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April 2. 1612, in his fiftieth year, and was buried "HE accompanying Drawing ex
at Hatfield, agreeably to the directions THE
of his will. hibits a general view of Hatfield in Hertfordsbire, (see Plate I.)
“ Hatfield House, the principal resishewing on the right Hatfield House, denge of James Cecil
, Marquis of Salisthe poble mansion of the Marquis of bury, and Viscount Cranbourn, occupies
a beautiful situation in a finely diversiSalisbury, built in the reign of James
fied park, watered on the North side by I. by Robert Cecil, first Earl of Sa
the river Lea, and including an area of lisbury; in the centre, the stables, several miles in circumference. This &c.; and on the left the Church of mansion is of brick, and of vast exHatfield, with the Salisbury Arms Ion. tent: it was erected by Robert Cecil,
“ Hatfield *, called Haethfeld in the first Earl of Salisbury, between the years Saxon times, from its situation on a 1605, when the marer came into his heath, was antient demesne of the Saxon possession by exchange with King James, Kings till it was granted by Edgar, in
and 1611; the latter date appearing in the tenth century, to the Abbey at Ely, front of a lofty tower, which rises near in Cambridgeshire. On the conversion the centre of the building. Its form is of that foundation into a Bishoprick, in
that of an balf H: many improvements the reign of Henry the First, it became
have been made here of late years, parattached to the new See; and the Ma- ticularly by the last Earl, who restored nor-house becoming a Palace of the the antient magnificence of this venerBishops, the town was thenceforth dis-, able edifice, which had been suffered to tinguished by the appellation of Bishop's fall into decay, and again rendered it an Hatfield. Queen Elizabeth, who had habitation worthy of the Ceeils. Many of résided in the Bishop's Palace some years
the apartments are very large ; and most before she came to the Crown, greatly
of them are decorated with pictures of admired the situation; and by virtue of considerable merit and curiosity *.” the statute which gave her the power of Yours, &c.
M. exchange, procured the alienation of this manor from the then Bishop of Ely, Ri Mr. URBAN,
April 3. chard Cox. James the First, in the third S you have in your late Volumes year of his reign, exchanged it for the house, manor, and park of Theobalds, cussion of Architectural subjects; I with his Minister, Robert Cecil, Earl of presume that the admission of four Salisbury; whose descendant, the Mar- short essays on Sculpture since the quis of Salisbury, is the present owner. “T Church is a handsome fabrick, not be incompatible with your plan,
æra of Greek and Roman artists, may dedica: i to St. Etheldreda, and consist
or uninteresting to many of your ing nave, chancel, aisles, and embattled ywer, with a Chapel, or Burial
Readers. place, of the Earls of Salisbury, on the
1. On Sculpture io England, from North Ade of the chancel. This Chapel its first Introduction to the Close of was erévied by Robert Cecil, first Earl the Fifteenth Century, as applied to of Salisbury of that surname, but con
Tombs. tains neither monumental inscription, 2. The same subject contioued to nor other memorial, for any of the fa- the present Time. wily, except the founder. His monu 3. Of Italian Sculptors since the ment is curious: it represents the Earl Revival of the Arts. in bis robes, lying on a slab of black 4. Of French Sculptors, to the premarble, which is supported by figures, sent Time. in white marble, of the Cardinal Virtues, kneeling, in virgin habits, and with that these should follow each other,
With your approbation, I propose their proper attributes. Beneath, on another slab of black marble, the Earl
at intervals best suited to your con
venience. is represented as a skeleton, lying on a well-sculptured mat, in white marble. Tbo Earl died at Marlborough, in May On Sculpture in England, from its
first Introduction, to the Close of the *“ The town bas frequently had the Fifteenth Century, as applied to honour of being recorded as the place Tombs. wbere a Synod was beld in the year 680; The revival of the Art of Sculpture and also as the birth-place of Williain in Europe, after the universal prede Hatfield, second son of Edward the Third: but the real scene of both those
t Beauties of England, vol. VII. pp. transactions was Hatfield in Yorkshire."
276, 277. GBNT. MAG. April, 1818.
valence of the Goths, originated in front or façade of that. Churcb *, its connexion with Architecture. The superiority of the French sculpWe have no remains of Saxon Sculp- tors was apparent in the effigies of ture in England excepting in bas. Dagobert, and the rich portals of the relief, of which there are many spe- Cathedrals of St. Denis, half a cen. ciniens upon fonts, upon the capitals tury before carving, so applied, was of pillars, and over door-cases in knowo, in any degree, in this kingChurch-porches. When those superb dom +. A general view of Sepulchral temples were erected in France, in the Sculpture in England may be comeleventh and twelfth centuries, which municated by an examinalion of the have engrossed the admiration of suc- Royal tombs, upon which their effigies ceeding ages, pedestals and canopies are placed in their several reigns, both for external and interior deco monuments have been likewise erectration were added to the infinite ed to the great Nobility, similar in number of ornamental particles ; by plan, and scarcely inferior io magnie the combinatiou of wbich, extreme ficence, to some of which occasional richness was effected. To fill these reference will be made. The effigies niches with representations of the hu of Kings and Prioces were more freman form, required efforts, long dor- quently of gilded copper, or latteo, inant, of imitative art. The statua a mixture of brass and tin ý; those of ries were necessarily inventors of their Nobles, of marble or alabaster ; but. own mechanical process of sculpture; of Ecclesiastics, never of the first inenfor all former rules of execution were tioned material, for the outlines of lost in oblivion, and the art was once portraits deeply engraven on brass inore in a slate of infancy. Shrives are not the subjects of this disquisie, were the first subjects of their inge- tion. Every Cathedral retains the puity, and were ornamented with cuinbent statues of its early Bishops, imaginary figures of the Madonna and originally painted and gilt. Small vaSaints; and as the skill and oumber of riation occurs in the Royal costume ; these rude artists increased, they took but the strictest imitation has been their station in the graud fronts of preserved in other representations of Cathedral Churches. By the Abbot the human form, with respect to the Sugerius, who built Notre Dame at armour, weapons, professional dress Paris in the eleventh century, master and habiliments, peculiar to the age masons and carvers in stone were in in which the individual lived, or died. discriminately employed, and a con In the effigies of females particularly, sequent inprovement made in the scrupulous altention bas been paid io practice. The designs were certainly the inost minute article of dress, or furnished by Ecclesiastics. Six slạlues, change of fashion; and every perfect called “ La Galerie des Rois,” from sepulchral monument of the middle Childebert to Philip Augustus, first centuries exhibits a fidelity of descripappeared, as attached to the Western tion, extremely gratifying to the in
* Montfaucon, Mon, de la Monarchie Fanc. ; Millin, Antiq. Nationales.
Le Noir Musée des Mon. Franc. t. l. p. 153. The most perfect series of Statues in English Cathedrals, externally applied, and which have escaped the fury of Reformers and Puritans, are those at Wells and Lincoln. Carter, in his “Antient English Sculpture,” has sometimes surprised us with single figures, in which the air of the heads and the free cast of the drapery are far beyond what is usually allowed to the capability of Gothic artists.
Royal Tombs from 1216 to 1516. King. John, alahaster,'Worcester. Henry III. latten, or bronze, Westminster. Queen Eleanor, latten or bronze, Westmine ter. Edward II. alabaster, Gloucester. Edward III, bronze, gilt, Westminster. Edward, Prince of Wales, bronze, gilt, Canterbury. Richard II. bronze, gilt, Westminster. Henry IV. alabaster, gilt, Canterbury. Henry V. bronze, head of silver, Westminster. Henry VII, bronze, Westminster.
§ In Rymer's Federa, vol. VII. p. 1795-7, is the contract for the tomb of Anne, Queen of Richard II. with Henry Yvele and Stephen Lite,“ citeins et Maçons de Londre,” for 4001. to be paid in two years from 1395, “ouvert et fait selone le manere et fourme d'un patren ent fait”-and with Nich. Broker and Godfrey Prest, citeins et Copersmythes, “ l'ouvraige de coper et laton endorres." And in the Will of Edward the Black Prince directing bis tomb, “ d'ouvergne leve de Latoun surrorrez."
telligent Antiquary. In this attention alabaster, and painted to resemble to the drapery of Ecclesiastics, or the life, and the armour or habiliment armour of military meu, the real form then in use. Those of bronze or lais much neglected'; yet the outline is ten gilt + are in every respect supegenerally more correct than the rude- rior as works of art, with the single ness of the Gothic ages, with respect 'exception of the recumbent statue of to classical art, might lead us to ex. Edward Il. on his tomb at Gloucespect *. To elucidate a general view ter #, which was erected by his illugby particular instances of the progress trious son about the year 1334; the of sculpture, as applied to sepulchral precise date of that of John of Elmonuments, in Englaod, the inquiry tham in Westminster Abbey, which must commence with the 13th cen is nearly similar in material and plan. tury, because the architectural sta Artists had been procured from Italy tues, neither in point of number, au by Ware, Abbot of Westminster, thenticity, por excellence, before that the reign of Edward I. to some of period, are deserving of particular whom the two last mentioned may be notice. It is likewise certain, that fairly attributed. Pietro Cavallini their best artists were employed on was a paioter, and it is improbable the representations of the dead. No that he established a school of sculpaccuracy either of form or feature ture in England. The canopy, comwas required in the imaginary Saints posed of a series of tabernacle work, with which their shrines were deco- rising to a pyramid, nearly resembles rated ; and they are therefore usually those of the monuments of the Scainferior to sepulchral figures, both as ligeri, Lords of Verona, now remainto design and finishing:--Carter has ing in an open street of that city, of engraven several which will not be the same age, and which are ably deconsidered as unequal. The first, in lineated and described in the 13th vochronological order, of the Royal effi- lume of the Archæologia. By means gies is that of King John, in the Ca- of a mask of wax or plaster taken from thedral of Worcester, though doubts the face immediately after death, the are entertained of its having been most accurate likeness of our Mo. finished soon after he died. It is narchs may be still seen on their (as others are, erected in this age) of tombs, several of which have been
* Philippa Duchess of York, 1431, at Westminster; Alice Duchess of Suffolk, at Ewelme, Oxfordshire ; and Elin or Clifford Lady Percy at Beverley, in Yorkshire; are among the most beautiful in the fifteenth century. There is a peculiarity in the effigies of John Beaufort Duke of Somerset and his Lady, in Winborne Minster; and of Sir Robert Goushil, and the Duchess of Norfolk, at Hoveringham, co. Notts..; both of whom are represented as holding their wives by the right hand, and of the above-mentioned æra. The same attitude occurs in very splendid brass engraven figures of Thomas Lord Camois and his Lady, inlaid in a slab of marble, at Trotton, in Sussex. Such memorials cannot be with strict propriety enumerated as specimens of Sculpture (though Mr. Gough's authority in having introduced them among bis specimens might sanction it); being composed by Jines only intagliated upon plates of brass. They were invented in Flanders, and sent to England, chiefly from Ghent; and are found to abound principally in those Counties which supplied the Flemings with wool. See many engravings in Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, and Lysons's Magna Britannia.
† Henry III. is said to have had a figure of Catherine his daughter, who died in 1257, cast in silver; and Leland (Itin. vol. VI. p. 98.) speaks of a statue, in silver, of Gilbert de Clare Earl of Gloucester, and the head of Henry V. on his monument at Westminster was of that metal, which circumstance occasioned its being stolen. Mr. Stothard, Junior, in his most valuable work (now in course of publication) has discovered, by a process of most laborious investigation, that many of the effigies carved in alabaster of the date of the thirteenth century were beautifully painted and ornamented with gilding particularly describing embroidery in Mosaic patterns as applied to belts and fringes, concealed under washes of lime.
# Upon this tomb, as a superstructure, is placed a rich canopy of tabernacle work, similar to that erected for Charles V. of France and Jane de Bourbon, in the Cathedral of St. Denis, about 1380. Le Noir designates this kind of ornament, by the word “ Couronnement.”
§ The mask taken from the face of Henry VII. after his death, by Torrigiano, is preserved among the curiosities at Strawberry-hill.
engraven on a large scale in Gough's indeed, a masterly performance, and Sepulchral Monuments, a work splen. bas every appearance of baving been did and valuable in every point of originally modelled from pature g. view. It appears by contracts which From the commencement of the have been preserved, that the table 13th to the close of the 15th century, or architectural part was furnished it will be evident, upon a compariby master-masons, and the figures by son of the plates in Montfaucon and coppersmiths, and that the artist or other French Antiquaries with those modeller is very rarely named *. Two in Dart's Westminster, and Gough's the most remarkable instances of more extended and excellent Work, such agreements are that made by that through every æra, a very K. Richard Il. for the tomb now re- scrupulous imitation of French demaining in Westminster Abbey; and sigo and costuine prevailed in this another by the executors of Richard country; and, before the Revolution, Beauchamp Earl of Warwick, in his that France contained the prototype sepulchral chapelt. We have no do- of every fine monument of the Go. cuments to prove that many foreign thic ages, which we now see in our sculptors were established in England; own Cathedral Churches. and it is more than probable, that at We can claim few dative artists, first the bronze figures were cast in who arrived at excellence, by name; France or Flanders. In 1439, Tho. and though, doubtless, many were mas Porchalion, a founder io brass, is initiated into the mechanical parts of mentioned, as having contracted to sculpture, none are recorded as bemake the effigies of Isabella Countessing either very eminent, or capable of Warwick-"all nakyd with her bair of original design ; yet to the mecha-, cast backward.”-There is scarcely a pical process they appear to have Cathedral in England, in which a ti- been as competent as great mandal gure of a man emaciated by ex- ingeouity could make them, with treme sickness, or taked immediately out the aid of genius. . Upon the reafter death, does not occur, usually of vival of the Arts in Italy and France, ecclesiastics, and placed with another and as our national intercourse, espefigure of the same prelate, as a con- cially with the Papal See, increased trast to bis pride, in pontificals. The during the reigns of Henry VII. and art of the sculptor is more apparent in VIII. a new style of sepulchral sculpthe first mentioned, because mucb ana ture was introduced into England, for tomical accuracy was required, and which none of the sculptors, already shown. One of the earliest which I established were in any degree quarecollect, of a warrior so contrasted, lified. Florentine artists were engagis that of John Earl of Arundel I, ed, and the sumptuous mausoleum in slain in the French wars, under the bronze erected by Henry VII. was Duke of Bedford. It remains in the entrusted to the skill and design of sepulchral chapel of that noble family Pietro Torrigiano, who left Engat Arundel, and is finely sculptured in land in 1519, after the completion of white marble. The dead figure is, bis work. Benedetto da Rovezzano
* About 1520, Thomas Duke of Norfolk directs by his Will 1321. 6s. 8d. for making a tomb before the high altar at Thetford, as devised by Clerk, Master of the King's Works at Cambridge, and Wassall, free mason of Bury."
+ Rymer Fæd. and Dugdale's Warwickshire.--Gough (Introd. to 2d vol. Sepulcbral Monuments, p. cxv.) observes, that in the contract for the tomb of Richard II. " the marbler, founder, and coppersmith are all Englishmen;" and that “the Beauchamp Monument at Warwick was the sole work of our own countrymen.” The last ecclesiastic figure I recollect, is of J. Bush, wbo had been Abbot, and afterwards Bishop of Bristol, and was placed in that Cathedral after the Reformation.
I Engraved in Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, and in Stothard's Monumental Effigies.
One of the most modern of these emaciated figures is that of Sir Lionel Țan. field, in the Church at Burford, co. Oxon. It is of wbite marble, and exquisitely carved, in 1625. In the next century, the idea of personifying Deatb, by the figure of a skeleton in action, originated in France, and was introduced into Eng. land by Roubiliac.