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he formed as fo many qualifications for happiness and rewards, to be the instruments of pain and punilhment.



ο άνθρωπG- ενεργετός πεφυκώς.

ANTONIN. lib. ix, Man is naturally a beneficent creature. THE following effay comes from an hand

which has entertained ny readers once be. fore. Notwithstanding

a narrow contracted temper be that which obtains inost in the world, we must not therefore conclude this to be the genuine characteristic of mankind; because there are some who delight in nothing so much as in doing good, and receive more of their happiness at second hand, or by rebound from others, than by direct and immediate sensation. Now though these heroic souls are but few, and to appearance so far advanced a• bove the grovelling multitude, as if they were of another order of beings, yet in reality their nature is the same, moved by the same springs, and endued with all the same, essential qualities, only cleared, refined, and cultivated. Water is the same fluid body in winter and in summer;, when it stands stiffned in ice, as when it flows along in gentle streams, gladdenir:g a thousand fields in its progress. It is a property of the heart of man to be diffusive : Its kind wishes spread abroad over the face of creation; and if there be those, as we may observe too many of them, who are all wrapt up in their own dear felves, without any visible concern for their species, let us suppose that their



good-nature is frozen, and by the prevailing force of some contrary quality restrained in its operati

I shall therefore endeavour to assign some of the principal checks upon this generous propension of the human soul, which will enable us to judge whether, and by what method, this most useful principle may be unfettered, and restored to its native freedom of exercise.

The first and leading cause is an unhappy com• plexion of body. The heathens, ignorant of the true source of moral evil, generally charged it on the obliquity of matter, which, being eternal and independent, was incapable of change in any of its properties, even by the Almighty mind, who, when he came to fashion it in a world of beings, must take it as he found it. This notion, as most others of theirs, is a composition of truth and error. That matter is eternal, that, from the first union of a foul to it, it perverted its inclinations, and that the ill influence it hath upon

the mind is not to be corrected by God himself, are all very great errors, occasioned by a truth as evident, that the capacities and dispositions of the foul depend, to a great degree, on the bodily temper. As there are fome fools, others are knaves, by constitution; and, particularly, it may be said of many, that they are born with an illiberal caft of mind; the matter that composes them is tenacious as birdlime, and a kind of cramp draws their hands and their hearts together, that they never care to open them, unless to grasp at more. It is a melancholly lot this; but attended with one advantage above theirs, to whom it would be as painful to forbear good offices, as it is to these men to perform them; that whereas. perfons naturally beneficent ofren mistake instinct for virtue, by reason of the difficulty of distinguiling when one rules them and when the other, men of the opposite character may be more certain of the motive that predominates in every action.

If they cannot confer a benefit with that ease and frankness which are necessary to give it a grace in the eye of the world, in requital, the real merit of what they do is enhanced by the opposition they surmount in doing it. The strength of their virtue is seen in rising against the weight of nature, and every time they have the resolution to discharge their duty, they make a farifice of inclination to conscience, which is always too grateful to let its followers go without suitable marks of its approbation. Perhaps the entire cure of this ill quality is no more poffible, than of fonie distempers that descend by inheritance. However, a great deal may be done by a course of beneficence obstinately perfifted in; this, if any thing, being a likely way of eftablishing a moral habit, which shall be fomewhat of a counterpoise to the force of mechanism. Only it must be remembered, that we do not intermit, upon any pretence whatsoever, the custom of doing good, in regard, if there be the least ceffation, nature will watch the opportunity to return, and in a short time to recover the ground it was so long in quitting : For there is this difference between mental habits, and fuch as have their foundation in the body; that these last are in their nature more forcible and violent, and, to gain upon us need only not to be imposed; whereas the former must be continually reinforced with fresh fup. plies, or they will languish and die away. And this suggests the reason why good habits, in general, require longer time for their fettlements than bad; and yet are sooner displaced : The reason is, that vicious habits (as drunkenness for inftance) produce a change in the body, which the others not doing, must be maintained the same way they are acquired, by the mere dint of industry, refolu-. tion, and vigilance.

Another thing which suspends the cperations of benevolence, is the love of the world; proceeding


frorn à false notion men have taken up, that an abundance of the world is an essential ingredient into the happiness of life. Wordly things are of such a quality as to leffen upon dividing, so that the more partners there are, the less must fall to every man's private share. The consequence of this is, that they look upon one another with an evil eye, each imagining all the rest to be embarked in an interest, that cannot take place but to his prejudice. Hence are those eager competitions for wealth or power ;

hence one man's success becomes another's disappointment; and like pretenders to the same 'mistress, they can seldom have common "charity for their rivals. Not that they are naturally disposed to quarrel and fall out, but it is natural for a man to prefer himself to all others, and to secure his own interest first. If that which men esteem their happiness were, like the light, the same fufficient and unconfined good, whether ten thousand enjoy the benefit of it, or but one, we should fee men's good-will, and kind endeavours, would be as universal.

Homo qui erranti comiter monstrat viam,
Quasi lumen de fuo lumine accendat, facit,
Nihilomimus ipsi luceat, cum illi accenderit,

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* To direct a wanderer in the right way, is to light another man's candle by one's own, which loses none of its light by what the other

gains. But, unluckily, mankind agree in making choice of objects, which inevitably engage them in perpetual differences. Learn therefore, like a wise man, the true estimate of things. Defire not more of the world than is neceffary to accommodate you in paft ing through it ; look upon every thing beyond, not as useless only, but burdensome. Place not


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your quiet in things which you cannot have without putting others beside them, and thereby making them your enemies, and which, when attained will give you more trouble to keep, than satisfaction in the enjoyment. Virtue is a good of a nobler kind : It grows by communication, and so little resembles earthly riches, that the more hands it is lodged in, the greater is every man's particular stock. So, by propagating and mingling their fires, not only all the lights of a branch together cast a more extensive brightness, but each single light burns with a stronger flame. And, lastly, take this along with you, that if wealth be an instrument of pleasure, the greatest pleasure it can put into your power, is that of doing good. It is worth confidering, that the organs of sense act within a narrow compass, and the appetites will soon say they have enough: Which of the two therefore is the happier man ? He, who confining all his regard to the gratification of his own appetites, is capable but of short fits of pleasure ? Or the man, who, reckoning himself a sharer in the fatisfactions of others, especially those which come to them by his means, enlarges the sphere of his happiness?

The last enemy to benevolence I shall mention is uneasiness of any kind. A guilty, or a discontented mind, a mind ruffled by ill-fortune, discontented by its own passions, foured by neglect, or fretting at disappointments, hath not leisure to attend to the neceflity or reasonableness of a kindness defired, nor a taste for those pleasures which wait on beneficence, which demand a calm and unpollut. ed heart to relish them. The most miserable of hand, the most communicative is the happiest. And if you are in search of the seat of perfect love and friendship, you will not find it until you come to the region of the blefled, where happiness, like VOL. VIII.


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