Dynamics of Weed Populations

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Cambridge University Press, Nov 24, 1995 - Science - 332 pages
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Weeds have ecological attributes that confer the ability to interfere with human activities. Roger Cousens and Martin Mortimer place weed management within an ecological context, with the focus on the manipulation of population size. They consider the dynamics of abundance and spatial distribution at both geographic and local scales, and consider the basic processes of dispersal, reproduction and mortality together with the factors that influence them. The authors show how management modifies patterns of behavior that are intrinsic to populations, and note the evolution and management of resistance to herbicides. This book provides weed science with the conceptual basis that has previously been lacking. It also gives ecologists and botanists access to the extensive database on the population ecology of weeds.
 

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Contents

Weed population dynamicsthe framework
1
The impact of weeds
3
The development of a weed flora
4
The concept of a habitat
8
Studying weed populations
9
Lifecycles and life histories
15
Overview
18
The dynamics of geographic range expansion
21
Conclusions
167
Extrinsic factors affecting population density
169
The effects of agricultural management factors
170
The effects of weather
189
Interactions with other organisms
191
Using models to explore weed control options
195
Conclusions
216
The spatial dynamics of weed populations
217

Are there recognisable phases in the invasion process?
23
How can we measure rate of spread from available data?
30
What governs rate of spread during an invasion?
38
What makes range expansion cease?
40
have species of weeds spread in some directions more than in others?
44
Have particular modes of dispersal dominated spread between continents?
47
implications for the management of invasions
51
Conclusions
54
Dispersal within and between populations
55
Patterns of dispersal
56
Dispersal by different agencies
62
How important are the various vectors of dispersal?
81
Conclusions
85
Processes involved in the regulation of population density
86
The seed phase
88
The seed phase
91
The plant phase
111
Vegetative reproductive phase
129
Conclusions
133
The intrinsic dynamics of population density
135
What types of trajectory are likely?
136
how do we go about mathematical modelling?
140
Mathematical models of population density
145
What types of trajectory occur in practice?
161
The implications of habitat mosaics within fields
218
Field observations of the spread of weed populations
221
Models of patch expansion
225
Implications for patch formation
228
Field observations of the dynamics of weed patches
230
a conceptual view
235
Suggestions from simulation models
238
Conclusions
242
The evolution of herbicide resistance
243
Theoretical background
246
single and multigene systems
254
The dynamics of selection
259
The management of herbicide resistance
278
Conclusions
282
Weed population dynamics synthesis and prognosis
283
Is the data base extensive enough?
284
Can changes in weed populations be predicted?
285
Are the right questions being answered?
288
Can studies of weed biology drive changes in farm or land management?
292
Conclusions
294
References
295
Organism index
323
Subject index
327
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