Benjamin/Cummings, 1999 - Science - 620 pages
This coherent text translates the methods of statisticians into "ecological English" so that students may readily apply these methods to the real world. Ecological Methodology, Second Edition provides a balance of material on animal and plant populations. It teaches students of ecology how to design the most efficient tests in order to obtain maximum precision with minimal work. The first part of the text focuses on biological and technical issues in statistical methodology. Students learn about advances that have been made in designing better sampling devices, along with the techniques and equipment used for sampling. The second part deals with creating solid statistical design, and presents all methods that are well-known to statisticians in a language and context that students will easily understand.
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Large samples When approximately 500 or more individuals are sampled to
estimate p1 and an equally large number to estimate p3, you should use the
normal approximation: Wí [variance(s))] + N3 [variance(p,)] Variance(W1) = (f1 -
7.1.3 Variances from a Normal Distribution In some cases an ecologist may wish
to estimate the variance of a given measurement to a specified level of precision.
How can you estimate how large a sample you should take? First, you must ...
Observed variance of stratum h (equation [8.3]) na = Sample size in stratum h f, -
Sampling fraction in stratum h = n/NA The last term in this summation is the finite
population correction, and it can be ignored if you are sampling less that 5% of ...