANDERSON. DR. A. CROMBIE (7th S. vi. 389, 455).--My Waik : Wene: Maik (7th S. v. 148, 276; vi. to Dr. Alexander Crombie. As I am his eldest

attention has been directed to a query in reference 75). --The following may be worth noting. The fifth stanza of the ballad of 'Erlinton,' in Scott's formation I can. A full account of his life is given

grandson I think it right to give you the best in' Border Minstrelsy,' is as follows :

in the lately published 'Dictionary of National But in my bower there is a wake,

Biography,' vol. xiii., which I think will fully An at the wake there is a wane; But I'll come to the green-wood the morn,

answer the query. If you wish for any further inWbar blooms the brier, by mornin dawn.

formation I may perhaps supply it.

ALEX. CROMBIE. Scott explains the word wane as "a number of people"; thus, I suppose, understanding the stanza YORKSHIRE EXPRESSIONS : HORSE-GODFATHER to mean that “there is a watch set in my bower, (7th S. vi. 328, 397).—"A great horse-godmother of and at the watch many people are engaged.”. It a woman ” is an overy-day expression for a strapwas the reply given by the maiden to her true-love ping masculine female, such as would in French when he came tirling at the pin. This is possibly be designated as "une femme hommasse "; but I the meaning in this case, for when the father put never heard of a “horse godfather.” his daughter in the bigly bower,”

R. H. BUSK. he has warnd her sisters six,

It should be mentioned that Thackeray puts
An sae has he her brethren se'en,
Outher to watch her a' the night

horse-godmother, most appropriately, into Sir Pitt Or else to seek her morn an een.

Crawley's mouth :It offers no explanation, bowever, of the words in 'Gad-you've a pretty face, too. You ain't like that old

“How do, my dear? Come to see the old man, hay? Kilmeny,' even if the words wene and wane be at horse-godmother, your mother. Come and give old Pitt all akin, for Hogg speaks of Kilmeny falling asleep a kiss, like a good little gal.” — Vanity Fair,' vol. ii.


green wene." Considering the Ettrick chap. iv. Shepherd's familiarity with all these Border ballads

EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. and the similarity of words and metre between his Hastings. two lines and these from 'Erlinton,' it does not seem improbable that these latter may have been

BELGIAN BEER (7th S. vi. 284, 396).—Jackson, in his mind when he wrote the words we are dis- in his . History of Wood Engraving,' p. 557, gives cussing: Furthermore, I may point out that under 1764 as the date of the first edition of The Oxford the ballad 'Erlinton' Prof. Child (in his large edi- Sausage '; and states also that a later edition has tion of Popular Ballads,' now issuing, pt. i. p. 108) the name of T. Lister on the title-page. I have gives what he considers another version of it, and the 1772 edition, the preface of which states that in this the maiden's answer is :

the names of the compilers will never be known,

But yonder is a bonnie greenwud,

An in the greenwud there is a wauk,
An I'll be there an sune the morn, love,

Thomas Warton was the author of 'A Panegyric
It 's a' for my true love's sake.

on Oxford Ale,' commencingAlthough printed wauk the word is made to rhyme with sake. Hogg's words, we may remember, It was written in 1748, and published in 1750.

Balm of my cares, sweet solace of my toils. are : In yon greenwood there is a waik.

See Chalmers’s ‘English Poets, vol. xviii. pp. 122, 123.

G. F. R. B. I offer this contribution for what it is worth, seeing that nobody else offers anything.

CONFESSOR OF THE HOUSEHOLD (7th S. vi. 267, ALGERNON GISSING. 352).—MR. BUCKLEY favours me by writing to Broadway, Worcestershire.

state that Henry Fry, mentioned as Confessor to P.S.-Since writing the above I find that wane the Household in 1829, should be Henry Fly; does mean“ an abode, shelter," and is, therefore, also that he was of Brasenose, and is noticed equivalent to the Old English won. I have found with his offices in Foster's ' Alumni Oxon.,' vol. ii. the word in Dr. Gregor's glossary to The Court of p. 472, which form of spelling, as also agreeing Venus' (Scottish Text Society's edition). Very with that in the ‘Brasonose Calendar,' by Mr.

in the as

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