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Bees, hive, cell-making instinct, 224.
, humble, cells of, 225.
, parasitic, 218.
Beetles, wingless, in Madeira, 135.
with deficient tarsi, 135.
Bentham, Mr., on British plants, 48.
, on classification, 419.
Berkeley, Mr., on seeds in salt-water,
358.
Bermuda, birds of, 391.
Birds acquiring fear, 212.
annually cross the Atlantic, 364.
, colour of, on continents, 132.
, footsteps and remains of, in se-
condary rocks, 304.
, fossil, in caves of Brazil, 339.
of Madeira, Bermuda, and Gala-
pagos, 391.
, song of males, 89.
— transporting seeds, 361.
, waders, 385.
—, wingless, 134, 182.
—, with traces of embryonic teeth,
450.
Bizcacha, 349.
, affinities of, 429.
Bladder for swimming in fish, 190.
Blindness of cave animals, 137.
Blyth, Mr., on distinctness of Indian
cattle, 18.
, on striped Hemionus, 163.
, on crossed geese, 254.
Boar, shoulder-pad of 88.
Borrow, Mr., on the Spanish pointer,
35.
Bory St. Vincent on Batrachians,
393.
Bosquet, M., on fossil Chthamalus,
305.
Boulders, erratic, on the Azores, 363.
Branchiae, 190.
Brent, Mr., on house-tumblers, 214.
, on hawks killing pigeons, 362.
Brewer, Dr., on American cuckoo,
217.
Britain, mammals of 396.
Bronn on duration of specific forms,
2.94.
Brown, Robert, on classification, 415.
Buckman on variation in plants, 10.
Buzareingues on sterility of varieties,
270.

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Cabbage, varieties of, crossed, 99.
Calceolaria, 251.
Canary-birds, sterility of hybrids, 252.
Cape de Verde islands, 398.
Cape of Good Hope, plants of 110,
375.
Carrier-pigeons killed by hawks, 362.
Cassini on flowers of compositae, 145.
Catasetum, 424.
Cats, with blue eyes, deaf, 12.
—, variation in habits of 91.
—- curling tail when going to spring,
201.
Cattle destroying fir-trees, 72.
— destroyed by flies in La Plata,
72

—, breeds of, locally extinct, 111.
, fertility of Indian and European
breeds, 254.
Cave, inhabitants of, blind, 137.
Centres of creation, 352.
Cephalopodae, development of, 442.
Cervulus, 253.
Cetacea, teeth and hair, 144.
Ceylon, plants of 375.
Chalk formation, 322.
Characters, divergence of 111.
, sexual, variable, 156.
, adaptive or analogical, 426.
Charlock, 76.
Checks to increase, 67.
—, mutual, 71.
Chickens, instinctive tameness of, 216.
Chthamalinae, 289.
Chthamalus, cretacean species of 305.
Circumstances favourable to selection of
domestic products, 40.
to natural selection, 102.
Cirripedes capable of crossing, 101.
, carapace aborted, 148.
—, their ovigerous frena, 192.
, fossil, 304.
—, larvae of 440.
Classification, 413.
Clift, Mr., on the succession of types,
339.
Climate, effects of, in checking increase
of beings, 68.
, adaptation of, to organisms, 139.

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Cobites, intestine of, 190.
Cockroach, 76,
Collections, palaeontological, poor, 288.
Colour, influenced by climate, 132.
—, in relation to attacks by flies,
198.
Columba livia, parent of domestic pi-
geons, 23.
Colymbetes, 386.
Compensation of growth, 147.
Compositae, outer and inner florets of,
144.
, male flowers of, 451.
Conclusion, general, 480.
Conditions, slight changes in, favour-
able to fertility, 267.
Coot, 185.
Coral-islands, seeds drifted to, 361.
reefs, indicating movements of
earth, 310.
Corn-crake, 186.
Correlation of growth in domestic pro-
ductions, 11.
of growth, 143, 198.
Cowslip, 49.
Creation, single centres of 352.
Crinum, 250.
Crosses, reciprocal, 258.
Crossing of domestic animals, import-
ance in altering breeds, 20.
, advantages of 96.
unfavourable to selection, 102.
Crustacea of New Zealand, 376.
Crustacean, blind, 137.
Cryptocerus, 239.
Ctenomys, blind, 137.
Cuckoo, instinct of 216.
Currants, grafts of 262.
Currents of sea, rate of 360.
Cuvier on conditions of existence,
206.
on fossil monkeys, 304.
—, Fred., on instinct, 208.

D.

Dana, Prof., on blind cave-animals,
139.
, on relations of crustaceans of
Japan, 372.
on crustaceans of New Zealand,
376.

DUCK.

De Candolle on struggle for existence,
62.
on umbelliferae, 146.
on general affinities, 430.
, Alph., on low plants, widely
dispersed, 406.

2. , on widely-ranging plants
being variable, 53.
* , on naturalisation, 115.
—, , on winged seeds, 146.

* , on Alpine species sud-
denly becoming rare, 175.

—, , on distribution of plants
with large seeds, 360.

—, , on vegetation of Australia,
379.

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, on fresh-water plants, 386.
2 , on insular plants, 389.
Degradation of coast-rocks, 282.
Denudation, rate of 285.
of oldest rocks, 308.
Development of ancient forms, 336,
Devonian system, 334.
Dianthus, fertility of crosses, 256.
Dirt on feet of birds, 362.
Dispersal, means of 356.
during glacial period, 365.
Distribution, geographical, 346.
, means of 356.
Disuse, effects of, under nature, 134.
Divergence of character, 111.
Division, physiological, of labour, 115.
Dogs, hairless, with imperfect teeth,
12

– descended from several wild

stocks, 18.
—, domestic instincts of, 213.
, inherited civilisation of 215.
, fertility of breeds together, 254.
—, of crosses, 268.

—, proportions of, when young,

Domestication, variation under, 7.
Downing, Mr., on fruit-trees in Ame-
rica, 85.
Downs, North and South, 286.
Dragon-flies, intestines of 190.
Drift-timber, 360.
Driver-ant, 240.
Drones killed by other bees, 202.
Duck, domestic, wings of, reduced, 11.
—, logger-headed, 182.

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Earl, Mr. W., on the Malay Archipe-
lago, 395.

Ears, drooping, in domestic animals,
11.

, rudimentary, 454.
Earth, seeds in roots of trees, 361.
Eciton, 238.
Economy of organization, 147.
Edentata, teeth and hair, 144.
, fossil species of 339.
Edwards, Milne, on physiological divi-
sions of labour, 115.
, on gradations of structure, 194.
—, on embryological characters,
4.18
Eggs, young birds escaping from, 87.
Electric organs, 192.
Elephant, rate of increase, 64.
of glacial period, 141.
Embryology, 438.
Existence, struggle for, 60.
, conditions of 206.
Extinction, as bearing on natural selec-
tion, 109.
of domestic varieties, 111.
, 317.
Eye, structure of 187.
, correction for aberration, 202.
Eyes reduced in moles, 137.

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FRUIT-TREES.

Fertility of hybrids, 249.
from slight changes in conditions,
267.
of crossed varieties, 268.
Fir-trees destroyed by cattle, 72.
, pollen of, 203.
Fish, flying, 182.
, teleostean, sudden appearance of
305.
eating seeds, 362, 387.
—, fresh-water, distribution of, 384.
Fishes, ganoid, now confined to fresh
water, 107.
, electric organs of, 192.
, ganoid, living in freshwater, 321.
of southern hemisphere, 376.
Flight, powers of, how acquired, 182.
Flowers, structure of, in relation to
crossing, 97.
of compositae and umbelliferae,
144.
Forbes, E., on colours of shells, 132.
on abrupt range of shells in
depth, 175.
— on poorness of palaeontological
collections, 288.
on continuous
genera, 316.
on continental extensions, 357.
, on distribution during glacial
period, 366.
on parallelism in time and space,
409.
Forests, changes in, in America, 74.
Formation, Devonian, 334.
Formations, thickness of, in Britain,
284.
, intermittent, 290.
Formica rufescens, 219.
sanguinea, 219.
—— flava, neuter of 240.
Frena, ovigerous, of cirripedes, 192.
Fresh-water productions, dispersal of,
383.
Fries on species in large genera being
closely allied to other species, 57.
Frigate-bird, 185.
Frogs on islands, 393.
Fruit-trees, gradual improvement of 37.
in United States, 85.
, varieties of, acclimatised in
United States, 142.

succession of

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Galapagos Archipelago, birds of 390.
, productions of, 398, 400.
Galeopithecus, 181.
Game, increase of, checked by vermin,
68.
Gärtner on sterility of hybrids, 247,
255.
—, on reciprocal crosses, 258.
, on crossed maize and verbascum,
270.
, on comparison of hybrids and
mongrels, 272.
Geese, fertility when crossed, 253.
, upland, 185.
Genealogy important in classification,
425.
Geoffroy St. Hilaire on balancement,
147.

on homologous organs, 434.
, Isidore, on variability of re-
peated parts, 149.
, on correlation in monstrosi-
ties, 11.
, on correlation, 144.
, on variable parts being often
monstrous, 155.
Geographical distribution, 346.
Geography, ancient, 487.
Geology, future progress of 487.
—, imperfection of the record, 279.
Giraffe, tail of 195.
Glacial period, 365.
Gmelin on distribution, 365.
Gnathodon, fossil, 368.
Godwin-Austen, Mr., on the
Archipelago, 300.
Goethe on compensation of growth,
147.
Gooseberry, grafts of 262.
Gould, Dr. A., on land-shells, 397.
, Mr., on colours of birds, 132.
, on birds of the Galapagos, 398.
, on distribution of genera of birds,
404.
Gourds, crossed, 270.
Grafts, capacity of 261.
Grasses, varieties of, 113.

Malay

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Habit, effect of, under domestication,
11.
, effect of, under nature, 134.
, diversified, of same species, 183.
Hair and teeth, correlated, 144.
Harcourt, Mr. E. W., on the birds of
Madeira, 391.
Hartung, M. on boulders in the Azores,
363.
Hazel-nuts, 359.
Hearne on habits of bears, 184.
Heath, changes in vegetation, 72.
Heer, 0., on plants of Madeira, 107.
Helix pomatia, 397.
Helosciadium, 359.
Hemionus, striped, 163.
Herbert, W., on struggle for exist-
ence, 62.
, on sterility of hybrids, 249.
Hermaphrodites crossing, 96.
Heron eating seed, 387.
Heron, Sir R., on peacocks, 89.
Heusinger on white animals not poisoned
by certain plants, 12.
Hewitt, Mr., on sterility of first crosses,
264.
Himalaya, glaciers of 373.
, plants of 375.
Hippeastrum, 250.
Holly-trees, sexes of 93.
Hollyhock, varieties of, crossed, 271.
Hooker, Dr., on trees of New Zealand,
100.

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HOOKER.

Hooker, Dr., on acclimatisation of
Himalayan trees, 140.
, on flowers of umbelliferae, 145.
, on glaciers of Himalaya, 373.
, on algae of New Zealand, 376.
, on vegetation at the base of the
Himalaya, 378.
, on plants of Tierra del Fuego,
374, 378.
, on Australian plants, 375, 399.
, on relations of flora of South
America, 379.
, on flora of the Antarctic lands,
381, 399.
on the plants of the Galapagos,
392, 398.
Hooks on bamboos, 197.
to seeds on islands, 392.
Horner, Mr., on the antiquity of Egyp-
tians, 18.
Horns, rudimentary, 454.
Horse, fossil, in La Plata, 318.
Horses destroyed by flies in La Plata,
72.

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