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from his papers by his secretaries, we may be permitted to question the folidity of the grounds on which the whole statement depends. He quotes Father Avrigny, who gives it scarcely any credit ; and adds, that the secretaries themselves, admitting the fact of Sully never having conversed distinctly on the subject, ftate their authority for the insertion to have been different pieces of manuscript, unsigned, half torn, little connected, and thrown afide as useless. But we should remember that their statement of the plan is precise, and that they aver the possibility of tracing it diftin&ly in those documents. They also mention having broached the subject to their mafter, who certainly would have given them immediate disproof of the suppositions which they had formed, had they been greatly deceived, although nothing could be more natural than his refusal to furnish secret details
when he saw them on the right fcent. Nay, the very circumstance of the statement being found only in Sully's papers, forms of itself a presumption against the mistake or falsity of the compilers. It was at once likely that traces of the design fhould be left there, though in no other quarter, and improbable that the secretaries thould incorporate with their memoirs, not an augmentation or correction of stories then in circulation, but a vision entirely unknown to all the rest of the world.
M. Chambrier offers several remarks upon the discrepancy of Henry's conduct with various parts of the great design. By the treaty of Bruchsol in 1610, it is well known that Savoy was ceded to France as an indemnity for her aid to the Duke in conquering the Milanese. Other proofs are not wanting that the country of Nice was destined for France also. And the treaty of Halle itipulated the allistance of ten thousand men to the Princes of the league, in furtherance of their scheme for obtaining the fucceffion of Cleves from the House of Austria, although, by the grand design, that succession was to have been incorporated with Holland in an independent republic. But it is unnecessary to dwell at greater length upon these discrepancies. They are all reconciled by the view of Henry's grand design, which we have ventured to suggest in the preceding pages ; and the facts, on a comparison of which they proceed, only serve to place, in a still Atronger light, the opinion we have there itated as to the real nature of that famous project.
ART. XIV. Sopra il Carbone che si rinchuide nei Pianti. Memoria
di Giambattista da S. Martino. (from Memorie di Matematiça è Fisica della Societa italiana. Tom. VIII. Part II. T is sufficiently fingular that the sciences should suffer more than any other human concern, by the interruptions which arise from local boundaries. We have seen, on many occafions, the difficulty with which works the most highly esteemed in one country become known, even to the most learned men of states fituated in its immediate vicinity. Every one knows how long the immortal works of Bacon took to make their way across the Channel. The commentator on Kant's Philosophy, has informed us of the flowness with which a system that occupied every head on the right bank of the Rhine, croffed over to the left; and all Germany had been for twenty years busily occupied with romances and free-masonry, before it was suspected in England that such was the passion of the Germans. When we compare with this tardy and difficult communication of tastes and scientific lights, the rapid and hourly intercourse of ordinary commerce which unites the most remote quarters of the globe, we shall at least find reason to conclude that the interest excited by speculative pursuits, is of a kind very different in vivacity from the common desire of gain, and the gratification of our inore sensual appetites. The bill of exchange which Mr Bruce drew in the depths of Abyffinia, where no European had ever before penetrated, was duly presented for payment in Lombardftreet. The small gold coins of ancient Greece and Rome, have survived the lapse of ages, when objects of infinitely greater real value, and of far more easy preservation, have only left the renown of their names to the present generation; and we are now about to thew that the trifling boundary of the Alps, has locked up from the rest of Europe, the knowledge of many scientific works, which, on the northern fide of those mountains, would have spread themselves with rapidity over all the ftudies of England and France. It is, however, worthy of notice, that the converse of the position does not hold. The Italian philosophers appear to be in full poffefsion of all the improvements, even the most recent, which their brethren the Filosofi Oltramontani' have been adding to the stock of literature and science.
There are in the different States of Italy, a greater number of scientific institutions of importance for the ardour of their researches and the regularity and value of their publications, than in any equal portion of territory in the rest of Europe. Neither the multiplied divilions of political society
which have place in Germany, nor the more compact monarchies of England, France and Spain, nor the crowded and busy population of Holland and the Nether. lands, furnish any thing like the same number of distinguished academies. Leaving out of view a multitude of minor institutions, of societies devoted to the cultivation of the fine arts, and several phyfical academies, which have not as yet published memoirs (for ex, ample, those of Pisa and Paria), we have, in the north of Italy alone, (a very narrow district, placed in circumstances not the anoit favourable to the calm pursuits of science), no fewer than five learned bodies, only one of which is ever mentioned in the north of Europe, and even that one very seldom referred to. The memoirs of the academies of Mantua, of Milan, of Padua, and of Turin, are all works of great merit. Of the latter, the only one ever quoted in England and France, probably because it alone publishes its transactions in the French language, we have begun to give our readers some specimens in the present Nuniber. But more important than all there is the fund of original science contained in the transactions of the Italian Society of Verona. They are published in large volumes with great regularity, and contain a luccellion of the most interesting memoirs upon all the subjects of physical and mathematical science. We need only refer to the geometrical papers contained in the fourth volume of these tranfactions. We regret that this publication is of a date rather too far back to justify us in analyling those tracts. They contain solutions of soine problems, particularly of the famous problem, the simplest cale of which is mentioned by Pappus Alexandrius, and of which the general cafe has been found to be of extreme difficulty by the methods of modern analysis, according to the first mathematicians. (Berlin Memoirs for 1798, p. 95.) Nothing can be conceived more perfectly rigorous, and at the same time more timple and elegant, than those geometrical investigations of the Italian mathematicians. Pappus mentions the problem in its eatieft case, as having been folved by Apollonius, viz. to infcribe in a circle a triangle, whose fides pass through three given points in a given strait line. Cramé generalized this, so as to solve it wherever the points were placed. (Berlin Memoirs, 1776.) In the same volume is a solution by La Grange, alio by the modern analysis. Euler, and his pupils Fuss and Lexel, folved this case geometrically in the Petersburg Memoirs for 1780. Castiglione gave another solution in the Berlin Memoirs for 1777. L'Huilier, in the same Memoirs for 1798, solves the general problem, ' to inscribe a polygon in a circle, so that all the sides may pals through given points.' This he does by the algebraical calculus suggested by La Grange. But the Italian mathematician does it by the pureit rules of ancient geometry. He was a young man of 15
when he discovered and made it known. His name is Annibale Giordano of Naples. Several moft able tracts of his are contained in the Neapolitan Memoirs. The other mathematician who folved it at the same time, is Profetior Malfatti of Ferrari.
T Societies of Bologna and Florence are famous, especially the latter, for their scientific researches; and, not to extend the
catalogue of this bright constellation of genius, the transactions of the Neapolitan Royal Academy (Atti della Reale Accademia delle Scienze et Belle Littere di Napoli), contain some of the finest researches, particularly upon mathematical subjects, of which any modern inftitution can boast. We need only refer to Signor Fergolana's two papers on local problems and porisms, (in which, by the way, he miitakes the nature of a porism most egregiously), and still more to the additional tracts of Signor Annibale Giordano on the fame subjects, and to the paper of Saladino on Cauftics.
The insulated labours of individuals have kept pace with the progress of public inftitutions. Of these, except a few anatomical tracts, and the late astronomical discoveries, none have as yet been made known in the northern parts of Europe. That they deserve very great attention, the fpecimens which we have given in the present Number will, we truft, fufficiently evince.
In all the scientific researches of the Italians, we discover proofs of the most happy capacities for the purtunits of true philofophy. There is a distinctive character in their fpeculative inquiries, as well as in their schools of the fine arts. We meet with the fame chaftenefs of style in the rigour of their induction, utterly void of that love of dazzling novelty, and that proneness to fimiy hypothesis, which diftinguithies many masters of the French school; and equally remote from that dull and unprofitable fondness for mere facts, which characterizes the German daubers. We are not, it is true, so often astonished by grand discovery. We do not meet with the hand of a Black or a Lavoisier, any more than in their galleries we can expect to be arrested at every step by the vigour, the mighty force of a Reubens. But we find nothing to disgust by its tasteless flatness or its unchafte ornaments. We are constantly delighted with elegance, subtelty, ingenuity-with that which best deserves the name of fine genius : a proneness to reafon and combine, but to reason by combining facts: a love of fpeculation, but joined to a nice capacity for obfervation : a decided partiality for the exercise of the rarer and more beautiful powers of the mind, without any unfitness for the patient work of persevering and long sustained attention to details : a preference equally strong for efforts of original talent, and of that kind of talent which partakes of the fancy, and bears a relation to refined taste: a considerable degree of contempt for the mere exertion of memory and labour--the business of the linguist and the verbal critic-the work, the bodily toil performed hourly in all the book-maker shops of the three hundred states of Germany. In short, if nothing very sublime in the walks of scientific discovery has appeared among this fine and ill-appreciated people, they have given birth to numerous and varied works, of great beauty and exquiste ingenuity. They can hew, even among the masters of their present school of philosophy, many Titians ; and, as they once produced a Raphael to guide the pencil, we may expect to see them worship their own Newton, perhaps before either France or England shall have given birth to a great master in the fine arts, and long before any one has arisen in Germany, capable of cutting the canvass, or mixing the colours.
We purpose, at present, to make our readers acquainted with some of the papers contained in the last publications of the Societa Italiana, premising that they will find others of much more signal merit in the volumes themselves. Some of these we cannot attempt to analyse, without the assistance of figures ; and others are of a nature too purely algebraical, to admit of any intel ligible abstract. We especially allude to the two papers in vol. IX., upon the question; Whether the circle can be reclified and squared?' and several other analytical differtations, as the papers on equations, and on the law of continuity. All these we earneftly recommend to our scientific readers, as singularly beauti. ful and satisfactory pieces of mathematical research; and we willingly indulge a hope that this reference may have the effect of making those excellent productions known in this country, At present, we shall confine ourselves to less extensive objects, and thall begin with the chemical and physiological paper of Signor S. Martino now before us, as a tract of some intereft, from the great importance of the subject, and of considerable merit, from the general accuracy of the methods pursued in the experimental investigation of it, though we shall have occasion to thew that it is remarkably deficient in the extent of its plan of inquiry
After remarking, that the discoveries of modern chemistry have reduced the limple elements of all vegetable substances to three bodies, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen; that the origin of the earths, iron, and salts which enter into their compofition, is easily traced when the origin of the other component parts has been ascertained; and that the source of oxygen and hydroa gen is evidently the water in which all plants grow; our author proposes, as the only remaining problem, to ascertain the origin of the carbonaceous matter. He sets out with a remark of old date, that the health and strength of plants seems to be intia mately connected with the fat or oleaginous, that is, the carbon naceous qualities of their food. As this position has never been dire&tly proved, he begins by offering an experimental demon stration of it.
He first prepared a perfectly well mixed and homogenous foil, formed of earth and manure, and having fown in equal portions