## Ecological MethodologyThis coherent text translates the methods of statisticians into "ecological English" so that students may readily apply these methods to the real world. |

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When x > 100 use the normal approximation: 95%

**confidence limits**of x: Lower

limit = x – 0.94 – 1.96Vx – 0.02 Upper Limit = x + 1.94 + 1.96Vx + 0.98 99%

**confidence limits**of x: Lower limit = x – 1.99 – 2.576Vx + 0.33 Upper Limit = x +

2.99 + ...

The constant za defines 100 (1 - a) percent

**confidence limits**, and values can be

substituted from tables of the standard normal distribution (z); see Zar (1996,

appl9). For example, for 80%

**confidence limits**, replace za with the constant

1.2816.

2.3.1

**Confidence Intervals**Variances for the estimates of population size,

probability of survival, and dilution rate are given in Jolly (1965) but these are

valid only for large samples. Manly (1971) and Roff (1973) have shown with

computer ...

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Ecological Methodology Charles J. Krebs,CHARLES L. KREBS,Professor of Zoology Charles J Krebs No preview available - 1999 |