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learning is piety.” And this reference of the cross tion of which he had given his life. The Dissertations to the beginning of the first row of letters is borne and Discussions' contain: many pages which for calm

dignity are not surpassed in the language. out by Shakespeare's

Even the very shortest notice of Mill would be incomHe hearkens also after prophecies and dreams,

plete without something being said as to the essay on And from the cross-row pluck: the letter G. Liberty.' It is not our province to criticize a work

'Richard III.,' I. i. which raises so many unsolved political and theological E. L. G. should have written “N or M”; the in. issues. Whatever may be the amount of truth contained version of the order of the letters makes a differ- in that memorable volume, it has been of immense ser.

vice to society. It is a mistake to suppose that the value ence, either on the “nomen vel nomina" or the of a book is to be estimated by the amount of absolute “Nicholas or Mary” theory. The letters A S bave truth it contains. The Liberty' appeared at an oppor. a meaning to Christians which renders any far. tune timo. Vague cravings were expressing themselves fetched explanation unnecessary,

on all sides, sometimes in weak and incoherent verse, Edward H. MARSHALL, M.A.

more often in fierce oratorical invective; but no clear

statement had hitherto been given of what ideas were Hastings Corporation Reference Library.

covered by the word liberly when used as a political watchword. Mill did an immense service. A word that had heretofore been vague in his hands assumed a definite

meaning, from which it is not probable that it will ever Miscellaneous.

recede. It is not our place to support or to cavil at bis

conclusions, but we may remark, without fear of contraNOTES ON BOOKS, &c.

diction, that Mill's small volume gave clearness to a term The Life of John Stuart Mill. By W. L. Courtney. which had been hitherto vague in all the languages of (Scott.)

Europe. The speculations of Conservative thinkers, the It is difficult to say anything of Mr. Courtney's volume Papal encyclical Libertas, and the leading articles of the which shall not seem exaggerated. It is so very easy to Radical press throughout the world, have each one of give indiscriminate praise, and still easier to pick out them-unconsciously to their respective authors it may passages for censure. The truth is that Mr. Courtney well be—an accuracy of form about them which they has undertaken the impossible task of writing a short would never have attained to bad that memorable work memoir of Mill. It may be a question whether the pre- remained in manuscript locked in the writing.desk of its sent feverish desire for the biographies of men and author, women who have made themselves noteworthy or notorious is a healthy sign. We do not think that it is Historic Towns. Edited by E. A. Freeman and W. Hunt. so in many cases. As Sir Thomas Browne has said, “The -Carlisle. By M. Creighton, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., greater part must be content to be as though they had Dixie Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the Uninot been, to be found in the register of God, not in the versity of Cambridge. (Longmans & Co.) record of man ''; and there seems no adequate reason THERE are few cities in England which have been the wby, because a man has benefitted his country by a scenes of more interesting events than Carlisle. As the life of thought or action, the details of his private life Border city it has a distinctive character. Alone of all should become the property of what is called the “read the English towns it bears a purely British name. No ing public.” Mr. Courtney has discharged the duty he other town has been added to England since the Norman has undertaken with wise circumspection. It is the fault Conquest. Its history is a long and momentous one. of the public, not of the writer, that there is a call for Before the Roman invasion of Great Britain Caer facts and speculations on subjects with which the world Lywelydd was probably a place of some importance. has notbing whatsoever to do.

From the time it became the Lugubalia of the Romans John Stuart Mill was from early youth highly esteemed down to December, 1745, when Carlisle surrendered to by a narrow though highly cultivated circle. It was not the Duke of Cumberland and the cathedral was used as until after the publication of the Political Economy' a prison for the garrison, the Border city passed through that the outside world became aware that an intellect of many vicissitudes of fortune. The editors have been for. remarkable acuteness was devoting itself to the elucida tunate in securing the services of Prof. Creighton, than tion of some of those problems on which the future wel. whom few men are better qualified to write a bistory of fare of our race depends. It is far too soon for us to their native town. Though, as the professor remarks, estimate the position which he will ultimately hold in " a few coins, a few altars, and a few pieces of pottery the very small band of Englishmen who have added to are all that remain to tell us of Roman civilization in the our range of thought. Mill's position as a thinker is a Border town,” this was not the case in the beginning of matter on which controversy will not be stilled until the the last century; for Stukeley, writing in 1725, records latest survivors of his own generation have passed away; that “fragments of squared stones appear in every but his_rank as an expresser admits of no doubt what quarter of the city, and several square wells of Roman ever. Few men have ever lived who have been able to workmanship"; and adds that" at the present day whenexpress their thoughts or those of others so clearly. He ever an excavation is made articles of Roman make are is one of the very few men who it is safe to trust when turned up.” Even in 1854, while making the great sewer giving an account of the opinions of an adversary. When the workmen came upon the old wall three feet below moved by what be held to be a great wrong, Mill's lan- the surface of the ground, and Samian ware, coing, and guage rises to a white heat of passion, which may be bronze articles were discovered in considerable quancompared with some of the finest pieces of invective in tities. the language ; but except when moved by what seemed to him public injustice, as in the case of negro slavery

Book Prices Current. Vol. II. (Elliot Stock.) and the Jamaica insurrection, his language is almost Of all Mr. Stock's publications this is the best worthy always clear and limpid. As a man of letters he is per- of support. It does for London what, so far as we know, haps seen at bis best when writing on subjects which are is not done equally well for any European capital—supfar removed from the great circle of ideas to the elucida- plies a full and an indexed account of the pricos which

books have fetched by public auction. As the volumes 1678. The Great Plague of 1589, the siege of Hull, and increase in number they will constitute a precious boon the troubles of the Civil War all left their mark in the for the bibliographer, and the ordinary collector will see parish books. Marmaduke, still not an uncommon name them multiply on his shelves with a contentment not in the East Riding, occurs very frequently. It probably always displayed in the case of rapidly augmenting came in with Marmaduke, Lord of Tweng, who in the serials. Excellent as the book is, however, we desire | thirteenth century obtained certain manors in Holderimprovement in two respects; one easy, the other per- ness by his marriage with Lucy, coheiress of Peter de haps difficult. In the case of works of which there are Brus, with whom the older male line of the Bruces various editions, instead of, as now, bringing them became extinct. The name of Conan may have come in together, let the editor deal with the catalogues in the with Alan of Brittany or some of his followers. manner adopted by M. Willems in his bibliography of * Les Elzeviers.' We should then have, instead of Para. dise Lost,' followed by a lot of numbers-1445, 4407, 4642, 4782, &c.-have a list something like this : Par.

Aptices to Correspondents. Lost' (1668) 1445, (1669) 4642, (1827) 4782, and so We must call special attention to the following notices : forth. The number of foreign books given might also

On all communications must be written the name and with advantage be increased. So welcome is, however, address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but the work, we only hint at improvement, and speak with

as a guarantee of good faith. no intention of fault-finding.

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. The Story of the Nations.-Mediæval France, from To secure ingertion of communications correspondents the Reign of Hughes Capet to the Beginning of the | must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, Sixteenth century. By Gustave Masson. (Fisher or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the Unwin.)

signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to M. Masson, like many another man of letters, endea appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested voured to perform an impossible feat. To tell the his-to head the second communication Duplicate." tory of mediæval France in a volume of 350 pages ought EVERARD HOME COLEMAN.-("Arbour Day") See 7th never to have been attempted. Almost every year in S. iv. 85, 492,-“ Hark! the herald angels sing") Is the long national life of France is full of incident, and not the author of this Charles Wesley ? every force, every movement that has agitated Europe

ope W. D. PINK (“Col. Chester's MSS.").- These came requires treating of if we are to understand the complex civilization of the latter Middle Ages. Orthodoxy and | into the possession of Mr. Quaritch. heresy, the claims of the Popes and the independence E. S. (“God fulfils Himself in many ways '').- Mort of the old French monarchy, a dozen kinds of feudal d'Arthur,' 1. 241. systems, and the growth of towns, the inner life of each

R. M. SPENCE (" Crux").-Will appear. of which was different from the rest, these and a hun. dred other matters require dealing with in a history of

NOTICE. mediæval France. We do not doubt that M, Masson could Editorial Communications should be addressed to “The have done these things well. An English history of France Editor of Notes and Queries'"-Advertisements and on an extended scale is much wanted; but this volume, Business Letters to “The Publisher"-at the Office, 22, though it shows great powers of description and a clear | Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.C. insight into national growth, cannot be regarded as even We beg leave to state that we declino to return com. a stepping-stone to what we mean. It is a series of pic-munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and tures, most of them accurate and brilliant, of persons to this rule we can make no exception, and events in French history. As a book for amusement it ranks highly, but information so highly condensed and

Just ready, thin 8vo. clotb, price 28. scrappy is not of much value to the grave student. Some

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With Shakespeare Provincialisms in Use in Sussex. studded are, however, very good. We never read a better

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HENRY GRAY, 47, Leicester-square, London, W.O. given us, and the picture of Jeanne d'Arc is truthful and most touching. The chronological list of the French

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