Benjamin/Cummings, 1999 - Science - 620 pages
This coherent text translates the methods of statisticians into "ecological English" so that students may readily apply these methods to the real world. Ecological Methodology, Second Edition provides a balance of material on animal and plant populations. It teaches students of ecology how to design the most efficient tests in order to obtain maximum precision with minimal work. The first part of the text focuses on biological and technical issues in statistical methodology. Students learn about advances that have been made in designing better sampling devices, along with the techniques and equipment used for sampling. The second part deals with creating solid statistical design, and presents all methods that are well-known to statisticians in a language and context that students will easily understand.
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When x > 100 use the normal approximation: 95% confidence limits of x: Lower
limit = x – 0.94 – 1.96Vx – 0.02 Upper Limit = x + 1.94 + 1.96Vx + 0.98 99%
confidence limits of x: Lower limit = x – 1.99 – 2.576Vx + 0.33 Upper Limit = x +
2.99 + ...
The constant za defines 100 (1 - a) percent confidence limits, and values can be
substituted from tables of the standard normal distribution (z); see Zar (1996,
appl9). For example, for 80% confidence limits, replace za with the constant
2.3.1 Confidence Intervals Variances for the estimates of population size,
probability of survival, and dilution rate are given in Jolly (1965) but these are
valid only for large samples. Manly (1971) and Roff (1973) have shown with