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5. North-east District, Damp hedge banks at Swindon, Purton, Morden, Lydiard, also near Marlborough. Habit that of “Stelfaria nemorum (Linn.) with which this species is liable to be confounded at first sight, and to which it is closely allied, but the latter plant differs by having fewer styles, six equal valves to the capsule, the leaves only ciliated on the margin, and appearing under the microscope to be very minutely dotted with raised points. The seeds of “Malachium aquaticum” are very beautifully marked with close papillae with stellate bases according to Dr. Bromfield.
CERASTIUM, (LINN.) MoUSE-EAR CHICKWEED.
Name. From (keras) a horn, the curved capsule of some species resembling the horn of an ox. 1. C. glomeratum, (Thuil) Common or broad leaved Mouse-ear. C. culgatum (Smith). Engl. Bot. t. 789. Reich. Icones, v. 229. C. viscosum (Fries). Locality. In fields, waste ground, as well as on walls and dry banks. Common. A. F. April, September. Area, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In all the Districts. Variable in habit, but well characterized, as distinct from the following by its pale green hue, more obtuse foliage, and capsules curving upward. 2. C. triviale, (Link) Narrow-leaved Mouse-ear C. viscosum (Smith). Engl. Bot. t. 790. Reich. Icones, v. 229. C. vulgatum (Fries). Locality. In meadows, pastures, waste ground, on walls as well as in marshes. Very common. A. Fl. April, September. Area, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Generally distributed throughout all the Districts. Its procumbent stems, dark green hue, more elongated leaves, with flowers larger than those of the last, in small terminal panicles, the branches of which become much elongated as the fruit advances to maturity, and its deflexed capsules, especially distinguish it. 3. C. semidecandrum, (Linn.) Semidecandrous Mouse-ear. This species having but five stamens, while most others of the genus have ten, has been named semi (i.e. half) decandrous a bad term, half Latin, half Greek. It should have been Hemidecandrum. Engl. Bot. 1630. Reich. Icones, v. 228. Locality. Frequent on walls, and in dry waste places, in a sandy soil, not uncommon on the downs, but less frequent in the chalky Districts. A. F. March, April, JIay. Area, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In all the Districts more or less distributed. A smaller plant than C. triviale (Link) and flowering earlier, displaying itself, as Sir J. E. Smith well observes, in early spring on every wall, and withering away before the latter begins to put forth its far less conspicuous blossoms. Leaves usually hairy, sometimes glabrous. Stamens usually five, often four, occasionally ten. Fruit more or less curved, variable in length from a little longer than the calyx. Stems sometimes viscid. This species is always distinguished by its half membranous bracts. 4. C. arvense, (Linn.) Field Mouse-ear. Engl. Bot. t. 93. Locality. In sandy, gravelly, and chalky places. P. F. April, August. Area, 1. * 3. * * South Division. 1. South-east District, “Fields about Salisbury,” Major Smith. “Near Amesbury,” Dr. Southby, and Mr. James Hussey. 3. South-west District, “Wick near Downton,” Mr. James Hussey. “Warminster,” Mr. Rowden. Only as yet observed in two of the Southern Districts of Wilts, and there not at all common in the localities specified. The large flowers with petals twice the length of the calyx and the powerfully creeping roots, will distinguish this from all the other British species of Cerastium.
ORDER. MALWACEAE. (JUSS.)
Name. An old Latin appellation, cognate with the Greek, (malache), which is derived from (malasso), to soften or mollify, in allusion to the mucilaginous soothing properties of some of the genus.
1. M. moschafa, (Linn.) Musk Mallow. Engl. Bot. t. 754. Reich Icones, v. 169.
Locality. In woods, copses, along hedges, roadsides, and borders of fields, but rather local. P. F. July, August. Area, 1.2. 3. 4. 5. In all the districts on a gravelly soil, rare on the clay and chalk. Whole plant clothed more or less with spreading simple not starry hairs, unaccompanied by any short dense woolly pubescence; Calyx clothed with softer hairs than those on the stem, the eaterior one of three lanceolate or linear lanceolate distinct segments, of which one is commonly inserted below the others at some distance, evidently proving their relation to bracts, of which they occupy the place. This species derives its trivial name from the agreeable musky odour it exhales, which is perceptible chiefly on opening a box in which the plant has been kept, or in dry warm weather, or when made to flower in a room; at other times it is inodorous or nearly so. The present is less mucilaginous than the other British species, and is seldom used in medicine, but the beauty of its blossoms entitle it to a place in the flower garden. It has by some botanists been confounded with the “Malta Alcea,” (Linn.) Verrain JIallow, but it may be distinguished from that species, by the hairs on the plant being simple, the root leaves kidney-shaped, and the three outer leaves of the calyx being spear-shaped. In “M. Alcea” (Linn.), the hairs on the plant are starry, the root leaves angular, and the three outer leaves of the calyx egg-shaped. The white flowered variety of “M. moschata,” which is sometimes cultivated in gardens, I have observed in plantations on Salisbury Plain, and in Bradford Wood. Mr. William Bartlett informs me he has likewise noticed it near Great Bedwyn. 2. M. sylcestris, (Linn.) Wood or common Mallow. Engl. Bot. t. 671. Reich Icones, v. 168. Locality. Woods, roadsides, and waste places. Very common. P. F. June, September. Area, 1.2. 3. 4. 5. In all the Districts. 3. M. rotundifolia, (Linn.) Round-leaved or Dwarf Mallow. Engl. Bot. t. 1092. M. vulgaris, Fries. Reich Icones, c. 167. Locality. Waste places near houses, frequent. P2 F). June, September. Area, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Distributed more or less throughout all the Districts. All the species of this Genus, as well as of the Genera Asthasa and Lavatera, are mucilaginous and emollient, and are said to be destitute of all unwholesome qualities.
ORDER. TILIACEAE. (JUSS.)
Name. From the Saxon Lind, German Linde, a lime tree; which is probably so named from the extreme softness and lightness of the wood. linde being an obsolete or poetic word for gelind, soft or yielding. The quotations from Dryden in Johnson's Dictionary, art: “Linden,” are much in favour of this derivation. T. europaea, (Linn.) European or Common Lime-tree, Lindentree, Bast. Engl. Bot. t. 610. Loudon’s Arboretum, P. 63. “T. intermedia,” (D. C.) Locality. Plantations, naturalized in the county. Tree, Fl. July. Area, 1.2. 3. 4, 5. Distributed throughout all the Districts, in plantations, parks and pleasure grounds. A common avenue or lawn tree, “its flowers at dewy eve distilling odours.” Of this beautiful genus, more remarkable for the stately growth than the value of its timber, and for the delicate fragrance of its blossoms and ample foliage, we possess no evidence to prove that the present species is truly indigenous in Wiltshire, but has become naturalized; and that its introduction must have taken place at a very recent period, for neither Ray or Aubrey make any mention of this tree in their “Notes on the Natural History of the county.” The Common Lime or Linden is distributed in woods over nearly the whole of Europe except the extreme North, extending Eastward across Russian Asia to the Altai; it is much planted in Britain, and is probably truly wild in Southern and Western England, and perhaps in Ireland. It is a handsome long-lived tree, attaining sometimes as much as 120 feet in height, but generally not above half that size. The leaves which are broadly heart-shaped or nearly orbicular, vary much in the degree of down on their under surface and on the fruit, in the greater or less prominence of the five filiform ribs of the fruit, etc. The truly indigenous form in Northern Europe is always a small leaved one. The large leaved
, variety which we commonly plant “T grandiflora,” (Engl. Bot. Suppl. t. 2720,) is of South European origin, with the leaves still further enlarged by cultivation. Few persons we believe can look at a lime tree in full and luxuriant foliage, without admiring the living pyramid it presents, or pronouncing it amongst the finest and most striking of our foresttrees, and that its character is such we need only refer to the magnificent specimens at Moor Park, or to others of great magnitude in England mentioned by Mr. Loudon. The flowers which generally begin to open about the middle of June are in perfection in July, and are remarkable for their delicious scent which perfumes the air to a great distance around; these from the honied sweets they contain, are irresistibly attractive to the honey-bee and other insects, which in thousands flock to its honied stores, for which reason Virgil in his beautiful description of the industrious Corycian, places the lime and the pine in the neighbourhood of his hives. The wood of the lime tree which is yellowish white in colour, is turned to a variety of useful purposes; but the most elegant application is for fine carving, in the practice of which art it is justly preferred to every other.
“Smooth Linden best obeys
material some two hundred years ago, may be seen in St. Paul’s Cathedral, at Windsor Castle, Chatsworth and other places, still looking sharp, delicate and beautiful, as when they came from the artist's chisel. The bark tough and strong, separates readily into layers, and is the material of which the Russian or Bass mats are made. The family of Linnaeus are said to have derived the name from a gigantic lime or linden-tree, called in Swedish Linn, standing upon the farm occupied by his ancestors, and possibly the picturesque village of Lindhurst in the New Forest, may also have derived its name from a wood (hurst) of Limes (Linden) now no longer existing, as both “T. europaea' and “parviflora’ are occasionally found in old hedge-rows about Lymington, which is not very distant from the former place.