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NATURAL SELECTION.

Natural Selection—its power compared with man’s selection–its

power on characters of trifling importance–its power at all ages and on both sexes — Sexual Selection – On the generality of intercrosses between individuals of the same species – Circumstances favourable and unfavourable to Natural Selection, namely, intercrossing, isolation, number of individuals — Slow action — Extinction caused by Natural Selection — Divergence of Character, related to the diversity of inhabitants of any small area, and to naturalisation – Action of Natural Selection, through Divergence of Character and Extinction, on the descendants from a common parent—Explains the Grouping of all organic beings ... . . . . . . 80–130

CHAPTE R. V.

LAws of VARIATION.

Effects of external conditions – Use and disuse, combined with

natural selection; organs of flight and of vision — Acclimatisation-Correlation of growth — Compensation and economy of growth-False correlations–Multiple, rudimentary, and lowly organised structures variable – Parts developed in an unusual manner are highly variable: specific characters more variable than generic : secondary sexual characters variable—Species of the same genus vary in an analogous manner — Reversions to long-lost characters—Summary ... ... ... ... ... 131–170

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CHAPTER VI.

DIFFICULTIES ON THEORY.

Difficulties on the theory of descent with modification—Transitions— Absence or rarity of transitional varieties—Transitions in habits of life—Diversified habits in the same species—Species with habits widely different from those of their allies—Organs of extreme perfection—Means of transition—Cases of difficulty— Natura non facit saltum—Organs of small importance–Organs not in all cases absolutely perfect—The law of Unity of Type and of the Conditions of Existence embraced by the theory of Natural Selection ... . . . . . . . . ... Page 171–206

CHAPTER VII.

INSTINCT.

Instincts comparable with habits, but different in their origin – Instincts graduated – Aphides and ants–Instincts variable— Domestic instincts, their origin – Natural instincts of the cuckoo, ostrich, and parasitic bees – Slave-making ants–Hive-bee, its cell-making instinct — Difficulties on the theory of the Natural

Selection of instincts – Neuter or sterile insects — Summary 207–244

C HAPTER VIII.

HyBRIDISM.

Distinction between the sterility of first crosses and of hybrids – Sterility various in degree, not universal, affected by close interbreeding, removed by domestication–Laws governing the sterility of hybrids – Sterility not a special endowment, but incidental on other differences – Causes of the sterility of first crosses and of hybrids – Parallelism between the effects of changed conditions of life and crossing — Fertility of varieties when crossed and of their mongrel offspring not universal – Hybrids and mongrels compared independently of their fertility – Summary 245–278

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