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district. Then of the hundred, more or less, free
holders and leaseholders to be won over the chief CONTENTS.-No 183.
were bound to him by family ties or friendship, NOTES :-Drake, 501-Shakspeariana, 503–Prices of Jacobean and others were, fortunately, Plymouthians. He
Quartoes, 504_Dickens Coincidence-Bicentenary of Richardson-Jeremy Taylor-Whorwood Family-Quotes-Parmesan cheese-Lord Zevenberghes-Charles I, at Windsor, 505–Irish Ecclesiastical Appointments-Lilliput-Mortars - Othello' with MS. Notes-Chinelickums: Slick, 506
charter, had set Parliaments at defiance, and that Lincoln's Inn, 507.
their charter, involving an ancient royal revenue QUERIES:--Selina-Brief History of Birmingham'-Hersey
-Stone Coffing-Pale Ale-Fleet on the Serpentine, 507St. Paul's Deanery-Cemetery Guides - Burials in West
annulled to gratify Plymouth. Parliamentary minster Abbey-Marie Lachepsten-Lines on Music-Stag powers of the most stringent kind were indisMatch_“How much the wife is dearer than the bride." 508
pensable, and a private Act would be impotent; - Wishing-bone-Claypole-John Cholmley, M.P.-Soinswer - View of the Creation'-Paignton, 509.
therefore Hele decided to play off the safety of the
state, or the very national existence, against the REPLIES :-" Idol shepherd." 509-Gothic Inscription
Bytake-Aitken, 510 - Fluck - Rev. W. Palmer-Punning Motto-" Dogmatism” and “ Puppyism"-Crabbe's Tales,' 511-Darcy - Sir N. Wentworth's Bequest-Winter-Bedstaff, 512 - Boswell's Johnson'-Vase - Chapman's All
for powers to bring in the river Meavy, ostensibly Fools'-Herodotus, 513- Charles Owen - Marriage- The for the preservation of the haven of Plymouth,“ & Etonian,' 514 - Otherwise-Cromwell's Descendants-Cré.
matter moaste beneficiall to the Realme” (Act 27 billon-Erasmus Earle, 515 - Acrostic - Oxford Divinity Degrees-Walking Stationer-Heraldic-Mock Mayor, 516 Eliz.) and the supply of Her Majesty's Navy. The Gloves of Charles I.-Black Men as Heralds-Gray-Plurali town was to elect for burgesses Drake's personal zation -" Hark! the herald angels," 517 - St. Andrew's Church-Dorchester School-Medal-Monogram-Saying of
friends, C. Harris and Henry Bromley.* Lord Beaconsfield-Victualler-Bishop Ken, 518-Trial of After obtainining the Act the powers conferred Bishop King—“Arrant Scot"-Authors Wanted, 519.
on the Corporation were to be temporarily transNOTES ON BOOKS:-Bertran y Bros's “Rondallistica ' ferred to Drake by means of the customary com
Dictionary of Roman Coins '-' Annual Register'-Elvin's • Dictionary of Heraldry.'
positions before described, and it seems that this
was the very best method that could have been deNotices to Correspondents.
vised under the circumstances. Many years ago
my cousin, once Mayor of Plymouth, informed me Potes.
of the composition, and that Drake's gift was
doubted. I insisted on the strength of the people's SIR FRANCIS DRAKE AND THE PLYMOUTH tradition, and he was struck by the absurdity of LEAT,
the idea that Plymouth, a town far from wealthy, (Concluded from p. 443.)
should have volunteered to undertake the state's Thomas, the youngest brother and heir of Sir duty of preserving Plymouth Haven. As the Act Francis Drake, married Mrs. Elford, a widow,
of Parliament was delusive, he concluded that there whose house, near the head of the leat at Sheeps- was more behind the composition than we can tor, was pleasantly situated on the banks of the understand now. Though & lawyer, he was no river Meavy, which coursed through her land. / antiquary, I believe. Drake's relative. John Amadas, was Mayor of Ply- Certainly the Mayor and Corporation would not mouth in 1574-5. The succeeding mayor sent seriously have presented such a petition if unmen to view a river (Plymouth Corporation Ac
countenanced in high quarters ; it would have counts)- probably the rivulet running to Penny-been a mockery and an offence to common sense, but comquick, near Plymouth-or possibly to consider pretext and strategy were necessary when fiction the feasibility of leading in the Plym, but not the entered so largely into legal procedure.t Had the Meavy to a moral certainty. In 1581-2, Drake,
* Henry Bromley was the son of the Lord Chancellor, himself being mayor, know that Plymouth wanted
anted to whom Drake had presented 8001. worth of plate water; and the conjecture is reasonable that, when (Froude, Engl.,' xi. 403). Minsheu, in dedicating his visiting Sheepstor and observing a mountain Spanish Dictionary' to him, mentions that he bountistream running to waste higher above the sea | fully maintained poor scholars at the university. See level than the highest ground in Plymouth, he re
his portrait in Nash, Worcester,' ii. 444). flected how easily the ancient Peruvians would
† The Act 27 Eliz., c. 20, is entitled "An Acte for
Preservacon of the Haven of Plymowth.” As it can be have conducted such water to a distant town. He read at any time in the Round Room at the Record well know how the intervening hills and valleys Office or in the British Museum Reading Room, a brief resounded with the ceaseless clamour of the tin-outline of the petition will suffice here. It represents Ders' clash mills, and that he could count on the
that Plymouth had a haven safe for Her Majesty's ships
and others; that the inhabitants and mariners had occasupport of his cousin Richard Drake, a God-fear
sionally to go a mile for fresh water, and, consequently, ing Puritan, wealthy and childless, who happened these frequently lost the advantage of a favourable to be the principal mill-owner and tinner in the wind; that the haven daily filled up with sand from the public duty assumed by Plymouth not been illu- 108. for six days' work, “plannynge & vewinge sory, tbe means devised were utterly inadequate the grounde.” One Haywoode received 83. 6d. The Act empowered ber to dig a trench six or for six days!"newe writinge tbe vewe four tymes,” seven feet broad and two feet deep (Plym. Trans., and one Jeane received 38. for four days' assistvii. 469). The water, discharged through it slowly, ance. The balance was "for their dyett” (Plymouth was to scour the haven of tinners' sand brought Corporation Accounts). This is all the surveying down by rivers of, say, twenty times the volume in expense mentioned. But the main work of selectordinary seasons and many hundredfold the volume ing the ground and taking the levels, over twentyin flood time.*
five miles of hilly country, with the rude instruBut writers who stood committed to a literal inter- ments of the period, would have involved more pretation of the Act argued that Plymouth Haven than six days and the labour of a large staff of meant Sutton Pool. This explanation is inad- assistants at a heavier cost than 30s. However, missible, for Stonehouse, in her Water Act (Pri- this is of minor import comparatively with the fact vate Act, 36 Eliz., No. 21), claimed to be on Ply, that all the tinners had to be canvassed for their mouth Haven, which is laid down as an arm of assent; and considering Drake's family, local, and the sea of “more than 10 miles circuit” (Add. court influence, and how he was worshipped as the MS. 16,370). Leland describes Mount Edgcumbe hero of the day, he alone, of all men, could have as on the Haven (' Itin.,' iii. 32). Tinners' refuse prevailed all round; and with this closing remarks never entered Sutton Pool, and a contemporary I trust I have satisfactorily established the four plan of the leat (Charity Com., Thirty-Second points named at the commencement, though to Rep., pt. ii., 1837-8) proves that it dowed in my mind the strongest argument rests in the inanother direction.t
herent force and internal evidence of the popular Unquestionably Plymouth was at some expense, if | tradition. only to save appearances. Thirty shillings in all were Some parties, repenting of their bargain, at. expended on plans necessary to be submitted to the tempted in 1593 to alter or explain away the assessors and Judges of Assize on their first visit. Act, and the attorney of the duchy was placed on Out of this Robert Lampen, surveyor, received the committee not “ because Sutton Pool, which
the leat was intended to scour, was then, as now, tin-works and mines adjoining, and would soon be utterly part of duchy property” (Plym. Trans., viii. 518). decayed if some speedy remedy was not bad; that the but because the profits of the Standary Courts had river Meavy, distant eight or ten miles, could be brought been assigned to the Prince of Wales (Act 38 into Plymouth over hills and dry land that would be | Hen. VI.). bettered by a leat which would scour and cleange some
In 1602, after Drake's death, Mr. William part of the haven " to the perpetuall contynewance of the same Haven, a matter moaste beneficiall to the
Crymes, lord of the manor of Buckland MonaRealme." Powers were asked “to digge and myne a chorum, deposed that, as one of the assessors, he Diche or Trenche conteynenge in Bredthe betwene sixe had consented to the cutting of the leat, and had or seaven Foote over in all Places" to convey the Meavy recently erected tin clash mills on Roborough to Plymouth. The Act obtained the royal assent March
Down, which he worked by diverting water from 29, 1585 (D'Ewes, Journal'). We may remark that shipmasters could always fill their kegs at Barn Pool, or
the Plymouth leat (by virtue of the tinners' other points on the coast, without going a mile inland charter), for so it happened that one tinner of for water.
Buckland Monachorum, who had been overlooked, * These rivers conveyed from the tin-works “a mer- had reserved his rights, and this tinner deposed velous greate quantitie of Sande, Gravell, Stone, Robell,
that the men of his class bad assented without Erthe, Slyme, and Filth into the said Ports and Havens, and have so filled and choked the same that where before I 10nly weigung the consequences this tyme a Shippe for portage of viij. (800 tons burden) | Depositions). Mr. Orymes sustained his right. myght have easely entered at a lowe water into the same, and paid the Corporation a nominal quit rent, : nowe a Shippe of a hundred can skantly entre at the shilling a year, for forty years (the Rev. J. Erskine halfe fluddo” (Act 23 Hen. VIII., c. 8, 1531-2). † Hollar's map of Plymouth, 1643, names the
Risk, Plym. Trans., viii. 377). leat “Sir Francis Drake's water” (King's Pamph.,
| Drake's munificence went further. He provided No. 141, and Worth, *Hist. Plym.,' p. 64). Perceiving Plymouth with ample means for keeping the leat that the 3001, named would not cover the costs and com- in repair, by giving her the reversion of certain pensations, it was insisted by some that the leat for half
grist mills, erected by him, which returned a band. its course was an ancient leat to Warliegh Mill utilized (Plym. Trans., vii, 468). The only comment needed is
some and increasing yearly income. These be to direct the reader to two contemporary plans of the
might have reserved in fee to his family, with free leat (one Cott., Aug., i, p. 1, No. 41; and Lord Burghley's water power in perpetuity. copy at Hatfield, for which see Plym. Trans., viii. 82). It commonly happens that the excitement of These duplicates trace the complete course from Sheeps- party spirit incapacitates the understanding for tor to Plymouth, and show no leat to Warleigh. The assertion rested on the authority of one "oid Gileg," weighing the evidence of facts, and leads writers but the Plymouth tradition rested on the authority of a to catch at those which they can most easily mould population,
to their purpose, or, as George Eliot expresses it,
| Else what a mockery should it be to swear !
“ where adverse evidence reaches demonstration parenthetical brackets have accidentally changed they must resort to devices and expedients in places. Read, therefore, thus :order to explain away contradiction” (“Evan And Fortune, on his damned quarrel smiling, gelical Teaching,' p. 158).* Their readers, who Showed like a rebel's whore : but all's too weak:have neither leisure nor opportunity to search and For brave Macbeth, like Valour's minionexamine for themselves, rely on their statements,
Well he deserves that name-disdaining Fortune,
With his brandished steel, and become the innocent means of spreading error
Which smoked with bloody execution, or curtailing truth. For instance, a recent bio Carved out his passage till he faced the slave, graphy of Drake limits his action to sitting on a And ne'er shook hands nor bade farewell to him, committee of the Water Act ('Dict. Nat. Biog.'). Till he unseamed him from the nave to the chaps, Again quoting George Eliot, “A distinct apprecia
And fixed his head upon our battlements. tion of the value of evidence-in other words, the Malone, referring to Holinsbed, corrected quarry in intellectual perception of truth-is more allied to the first line.
W. Watkiss LLOYD. truthfulness of statement, or the moral quality of veracity, than is generally admitted” (op. cit.,
‘KING JOAN,' III. i. (7th S. vii. 383). — p. 156).
H. H. DRAKE. It is religion that doth make vows kept;
But thou bast sworn against religion,
By what thou swear'st against the thing thou swear'st, SHAKSPEARIANA.
and makest an oath the surety for thy truth 'MACBETH,' I. ii. 14.-The First Folio, the only | Against an oath : fthe truth thou art unsure authority for the text of Macbeth,' thus prints :
To swear, swears only not to be forsworn : And Fortune on his damned Quarry smiling
Globe edit. II. 279-285. Shew'd like a Rebell's Whore: but all 's too weake:
If, as I presume is the case, MR. C. J. FLETCHER For brave Macbeth (well hee deserves that Name) Disdayning Fortune, with his brandisht Steele
has made his debut in 'N. & Qi' with the excellent Which smoak'd with bloody execution
paper at the reference above, he deserves a hearty (Like Valour's Minion) carv'd out his passage, welcome from older contributors as a valuable Till hee fac'd the Slave:
accession. Which ney'r shooke hande, nor bad farwell to him,
I am not surprised that reader or compositor, Till he unseam'd him from the Nave to th' Chops, And fix'd his Head upon our Battlements.
or both, got confused in dealing with the very Capell's unimpeachable correction of the eighth
subtle dialectic of his Eminence Cardinal Pan
dulph. From some cause confusion has crept into lineAnd ne'er shook hands, &c.
the text, but happily not, as I think, beyond is neglected, with too many the like, by most later
detection and removal by simple process. I proeditors; the Globe, however, drawing attention to
pose to amend the passage thus :
It is religion that doth make vows kept; such negligence by obelizing the line. Steevens,
But thou hast sworn against religion justly perceiving that “ Till he faced the slave” was
By what thou swear'st against the thing thou swar'st the end, not the beginning of a line, printed, And makest an oath the surety for thy truth Carved out his passage, till he faced the slave;
Against the truth-an oath thou art unsure
To swear. Swear only not to be forsworn : but in ignorance (at that time general) of Shake
Else what a mockery should it be to swear ! speare's frequent employment of interlaced or run.
1. In l. 3 I think it is evident that in the second on lines, he left “Like Valour's minion” un.
instance we should read swar'st for "swear'st." disturbed, as a gasping half-line.
Pandulph was contrasting Philip's new oath of Mitford perceived that the clause in parenthesis
alliance with John with his old oath of obedience -("Like Valour's minion")—was out of place, to the Holy See. Swear'st and swar'st being and made a gallant attempt to reduce the dis
identical in sound, the cause of misprint is obvious. location by the transposition,
2. The transposition of "an oath” and “the Disdaining Fortune, like Valour's minion.
truth," in l. 5, must, I think, commend itself. He so far did well in retaining a capital letter for “ Against the truth” is equivalent to "against “Valour," and thus placing it in directest opposition religion " in l. 2. to Fortune. Macbeth is, in fact, contrasted, as the 3. “Surety" being used in the sense of warrant, minion of Valour, with Macdonwald flattered by “ unsure," as its opposite, must mean unwarranted. smiling Fortune ; but even so the terms of the | Unsure in Shakspeare is by no means limited to antithesis are too remote from each other to tell as the sense of uncertain, the sense which MR. intended. I do not doubt that the two clauses in FLETCHER assigns to the word. In '2 Henry IV.,' • Indeed the ingenious devices employed to explain which would suit this passage very well, though,
I. iii. 89, we find it in the sense of unsafe, a sense ay Drake's gift are colourless in the fresh light brought to bear upon them, and their purpose glares
for the reason stated, “unwarranted” is preferable. through all the overlay of laborious and transparent
4. Those who know how frequently final s unpatchwork in the Transactions quoted.
warrantably intrudes itself in the text of the First