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attempt to give us a catalogue of our signs. We would present state of feeling with regard to nursing sisters. ask if it be not possible to complete this work, and give This or that particular institution may still be unpopular us a perfect list of these objects, with engravings illus- with certain people, but no one is to be found now who trating the more curious among them. We have heard would attack the principle which leads ladies to devote that such a labour bas been accomplished for the Nether their lives to the pbysical good of others. lands, and are anxious that we should not be behind The Travels through England of Dr. Richard Pococke. hand. Messrs. Rendle and Norman would, we are sure,

Edited by James Joel Cartwright, M.A., F.S.A. Vol. I. do such a work in a most satisfactory manner.

(Printed for the Camden Society.) Chaucer : the Minor Poems. Edited by the ev. Walter To its esteemed treasurer the Camden Society is inSkeat, Litt.D. (Clarendon Press.)

debted for the first volume of wbat will prove a work of As a specimen of iborough workmanship, Prof. Skeat's equal value and interest. Dr. Pococke, successively Bishop edition of the minor poems of Chaucer is probably un of Meath and of Ossory, was a born traveller, and exrivalled. Not much more than a third of a volume of nearly tended his peregrinations so far as Palestine and Syria. six bundred pages is occupied with the poems themselves, His English travels are, however, alone dealt with by the remainder being taken up with preliminary disserta- Mr. Cartwright, who has found the materials in the tion, various readings, notes, critical, explanatory, and Additional MSS. ir the British Museum. The letters illustrative, glossary, indexes, and other similar matters, are transcripts, only made with a view to publication, the whole constituting a display of varied knowledge the originals being untraceable. With a fidelity akin to and critical acumen not easily rivalled. Of the matter that of Drayton in the · Polyolbion,' Dr. Pococke has purrashly assigned to Chaucer by successive editors Prof. sued his way from hamlet to hamlet, leaving little of Skeat makes short work. Now he shows that a poem is interest unnoticed, and giving us a graphic picture of dated after Chaucer's death, now that it is known to be England as it was when the North bad barely recovered by Lydgate or Occleve, now that it contains reference to from the shock of Jacobite invasion. One of his pleasant matters in the fifteenth century, and, again, that the specialties is that he was a warm lover of natural scenery style is that of a period much subsequent. Not seldom at a time when such taste was rare. The following Prof. Skeat hits upon proofs that his predecessors seem volumes will be waited with some impatience. In some to have gone out of their way to avoid. In every case he cases the original scribe seems to have omitted the signs is careful to state on what authority a poem is assigned of abbreviation in the letters, and allows such mistakes to Chaucer or withdrawn from him. The only cases in as “S' Henry Sligsby, of Scriven Hall,” for Sir Henry which his decision might be disputed are those in which Slingsby. To most county histories the work will be an he decides from the rhymes and from internal evidence. indispensable addition, In order to judge in these matters a writer must be saturated with his author. There is no question about | The Brontë Country; its Topography, Antiquities, and the fact that a man of critical faculty may know an

History. By J. A. Erskine Stuart. (Longmans & author so well as to be able to decide all but infallibly The Brontë literature grows rapidly. There are two

Co.) (perhaps infallibly even) whether a poem is genuine. Few lovers of Shakspeare or of Milton (of the latter really good lives of Charlotte, and more books have been especially) can be in any doubt. We claim no such written concerning her and her surroundings than we knowledge, and acquiesce in the decision that reduces can call on ourselves to enumerate. More than one of the minor poems of Chaucer to twenty. Shall we shock these lesser lights has contained passages in very unfor:

tunate taste. No fault can be found with Mr. Stuart's the editor, however, by saying that we should like to have the remaining poems—some of them, at least-which volume on the ground that it discusses subjects with have been accepted as his printed in a supplemental which the public have no concern. The author realizes volume, like the Apocrypha or the doubtful plays of the fact, which is not as yet universally acknowledged, Shakspeare. Such a task as the preparation of this that because a person has become justly celebrated would not suit Prof. Skeat, nor would we demand the his or her greatness does not give every one a right wealth of potes which we gladly welcome here. The to publish all the personal gossip that can be picked reader, however, who is not a Chaucerian expert misses up from neighbours, servants, and those unhappily consome poems from which he has derived pleasure. Mean stituted persons who derive a great part of their daily while we congratulate the student upon the possession of pleasure from hearing and retailing scandal. a work of unfailing and marvellous erudition, a treasure.

The Brontë family were all of them highly gifted and, house of wonderful and valuable information, together Poor Bramwell

, weak, but not by nature evil, has been

with one exception, were of extremely noble charactere. with a text which puts out of court all preceding versions.

seized upon by the goseip-mongers, and the trivial events

of bis sad and painful career made padding for books Catherine Leslie Hobson, Lady-Nurse, Crimean War, and copy for newspaper scribblers in a way that would

and her Life. By the Rev. W. F. Hobson. (Parker have given acute pain to Charlotte and his other sisters & Co.)

could they have foreseen the future. Mr. Stuart has This is an affectionate memorial of one of that devoted little to tell of this gifted race that is new, but he knows band of women who served the sick and the wounded the country in which they lived, and is able to describe during all the horrors of the Crimean War. It is not to us the places which were used by Charlotte in her easy to speak of the service these holy women rendered novels. How skilfully these real objects were employed to humanity without seeming to be guilty of florid we can easily see when we compare her pictures with exaggeration. We have learnt many things since the their originals, as Mr. Stuart describes them for our fifties, and one of them is that a woman does not go benefit. beyond her proper sphere who devotes her life to the The taste of the novel-reading public has changed succour of the miserable. Englishmen were in those since Charlotte Brontë flashed upon the world, The days unaccustomed to such devotion. To the Crimean alteration has not been entirely for the better. In her nurses we not only owe the fact that the sufferings of days few novel-writers had given bright and clearly cut many of our soldiers were relieved, and their death-beds descriptions of scenery. Her pictures of what she had tenderly watched-a mercy for which we must all be seen are terse and as truthful as it is possible to imagine. grateful—but we are indebted to them also for the No English writer has ever brought a landscape, with all

went on,

its details, so clearly before the reader and in so few killed before my time? I make this request as in a book. words as she has done. Her brilliant success bas pro- seller's catalogue wbich bas just reached me one of my duced many imitators, and we now have cloudy verbiage books is ascribed to the late Edward Walford.'” manufactured in imitation which hardly rises above the

E. P. JACOBSEN (“Ronyon").—Is not the customary elevation of a parody. So needful has this kind of derivation from the French rogneux easier than from the writing, however, become for a certain class of readers, Italian rognare, which you suggest ? that we believe the recipe for making it has been communicated in conversation by more than one successful EDWIN MURRAY (“Latin Work ").— The book you depractitioner in this imitative line. Though Mr. Stuart's scribe appears to be an edition of the ‘Digestum Vetus style is not always good, his book is to be commended of the Emperor Justinian. as pleasantly written, and from first to last in good taste. S. A. DONALDSON (“ Monogram of James II.").-We He should not, however, speak of the Armytage baronetcy have no means of reproducing this. being “instituted” in 1641, or at any other time. A title is created by the patent, and is conferred on the person inventor (in 1829) of the lucifer match. See Athenæum,

E. WALFORD (“Lucifer”).-Mr. Isaac Holden was the who receives it. To speak of a title being “instituted” conveys no meaning. The clergyman was right when he March 29, 1884, p. 401, col. 3. See also Haydn's Dic wrote in his register of the overthrow of “Prince Robi" tionary of Dates,' s.v. at Marston Moor. Robert and Rupert are the same B. F. SCARLETT (“Manchester Bookseller ").-Cornish, name, and the dashing. Royalist commander was fre- Piccadilly. quently called Robert in the printed and manuscript

Mrs. LEOPOLD SCARLETT, Boscombe Manor, Bourneliterature of the early days of the Civil War. As time the form Robert died out, and Rupert definitely directory of the latter half of the eighteenth century.

mouth, wishes to borrow for a short time a Manchester took its place. The Actor's Art. By Gustave Garcia. Second Edition. of many received and acknowledged, has been forwarded

J. M. M. (" Anonymous Poem”):--A copy of this, one (Simpkin, Marshall & Co.)

to YORICK, A SECOND edition of M. Garcia's practical treatise on stage declamation, public speaking, &c., bas soon been

RICHARD EDGCUMBE (“Pull devil, pull baker").-See demanded. Such now appears with an appendix, which 20d S. iii. 316. is not the least useful part of the volume. In this, which M. G. D. (“Dress of London Apprentice '').-Send gives views of performances in classic and mediæval times, address. We have a communication for you. early forms of dramatic entertainment are described.

F. (“ Prose of Shakspeare").-Will appear in next Greece occupies nearly half the space, but sections are given to farces, satires, &c., and to the drama in Spain,

'Shakspeariana.' Germany, and China.

CORRIGENDA.-P. 37, col. 1, 1. 35, for “coal" read A new volume of Le Livre begins with a 'Conte pour read' 5ih s.

coke; p. 45, col. 2, 11. 3 and 7 from bottom, for "Zri S." les Bibliophiles' of M. Octave Uzanne, a very curious

NOTICE. and clever piece of literary patchwork, admirably illus

Editorial Communications should be addressed to “The trated by M. Albert Robida. Continuing the series of Editor of Notes and Queries'"- Advertisements and articles on English writers, which have become a special Business Letters to "The Publisher"-at the Office, 22, feature, Le Livre gives us a good account of George Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.C. Eliot. Some slight improvements are noticeable in the

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munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and DR. BRUSHFIELD has reprinted from the Transactions to this rule we can make no exception. of the Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature, and Art admirable papers on 'An. drew Búer and the Early Exeter Newspaper Press' and

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TE U TONIC MYTHOLOG Y.

By VIKTOR RYDBERG.

Translated from the Swedish, with the Author's consent, by

RASMUS B. ANDERSON, LL.D.,
Author of ‘Norse Mythology,' Editor of 'Heimskringla,' "The Younger Edda,' &c.

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This work, now offered to the English and American public, contains the results of extensive and painstaking research carried on for many years by the distinguished scholar Viktor Rydberg. In this last work from his pen he has restored Teutonic mythology to the form in which it existed among our ancestors during the centuries immediately preceding the introduction of Christianity, that is, to the form which it had before conflict with Christianity caused the Odinic religion to decay.

The author draws a sharp line of distinction between mythogony and mythology in the more limited sense of these words. He does not occupy himself directly with the question of the origin of myths (which properly belongs to ethnic psychology), and so does not make any special attempt to define the limits drawn by folk-lorists under the distinguished leadership of Mr. Andrew Lang in regard to the correctness of the mythogonic hypothesis presented by Professor Max Müller and other philologists. In this volume Mr. Rydberg confines himself to a presentation of the fully-developed Teutonic polytheism, with its personified gods, its established religion and code of morals, and to showing how the sagas concerning ancient heroes and race-patriarchs, to which the cult of the dead gave rise, became blended with the myths of the gods, and, thus united, formed a grand Teutonic epic.

These questions have not heretofore been thoroughly and systematically examined. Mr. Rydberg, having for the first time gathered and compared all the materials, has carefully separated that which dates from a heathen age from that which comes to us through Christian bands. The latter kind of materials cannot be used in the reconstruction of the beathen mythology before the Christian perversions and additions have been eliminated by a thorough and critical sifting. How necessary such a sifting is the author fully demonstrates in the case of the Younger Edda, which hitherto has been looked upon as the principal source and interpreter of Teutonic heathendom. While scholars have been accustomed to look upon the Younger Edda as a key to the dark enigmas of the Elder Edda, Viktor Rydberg shows conclusively that it is a most unreliable record of the Odinic religion, and that its chief service to mythological science consists in its having rescued from oblivion a number of poetic fragments not found elsewhere. He also analyzes for the first time the precious mythic fragments to be found in the Old Norse poetic literature outside of the Elder Edda.

The Mythological materials extant in a more or less changed form have been largely augmented by Mr. Rydberg, particularly by his subjecting the mythic portions of the Historia Danica' of Saxo Grammaticus to a most painstaking and scholarly analysis. He has, in fact, found the key to Saxo's method of turning myths and traditions into history, and by this discovery-for it is nothing less—he has secured many new and important contributions to the religion of our heathen ancestors; but in every case the author subjects the original myth thus restored to a most rigid scrutiny in the light of purely heathen records, The Work discusses the following subjects :

(1) Mediæval migration-sagas,
(2) The myths concerning the earliest period and the emigrations from the north.
(3) The myths concerning the world-war.
(4) The myths of the lower world.
(5) The Ivalde race.

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