« PreviousContinue »
cantury, instead of on the breast or back of the garment height before it was gathered and set into the itself as previously."
stock, por more than two inches in depth before This would give the short tight breeches, blue the setting into the same stock. The collar of the long coat, or short blue doublet and yellow stock. doublet was to have neither "poynt, well [whale] ings as the general wear of the commonalty of the bone, or plaits,” but to be made close and comely, period.
and, as well as tbe breeches, was to be made only Planché says, again, that Sir Walter Scott, in 'The of “clotb, kersey, fustian, sackcloth, canvasse, Fortunes of Nigel,' has drawn an admirable (word) English leather, or English stuffe," and of not more picture of the brawling 'prentices from Howe, the than 28. 6d. the yard. His stockings were to be of continuator of Stow, who tells that "in the reign woollen, yarn, or kersey. He was not to wear of Queen Mary they wore blue cloaks in summer, “Spanish shoes with polonia heels,” or to have his and in the winter gowns of the same colour,” dresses hair with any “tufto or lock, but cut short in of this colour being a badge of servitude about this decent and comely manner. period. The "City flat cap," or cap of Edward
EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. VI., being still often mentioned in the time of 71, Brecknock Road. James and Charles, shows no very great change. Fairholt also enlarges on the same subject, saying
“Flat caps and shining shoes” were the distinthe “City flat cap." is the "statute cap" of Shake" guishing characteristics of London apprentices as speare, so called because they were strictly en instances might easily be adduced from our ola
this period. As Gifford would say, "hundreds of joined to be worn by the 13 Elizabeth, cap. 19, for writers. These chiefly take the form of courtierly the encouragement of the home manufacture," under a penalty of 38. 4d. for each day's transgression; Alst cap on the
137th plate, vol. ii. The breeches
sneering. Strutt gives a figure of the pie-dish-like and he refers further examples of the dress in Herbert's History of the Twelve Great Livery, of white broadcloth, and made so as to look all of
and stockings were what were called round slops, Companies of London,' Bargon's 'Life of Gresham, and many effigies in existing London churches, such one piece. They appear to have worn blue cloaks as St. Saviour's, Southwark, St. Helens, Bishops
in summer, and gowns in winter of the same colonr.
H. O. HART. gate, and St. Andrew's Undershaft; also mentioning that Thyone's 'Debate between Pride and Lowlinesse' (1570) gives descriptions of the dress BED-ROCK (7th S. vi. 466).—The word in its of husbandmen and various classes of the com- metaphorical sense means the bottom of the munity. Stubbes's 'Anatomy of Abuses' would matter in question. It is, I suppose, an Americanalso prove a valuable reference for male costume of ism, originating in the mines. An example of it is the time of Elizabeth, and no doubt any of Holbein's to be found in Tennessee's Partner,' by Bret Harte, pictures would afford a great deal of help towards the middle of the story:tracing the changes of the period, as by comparing ""No! no!' continued Tennessee's Partner, hastily, the forms of the ordinary costume temp. Edward 'I play this yer hand alone. To come down to the bedVI. (1595 and 1682) the slightness and tendency rock, it's just this : Tennessee, thar, has played it pretty of the changes during that period will very easily rough and expensive-like on a stranger, and on this yer
R. W. HackWOOD.
camp. And now, what's the fair thing? Some would say
more; some would say less. Here's seventeen hundred Herbert, in his ‘History of the Twelve Great dollars in coarse gold and a watch—it's about all my pilo Livery Companies of London,' expresses an op
—and call it square!'” that James exceeded Elizabeth in his love for the Tennessee is being tried by Lynch law for highway minutiæ of the fashion prescribed. About the robbery, and his partner attempts to bribe the year 1611 be caused the Mayor to send precepts to court. The scene is laid amongst the miners of the wardens of companies on account of "the Sandy Bar. The story was first published, I think, abuse growing by excesse and strange fashions of in or before 1869. ROBERT PIERPOINT. apparell used by manye apprentises." The Com St. Austin's, Warrington. mon Council afterwards embodied certain regulations into an Act, in which every item of apparel the solid hard rock underlying loose and incoherent
This is the technical term applied in mining tro to be worn by apprentices is detailed with the strata. It is generally used in connexion with minuteness of a tailor or dressmaker. Apprentices alluvial gold washinge. In the American miner's were to wear no “ hat” the facing whereof should exceed three inches in breadth in the head, or slang to arrive at the bed-rock means to have spent
the last dollar.
BENNETT H. BROUGH. which, with the band and trimming, should cost above 58.; the band was to be destitute of lace, I have certainly beard this word as a mining made of linen not exceeding 58. the ell, and to term, and have understood it as analogous to the bave no other work or ornament than a plain hem engineering term bed-plate, which signifies the and one stitch ; and if the apprentice should wear heavy plate of metal upon which the machinery a ruff-band, it was not to exceed three inches in rests. The figurative use of the term would follow
naturally, and may be illustrated by a verse of with many talismanic properties, and its festival at. Lowell's, quoted from memory :
tracted immense gatherings of people.
C. C. B.
MR. BOUCHIER asks, Is kissing under the mistle-
toe dying out in England ? Well, reminiscences
*C. C. B. of half a century ago or so would lead me to say This is an American term. In sinking a coal
that, together with many another ancient and shaft there is usually found beneath the soil yellow
laudable practice, it had somewhat decayed. It
may be, however, that careful inquiry among the or blue clay, often containing water-worn stones ; | theo, perhaps, sand and gravel, and clay again
grandchildren of those who kissed dans le bon under them. Beneath these will be found solid
vieux temps might reveal an undiminished loyalty rock, or shale, in regular layers.
to custom. But then the conscientious inquirer This rock, or
would be met by the difficulty that one does notshale, is called by the sinkers in the Durham coal-field the “stone-head,” which is the exact
or, at least, did not—“kiss and tell.” equivalent of the American“ bed-rock.” In like
T. ADOLPHUS TROLLOPE. circumstances Lancashire sinkers speak of “gettin KENELM HENRY DIGBY (7th S. vi. 507).deswn to th' solid.”
P. W. PICKUP. only know of three editions of Mr. K. H. Digby's Blackburn,
noble book "The Broadstone of Honour. The The 'New English Dictionary' gives examples
first of these came out about sixty years ago, in, of the use of “bed ” in its meaning “ to rest on,
I think, 1828 and onwards; and after one or two to lie on for support.” Surely this includes “bed
of the volumes had appeared their author joined rock ” and numerous other words, such as “ bed
the Roman Church, which fact accounts for the plate," “ bed-stone," &c. Cf. p. 751, last line of a
| alterations, whatever they be, that were afterwards first column.
made in the earlier volumes, and for the somewhat L. L. K.
different tone of the later. About the years 1856 DR. CHANCE should look again at his copy of and 1857 Edward Lumley, of New Oxford Street the 'New Eoglish Dictionary,' s.v. “ Bed," where, 1-himself a striking man, and one of the early in the third column of p. 750, $ 19, he will find members of the congregation worshipping at All evidence that he has been too hasty in classing the Saints', Margaret Street-published what I believe Philological Society's work with the other dic- to be the second edition of all the volumes ; and tionaries he possesses.
Q. V. a reprint of this edition was issued in 1877. If
there be other editions than these three, I should HERALDIC (7th S. vi. 428, 497).-In the arms on be glad to know of them. I believe that 'Mores the ring mentioned, the coat impaled on the sinister Catholici,' 'Evenings on the Thames,' and Mr. side is that of the Abbey of Westminster, the Digby's other prose works, were all written by whole coat therefore is, Williams (quarterly with him as a Roman Catholic ; and I should be agreeGriffiths) impaling dexter, the see of Lincoln, sinis |ably surprised to hear that any of them over ter, the Abbey of Westminster. The peculiarity reached å second edition. Mr. Digby's verse— of the marsballing arises from the bigamous cha 'Little Low Busbes' and the rest-is much inracter of the arms. It is well known how pertina-ferior to his proge. But he who wrote The ciously Williams clung to his Deanery of West Broadstone of Honour' must always be a classic; minster after his elevatian to the episcopate. and I suppose that no one, not even Robert
S. G. H. Burton himself, ever gave to the public a larger KISSING UNDER THE MISTLETOE (7th S. vi. 487). |
store, and a store more happily used, of admirable -One would suppose, from the part played by the
| and recondite quotations and allusions than is mistletoe in Scandinavian mythology, that this contained in that book and in ‘Compitum.' custom was common to all northern peoples.
Was it not Julius Hare, that defender of Luther, Baldur was slain by a mistletoe dart at the in. who said that a young mau should prize “The stigation of Loki, and in reparation for the injury
| Broadstone of Honour' next to the Bible ? It was the plant was afterwards dedicated to his mother. I like his breadth of charity to say that, and I Frigg, so long as it did not touch earth, Loki's empire.
| heartily echo the saying.
A. J. M.. On this account it is hung from the ceilings of houses, i
QUEENIE AS A Pet Name (7th S. vii. 4).and the kiss given under it signifies that it is no Queeney or Queeny was the pet name of Esther longer an instrument of mischief. MR. BOUCHIER Thral
BOUCHIER Thrale, afterwards Lady Keith, for whom Baretti will, unless I mistake, find an account of “ le gui
wrote his 'Dialogues.' See Dr. Birkbeck Hill's de l'an neuf" in De Gubernatis ('La Mythologie des edition of Boswell's Johnson,' ii. 449, n. 2; iii. Plantes'). The fêtes held in commemoration of the 422, n. 4; v. 451, n. 2. sacred mistletoe survived in some parts of France
WILLIAM ALDIS WRIGHT, into the sixteenth century. The plant was credited | Trinity College, Cambridge.
DEATH WARRANTS (7th S. vi. 308, 474, 515). wolves in Matt. vii. 15, and the grievous wolves in Acts .-I cannot admit that I am "altogether wrong.'
xx. 29, representing false teachers." There can be no doubt at all that the king per In that charming collection of negro stories, sonally decided whether any sentence of death Uncle Remus,' the rabbit outwits the fox. Í passed at the Central Criminal Court should be know that it is said that the rabbit represents the carried out or not, whicb, I take it, is the essential negro race, which, in its very simplicity and harmpoint. Is there any proof that the king signed lessness, proves more than a match for the selfish nothing?
cunning of the whiter man. But on what foundaAs regards the Isle of Man story, AN ENGLISH tion does this theory rest? The stories themLAWYER is good enough to say it is “not pro- selves do not suggest it, for the fox shows no bable.” I can only say that it is a fact known to special cunning. He is simply stupid compared
I cannot enter into details ; but I do not, of with the rabbit. And if the stories are genuine course, mean that either the king or the queen old negro stories, brought from Africa, the comsigned the actual order to the executioner. parison between the negroes and the whites in
E. F. D. C. America will not be to the point. I recur to my According to the 'Percy Anecdotes,
former question, What real proofs of superior
cunning has “Br'er Fox” given, that we should “the warrant for executing a criminal was anciently by precept under the hand and seal of the judge, as it is suppose his reputation to be universal ? still practised in the Court of the Lord High Steward
JOHN A. Cross. upon the execution of a peer; though in the Court of
CHESTNUT (7th S. vi. 407,436).-I venture to sugjudge may command execution to be done without writ. gest that chestnut=“stale joke, story heard before," Now the usage is for the judge to sign the calendar, may be a translation of the French marron=a kind of or list of all the persons' names, with their sepa- large choice chestnut. This word marron has, either rate judgment in the margin, which is left with the sheriff. As for a capital felony, it is written opposite to
as a substantive or adjective, several other meana person's name, 'Let him be hanged by the neck, ings, some of which I will enumerate; and it has Formerly, in the days of Latin and abbreviations, sus. occurred to me as possible that chestnut may (shall per coll.,' for ' suspendature per collum '; and this is the we say in America ?), by way, probably, of a joke, only warrant that the sheriff has for so material an act have been given a meaning borrowed more or less as taking away the life of another. It is certainly re- from one or more of these other meanings of marron. markable that in civil cases there should be such a variety of writs of execution to recover a trifling debt One of those meanings is a stencil-plate, by means issued in the king's name, and under the seal of the of which any words or pattern may be reproduced court, without wbich the sheriff cannot legally stir one or repeated indefinitely, and the application of this step; and yet that the execution of a man, the most meaning to a réchauffé joke or story is not so very important and terrible of any, should depend upon a difficult. But as an adjective marron has meanmarginal note."
J. W. ALLISON.
ings which may be considered still more appropriate. Stratford, E.
Thus, when applied to a courtier, cocher, imprimeur,
marron=unlicensed or irregular; and a négre Is An English Lawyer quite correct in saying marron, is a runaway negro (our maroon). In all that “at the assizes the order for execution was these meanings there is a smack of false pretence, and is merely verbal”? It is laid down in or of dishonesty," which is still more clearly Stephen's Commentaries' that “the usage is for exhibited in the slang French être marron=to be the judge to sign the calendar, or list of the taken in, bamboozled ; and this same smack of prisoners' names, with their separate judgments false pretence there is also in an old story or joke, in the margin, which is left with the sheriff as his if, as often is the case, it is served up as a new, and warrant or authority.”
sometimes even as an original one. For the meanI have always understood that the formula “Suss. ings which I have here assigned to marron I per coll.” was written against the names of persons would refer Dr. Murray to Scheler, and Littré, capitally convicted. Is this a figment ?
and to Barrère’s dictionary of French slang. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M. A.
F. CHANCE, Hastinga.
Facts as to the origin of this slang equivalent The Fox (7th S. vi. 148, 396).-O. Ezekiel for “an old Joe” there be none, I believe. I first xiii. 4 Hengstenberg comments :
* Even the chestnut called marron itself has not “The foxes come into regard in verse 4 as 'the dan- attained to its present high position by the most honourgerous foes and destroyers of the coverts,' as a zoologist able practices, for Littré tells us that there are commonly calls them. Thus they stand already in ch. ii. 15 of the three kernels or nuts in a chestnut husk, and that in the Song of Songz; and in Luke xiii, 31, 32, the Lord calls case of the species called marron, one of these kernels, Herod a fox as the destroyer of God's people. The foxes young cuckoo-like, gets the better of the other two, and nowhere come into regard for their craft, as in heathen so becomes larger than he has any rightful business to antiquity. The foxes here correspond to the ravening be.
beard the word in 1882, in a theatrical chop-house detrectavere. Instructis utrimque exercitibus in ejus (Brown's) in New York. The explanation given to | pugnæ casum, in qua urbs Roma victori præmium esset, me by Mr. Brown-once a well-known member of
imber ingens grandine mixtus ita utramque aciem
turbavit, ut vix armis retentis in castra sese receperint, Wallack's company—was “ Chestnut, because it is
nullius rei minore, quam hostium, metu. Et postero old enough to have grown a beard," alluding to the die eodem loco acies instructas eadem tempestas direprickly bristly husk of the nuts.
mit.”—Liv., lib, xxvi. c. xi.
HALKETT LORD. | Thucydides relates that two expeditions of the Scotch Plains, U.8.
| Lacedæmonians were put a stop to by earthquakes. ROBERT BURTON (7th S. vi. 443, 517).—Those
The annual invasion of Attica, in B.C. 426, under wbo take an interest in the 'Anatomy of Melan
Agis, was one of these, when Iedotovvoloy kai choly' are much indebted to MR. PEACOCK for his
| οι ξύμμαχοι μέχρι μέν του ισθμού ήλθον ως ές careful account of every edition. I have a copy of
την Αττικην εσβαλούντες, "Αγιδος του Αρχιthat of 1651 which in some points differs from MR.
δάμου ηγουμένου, Λακεδαιμονίων βασιλέως, PEACOCK's of the same date. May I be allowed to
σεισμών δε γενομένων πολλών απετράποντο give a description of my copy?
| máliv, kai ook éyéveto éopodń (lib. iii. c. 89). (1) Half-title ; recto, the Anatomie of Melan
Again, in the plundering warfare between Argos choly ; verso, the Argument of the Frontispiece,
and Lacedæmon, B.C. 414, én? "Apyos gtpateú.
σαντες beginning, “Ten distinct squares."
Λακεδαιμόνιοι μέχρι μεν Κλεωνών (2) The
γλθον, σεισμού δε γενομένου απεχώρησαν (vi. engraved title-page, C. le Blon sc., surrounded
95). The interruption in the first of these in. by the ten well-known designs, and having in the middle & space on which are the following lines.
stances arose from terror, in the last two from * The Anatomy of Melancholy, what it is, with all
ED. MARSHALL. the kinds causes symptomes, prognostickes, & The battle alluded to by Southey was, no doubt, severall cures of it. In three partitions, with that at the Lacus Trasimenus, in Etruria, where their severall sections, members & subsections, Hannibal so signally defeated the Romans (BC. Philosophically, Medicinally, Historically, opened 217). But Southey must have forgotten the fact & cut vp. By Democritus Junior. With a related by Livy (lib. xxii. c. 5), that so far from Satyricall Preface, conducing to the following Dis- the earthquake interrupting the battle, the comcourse. The Sixt [sic] Edition, corrected and batants were so intent on fighting, and so furiously angmented by the Author. Omne tulit punctum, engaged, that they never felt it, though it was qni miscuit utile dulci.” Beneath these lines is devastating a great part of Italy. This is the the portrait of Burton, below which there is en-graphic description of the historian in his “picgraved on a cartouche, “Oxford Printed for Henry tured page": Cripps, 1651." (3) Latin dedication, “Georgio “Tantusque fuit ardor animorum, adeo intentus pugnæ Berkleio," endirg with “jam sexto revisam. DİD animus, ut eum terræ motum, qui multarum urbium Democritus Junior.” (4) Two pages of Latin verse,
Italiæ magnas partes prostravit, avertitque cursu rapido « Vade liber." (5) Two pages of English verse.
amnes, mare fluminibus invexit, montes ingenti lapsu
proruit, nemo pugnantium senserit.” (6) The text forms 723 numbered pages, but two onoombered leaves are inserted between pages 140
Perhaps Southey may have confused in his and 141. The text ends with p. 723. (7) Nine tioned by Herodotus (* Hist.,' i. c. 74), where the
memory this battle with another earlier one menannumbered pages of Table. On the last page is a notice by B.C. to the reader, and at the bottom,
Lydians and Medes were interrupted in their con“Printed by R. W. for Henry Cripps of Oxford,
test “by the day suddenly becoming night” (tūv and are to be sold by Andrew Crook in Paul's
il quépnv éations výkta yevéo Dai); that is, of
course, by a total eclipse of the sun. This eclipse, Charcbyard, and by Henry Cripps and Lodowick Lloyd in Popes-Head Ally. 1651."
the historian says, Thales of Miletus had predicted I agree with MR. PEACOCK in thinking that we
should happen in this very year; and, if true,
astronomy must have been better known to the should regard the fifth edition, or the sixth, as the best. The fifth was published in 1638. Burton
ancients than is generally supposed. died in 1640. The sixth appeared in 1651, and
EDWD. A. DAYMAN.
Shillingston, Dorset. according to the notice at the end it was printed from a copy corrected by the author, and committed
I cannot help thinking that Southey has conby him to Cripps for publication. J. Dixon. fused an earthquake with an eclipse. An eclipse
of the sun is said to bave put an end to a battle BATTLE INTERRUPTED BY AN EARTHQUAKE (7th about to be fought between the Medes and Lydians &. vi. 307).-Though not an exact answer, the in the year B.C. 585. I never heard of one being interruption of a battle by a storm may be men- interrupted by an earthquake. Livy says that an tioned, B.C. 211:
earthquake occurred during the battle at Lake "Postero die transgressus Anienem Hannibal in aciem Trasymenus, during the second Panic war; but omnes copias eduxit: nec Flaccus consulesque certamen adds that the combatants did not notice it, on
account of the fierceness of the contest, which Carlisle, jun.,” 1796, pp. 144. This lacuna is the would lead us to conclude that the violence of the more noticeable because the book has been reshocks was not great in that part of Italy. printed half a dozen times as a separate volume,
W. T. Lynn. and frequently inserted in other works, as in Blackheath,
Farmer and Moore's ‘Historical Collections. Few [MR. J. CARRICK Moore and MR. E. H. MARSHALL books shed more light on the mutual relations of also suggest that “ earthquake " has been written for Canada and New England from 1754 to 1758. eclipse.]
Will some one inform the writer or 'N. & Q.'
whether there is an editio princeps of this parrative Miss FOOTE, COUNTESS OF HARRINGTON (7th
in the British Museum ? JAMES D. BUTLER. S. vi. 6, 166, 292, 337).—As attention has been
Madison, Wis., U.S. indirectly drawn to this lady, perhaps the following extract from 'An Old Man's Diary,' by John Payne CHARGER (7th S. vi. 187, 218, 312, 414).—May Collier, may prove of interest. She was married in I point out that the word charger = war-horse is 1831 to Charles, Earl of Harrington :
derived from a very obvious source, viz., charging" March 23 (1833).— I was sitting at the Garrick Club horse. In 'Don Quixote,' 1712, published by Mr. yesterday, reading the newspaper close to the window, when Motteux, vol. iv. p. 1248, Carrasco, “the Knight a large family carriage, drawn by two fine horses, drove of the White Moon,” after defeating Don Quixote, up to the steps of the door: it was about eleven o'clock, and 80 it happened, though a rarity, that there was nobody in "took his leave, and packing up his Armour on a the room but myself. I went on with my newspaper, Carriage-Mule, presently mounted his Charging-Horse, when a queer-looking gentleman, in a sort of boat hat, and leaving the City that very Day, posted homewards.' very loose light coat, and looser trousers, twisted in some In a subsequent translation (probably Smollett's) and ankles, entered. He looked round, and seeing nobody charging-horse was altered to charger.
J. F. MANSERGH. there but myself, he said, I suppebe there is no objection to my bringing a lady to see the rooms, is there?'
Liverpool. I replied, 'Not the least, that I am aware of '; and he went out again to fetch the said lady. I guessed that it
ENGLISH GRAMMARS (7th S. vi. 121, 242, 302, was Lord Harrington, and, looking out at the window, I 453).-PROF. SKEAT can find a very full list of saw him handing a lady from the carriage, two footmen, English grammars, giving several scores that he in long brown coats and with gold-beaded canes, standing has not on his roll, in the Catalogue of the New one on each side. The lady wore a veil, but as she York State Library at Albany. I should think entered the room she put it up, and I instantly recog; there must be three hundred in all. nized the ci-devant Miss Foote, of 'Foote and Hayne' notoriety, who in 1824 had recovered 3,0001, damages for
W. W. PASKE. a breach of promise. She was still very pretty, but, as I thought, with rather a stage-worn look; and, while she
Relic OF WITCHCRAFT (7th S. v. 426, 497; vi. was languishing about the room, leaning on his lordship’s 138, 258).—Having been several weeks from home, arm, Winston, the Secretary of the Club, entered: as I have only just seen my copies of 'N. & Q.' for he knew them both he bowed to Lord Harrington rather September and October, otherwise I should have liarly, as if they had been previously acquainted. A few hastened to inform MR. C. A. Ward that the words passed between them, which I did not hear, and, Memoranda of Matters in the London Gazette of after another short survey of the room and furniture, 1685' appeared in the Odd Fellows' Quarterly they went away, leaving me with Winston.”—Part iii. Magazine for October, 1883, then edited by Charles
Hardwick. I shall have pleasure in lendiog him It would occupy too much space to transcribe more; my copy if desired.
C. A. WAITE. but there is much curious information, and very Preston on the Wild Moors, Salop. likely not elsewhere to be found, concerning the early life and antecedents of the countess, née Maria
CHILDREN (7th S. vi. 467; vii. 14).—The folFoote. From this it appears that her father was William Gouge, entitled 'Of Domesticall Duties
lowing sentences, which I extract from a work by manager of the Plymouth Theatre, and that she was born in 1798, and came to London as an actress (1622), may perhaps be of some service to Dr.
MURRAY :when only sixteen or seventeen. John PICKFORD, M.A.
“ Tutors, to whose gouernment young schollers, that Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.
are sent to the Vniuersities, are committed, baue to deale
with children in their riper yeeres ; euen when the time ALLIBone's 'DICTIONARY OF BRITISH AND wherein much good may be done to children, or else
of setling them in a course is come : the very time AMERICAN AUTHORS' (7th S. vi. 184). - No work wherein they may be vtterly peruerted...... A good Tutor aiming so bigh as this bibliography can attain com- may doe much to repaire the negligence, and amend the pleteness. One of its noteworthy omissions is “A defects of a Schoolemaster : but there remaine none to Narrative of the Captivity of Mrs. [Susannab Wil. redresse the failings of a Tutor: children
for the most
part are past redressing, when they cease to haue a lard] Johnson, containing an account of her suffer- Tutor...... Many children well trained vp in schooles, ings during four years with the French and Indians. vtterly logo the benefit of all their former education when Printed at Walpole, New Hampsbire, by David they are sent to the Vniuersitie, because their Tutors