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Feb. 2. I am induced to conclude that, IS
SEND you a Sketch (see Plate I.) during the latter part of the sixteeoth
of an interesting antient stone century, it was usual to procure mobuilding, which stands at a small dis- numents of great cost and dimensions stance from Tewkesbury, on the road to be made at Paris, or some other to Ledbury. There is a similarity of the French schools of sculpture, in the architecture to the Abbot of either by French artists or Flemiogs, Winchcombe's House ; which leads scholars of Jean Gougeon, still re: to the supposition that the place in gulated by the principles which their question might be the country lodg- master had acquired from Primaticings, or farm, of the superior of cio. There is indeed an exact anaTewkesbury. Be that as it may, the logy between the component parts of structure is singular epough in itself the tombs erected during this period to deserve a place ainougst your col. in France and England +, more relection of antique buildings.
markably in the semi-recumbent or Yours, &c. A TRAVELLER. koeeling figures before desks, the sar
cophagus, or altar table with bas.
reliefs; and the personification of On Sculpture in ENGLAND, as ap- Virtues by emblematical female efliplied to Sepulchral Monuments.
gies, which rarely dos rve the name (Continued from page 301.) of statues, THE æra of Queen Elizabeth had The most splendid and elaborate
of the Elizabetban monuments are well as in Architecture. A more per- composed of columns, generally of fect knowledge of architectural com. the Corinthian, or rather of the Compositions, as taken from the works of posite order, supporting a large Palladio, and the desigus of the new superstructure or entablature, cheItalian school, had, towards the con quered with many different kinds of clusion of her reign, found its way marble, usually vaneered. In the into this couotry, and the rich chim, centre is placed an alcove, with a ney-pieces, consisting of columns and circular arch inclosing a mural tablet efigies piled upon each other, bad for the inscription, surrounded by then first appeared in the sumptuous escocheons. The whole is finished by houses erected by her ministers and a pyramid placed on balls; and upon vobility*. Similar designs were soon a table tomb are recumbent figures, transferred to Cburches, and adopted the male in armour, both with the as sepulchral monumeots of the illus, robes and coronet of their nobility; trious dead.
and the lady in the dress of the times. I will endeavour to discriminate in frequent instances insulated figures the varieties of each particular style men and women, representing the in each æra, 'till it was totally aban- surviving children, kneel round the doned by the introduction of a new one. tomb, and infants are placed in
This peculiarities in Sculpture, as
* Particularly at Burleigh-house; and, in the next reign, at Hatfield and Audley End.
+ The monuments engraved in the third volume of Millin's Musée des Mon, Français, “Du 17 Siecle, afford ample proofs of this assertion ; 8vo. 1806. See Plates 99, 100, 101, &c.
# Instances of the variety which took place in succeeding ages in the form and construction of Tombs, will be principally selected from those in Westminster Abbey, which may still be inspected. Other repositories will be distinctly mentioned.
MONUMENTS. Edward, 8th Earl of Shrewsbury: effigy of the man upon a sarcophagus above the woman. Anne, Duchess of Somerset, 1587. The soffit of the arcade, in both these, is extremely rich. Mildred Lady Burleigh and her daughter Anne Countess of Oxford, 1589: the daughter is placed on the higher plinth; Lord Burleigh by himself, kneeling; and around, the children of Lady Oxford. About this time was introduced the custom of mixing the figures of living relatives with the dead. Before the tomb of Winefrid Marchioness of Winchester, and ac some distance from the table, are two kneeling figures, and an infant placed on a pedestal. In Old St. Paul's was a very rich monument of W. Earl of Pembroke ; and at Warwick is seen the sumptuous memorial of the Queen's favourite, Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester, which is a very fine specimen of the style above described. GENT. MAG. June, 1818.
cradles upon a base. Sometimes the effect. · Another instance is that of man and woman are upon tables, one a young lady in the dress of the above the other, and the whole su tinies, sitting upon a seulptured alperstructure attached against the wall. tar. She was a daughter of John
The tombs of Queen Elizabeth and Lord Russel. RICHARD STEEVENS, of Mary Queen of Scots have the a Fleming, was established about this same general design*. There is an time in London; and his best scholar, entablature, with an arch in its cena our first native artist, was EPIPHAtre, supported by ten Corinthian co Njus EVESHAM . The King's masterlumos (five on either side), which is mason was William Cure, with whom open like the peristyle of a Grecian contracts were made for these most temple. The figure of Elizabeth resls expeosive monuments by the execuupon a plinth, which is characteris tors of those most connected with the tically placed on the backs of four Court 5: The Sculptors, probably Liods.
chiefly foreigners, were engaged by I have never remarked an instance him, as MAXIMILIAN COLTE, other. in which the name of the artist ap. wise Poultrain || (a Fleming) appears pears upon any part of the tomb. to have been. The monument of T. Great professional merit is therefore Radclyffe, Earl of Sussex, at Boredeprived of its due.fame, and we are ham, in Suffolk, cost 2921. 125. 8d. left to attribute these excellent per. who had bequeathed 15001. for that formances solely by conjecture. purpose, but Steevens was paid the
Although the general design above first-mentioned sum for the figures mentioned occurs in abundant in- only. Siinilar monuments were unstances, not only in Westinioster Áb. dertaken by architects who furnished bey, Old St. Paui's (destroyed, but ad- the designs, the executive part only mirably engraved by Hollar), but like having been left to carvers of differwise in many Provincial Cathedrals ent skill and merit; from those who and Churches, an occasional devia- could finish a statue, to the mere work. tion is seen, which may claim a hap. man of columns and capitals. py concetto or fancy, though little en During the whole reign of King titled to the praise of true taste. James I. the pride of these costly
The tombs of Sir Johu Norris and memorials was no less excessive than Sir Francis Vere t have great merit of that of enormous houses, by which this kind. The dead figure of Sir that æra was distinguished. There Francis is wrapped in a winding-sheet. are few Counties which do not still Arouod it, four koights in the com exhibit these sumptuous tombs in plete military costume, are represent. obscure villages, where the former ed kneeling, and bearing upon their great mansion has totally disappearshoulders a slab, upon which is placed ed, or is falling into rapid decay. his armour.
The whole has a scenic More than a year's rental of the
* The figures of Queen Elizabeth and of Mary Queen of Scots, with those of some children of King James I. were contracted for with R. Steevens, by a writ of Privy Seal, in 1607. Walpole's Anecdotes, vol. I. p. 288. Lodge's Illustrations, vol. III. p. 319. For these, and another, it appears that the whole sum paid was 3,4001. which will convey to us a certain idea of the costliness of these posthumous honours. Thomas Cecil, Earl of Exeter, has a inural monument composed of the greatest variety of marble in columns and pannels, and the whole design broken into many parts. It is not easy to discriminate between the style prevalent in either of these two reigns. Four emblematical figures round the monument of Lodu wick Duke of Richmond are of bronze, whilst the rest is marble or alabaster.
+ These are among the earliest instances in which Sculpture is detached from Architecture, and not encumbered by it. Here is no canopy nor superstructure. The artist is at liberty to describe all that he intended.
Epiphanius Evesham made the bust of J. Owen, the Epigrammatist, in Westminster Abbey.
$ William Cure, master-mason of His Majesty's works, made the tomb of Sir. Roger Aston, with seven kneeling figures, at Cranford in Middlesex, in 1612, for 1801. This was of alabaster, or chalk, painted and gilded ; and it is to be observed, that marble was beyond the reach of common expense. --Lysons's Middlesex. Il See Lodge's Illustrations, vol. III. p. 319. Walpole's Anecdotes, vol. II. p. 39,
whole estate was frequently sacrificed Francis Lord Cottington, and Dudley to the memory of its deceased lord *. Lord Dorchester, which display much
The obligation which the Arts owe more of Italian taste and execution. to King Charles I. for their introduc About this time two foreigners of tion into this country is universally distinguished merit were greatly enallowed to him.
conraged in England, both by the King Sepulchral sculpture then assumed a and the Nobility, having been first innew character, and a bolder air. By vited here by Thomas Earl of Arundel. means of attributes uuder the sem These were, Hubert Le Sueur, who blance of fenjale figures or genii, parti- had studied under John of Bologna cularly the common representative of and Francesco Fanelli 1. It does not Fame, and weeping boys, a theatrical appear that they were ever engaged idea pervaded the whole composition. together in the same work, but that The Master of the Works, or Court
each exhibiled his talents in compeArchitect, I have reason to believe, tition. Both enjoyed the favour of was still the contractor, if not the the Court, and completed Royal Stadesigner; and, from the greater free. tues. Still, as the custom prevailed dom and correctuess of ihe designs, of leaving their best works of art, many were probably given by Inigo especially sepulchral, unmarked by Jones, though I have searched in vain the Sculptor's name, I hazard-a con. for any document in confirmatiov. jecture that the monuments of Sir
In the early part of this reign, we G. Villiers and the Duke of Buckinghad the first regular school of sculp- ham were by one of them. The first, ture established in England. Under of white marble, exhibits a plain ta. Isaac James, a successor of Steevens, ble tomb, with a plinth of black Nicholas Stone (of wbom we boast as marble, or touch-stone, upon which a national artist) first lived and stu. are extended the elaborately carved died duriag three years. They were figures of Sir George and his lady ; jointly employed upon the Earl of the sides are very richly embellished Northampton's monument at Green. with tablets and armorial bearings. wich. Stone afterwards perfected It has no column nor superstruchimself in Holland, under Peeter ture. The other is upon a plan of Keysar, whose daughter he mar Jess simplicity. Four emblematical ried. He obtained the appointment figures are placed at the corners of a of Master-mason ; and Mr. Walpole large table tomb bearing the effigies has preserved extracts from his note with the favourite figure of Fame, hook of the monuments he executed, which is extremely light and elegant. for whom, and the price he receivedt. The mural additions are in a bad In this catalogue, though there are taste. But a more simple and classi. some works of consequence, I do not cal composition is the monument of observe several which are more mag. Francis Lord Cottington, who leads nificent, now in Westminster Abbey. gracefully upon one arm, and in a I refer to those of Sir G. Villiers, his niche above him is a bronze bust of son the Duke of Buckingham, and of his lady. I do not hesitate to attri
* At Miserden in Gloucestershire is a table tomb of alabaster, painted and gilded, supporting two effigies larger than life, which cost 10001. in 1625, intended for Sir W. Sandys and his lady, an expenditure exceeding the annual value of their estate at that time.
† Anecdotes of Painting, 8vo. vol. II. p. 41. Stone is said to have received during the course of his life, for monuments, 10,8891. His highest prices are for Lord and Lady Spencer, at Althorpe, 6001. For Sir G. Villiers, 5601. For Lady Paston, at Paston in Norfolk, 3401.; and Sir C. Morrison and his Lady at Watford, Herts, 4001. &c.
Le Sueur is known for his equestrian statue of Charles I. now at Charing-cross, and one on foot of W. Earl of Pembroke at Oxford, where are also statues by Fanelli of that Monarch and his Queen Henrietta. Several exquisitely finished bronze busts by Fanelli are extant in the collections of the Nobility. At Welbeck is a bronze bust of Charles I. inscribed “ Franciscus Fanellius Florentinus f. Sculpt, Magn. Brit. Regis, 1640," which proves that he had an actual employment under the Royal protection.
At St. Alban's, Herts, the monument of the great Lord Verulam represents him as sitting, with his hat on, and in profound cogitation. The inscription has this characteristic expression : “ Sic sedebat ;" and it is probably a perfect portrait,
bute this bust at least, to Fanelli, be- notes ; but he was the contractor cause there are two more in West-only-perhaps the architect; and I am minster Abbey which are acknow led to this conclusion from the exledged to be of his hand; one of Sir treme inequality of his known works, Robert Acton, and the other of Sir and that he was ready to avail himself Robert Stapylton *, -Two other fo- of the aid of these foreigners. reign artists, Francis Anguier, and As a general point of discriminaAmbrose Du Val, obtained likewise tion in the monuments which are (according to D'Argenville) great pa- dated in the early part of the reign tronage and credit in Englaod, which of Charles I. we notice the they are said to have quitted upon universal prevalence of the large tathe breaking out of the civil wart. ble tomb, upon which one or two
In the Cathedral at Gloucester is figures are extended, with the armothe tomb of Alderman Blackleach rial crest carved and placed at the and his wife, in white marble, upon feet. Atlached to the sides of the taa slab of touch-stone, the figures of ble, are sometimes kneeling effigies which are portraits, scrupulously co of the children, smaller than life, and pied from Vandyck, and very finely at the end two large escocheons, con, finished. At Campden, in that county, taining all the quarterings belonging are others of similar execution, of both to the man and wife. This was Sir Baptist Hickes, and a bust of Lady an age of great heraldic exactness. Penelope Noel. The style of all these Ecclesiastics are usually represented is better thau any work of N. Stone in their canonical habit; and, when and there is reason to suspect that the not recumbent, as kneeling before an large sums he received for contracts, open book, placed upon a desk g. of which he has left memoranda, af- The canopy and arcade were no longer ford no good proof that he was the retained. I must not omit to men. sculptor of the figures and the supe tion a sitting figure in a Roman mili. rior parts. I am aware that he con targ costume, upon a circular altar, tracted for the Villiers' monuments, erected for Francis Holles, a young above described, according to his officer, in Westminster Abbey. The
* These are in a truly classical style, and worthy of the best sculptor of the cinque cento Italian school. Busts were first attached to sepulchral monuments in the early part of the seventeenth century.
of Francis Anguier visited Italy; and, upon his return to France, was patronized by Louis XIII. He was employed for many fine sepulchral monuments, among which was that of the last Duke of Montmorency at Molins (1658.) The kneeling figure of the President De Thou, now in the Musée des Monumens Franc, at Paris, is his work. D'Argenville, tom. ii. p. 171.
Ambrose Du Val spent the early part of his life in England, where he was much employed by the Court. He returned to France, being strongly solicited by the Minister Colbert. Le Noir, Monum. Franc. tom. iji, and v.
| A greater contrast cannot be seen in the works of any sculptor than in the figure of Lord Dorchester in Westminster Abbey, and of the two sons of Sir T. Lyttelton in the chapel of Magdalene Coll. Oxford. It appears to be impossible that they should have been the work of the same man, yet both are noted down in his book. Yet be, or the sculptor be employed, sometimes deviated into fancy. At Barking, in Essex, Sir Charles-Montagu, in a basso-relievo, is represented as sitting in his tent, with his elbow reclining on a desk, on which are his helmet and gauntlets. Two centinels guard the door, and a page holds his horse! At Tavistock, Devon, is the monument of Henry Bourchier, the last Earl of Bath, a sarcophagus supported by four wolves.
§ Dean Nicholas Wootton at Canterbury. Bishop Bickley, at Chichester.-Other examples are very frequent. The monuments of ecclesiastical persons had often a more immediate and striking reference to the semblance of mortality., Dr. Donne (the Satirist Dean) was represented in his winding-sheet, and standing upon an urn carved in white marble, by N. Stone. This monument was destroyed with old St. Paul's Church (see Dugdale); but the figure is still preserved. Skulls and bones were sometimes given in bas-relief, upon the sides of the tomb which supported the figure in full canonicals.
§ This idea was taken from that above mentioned, of the attitude in which Elizabeth Russel is placed. It is repeated at Ross, in Herefordshire, in a military figure of one of the Rudball family.
singularly good effect is produced by come peculiarly memorable; I beits being entirely insulated, and with. lieve the following short extracts out accompaniment.
from the elegant "Relique” noticed At Iver*, in Bucks, is a female figure in your Review, p. 342, may be acin a shroud, rising from a coffin, in ceptable to many of your Readers. tended for Lady Salter, who died in
“Esher is a small village, 16 miles this reign, which is attributed to Stone. He owed the idea (originally
from Westminster-bridge, on the road
from Kingston to Portsmouth; from French, and which has been since re
Kingston, it is about four miles : it adpeated) to une of his foreign assisl- joins to Thames Ditton, on the East; ants. EDWARD and Joshua Mar. to Cobham, on the West; to the river SHALL succeeded him t.
Mole, on the North and North-west, At this period, Bernini was rising and to Stoke Davernon, on the South. into faine. We have in England one
The Church stands on a small knoll monument only finished by him, of in the village, and is dedicated to St. Jane Lady Cheney, in the Church at George; it consists of a nave only, with Chelsea. It is, in respect of design
a chancel at the East end; but on the and workmanship, by no means su
South, on the outside, the Duke of Newperior to those by resident artists.
castle, when owner of Claremont, built But his manner, which I shall de
a Chamber-pew, opening into the Church.
It has been since divided between that scribe in the progress of this inquiry,
house and Esher-place. The chancelhaving been adopted in France, bad
windows were formerly famous for their a prevailing influence in England
painted glass, but nothing of it now reduring the last century. Before Ber mains. At the West end, is a low tower, nini, two kinds of sepulchral monu surmounted by a wooden pyramidal ments were prevalent in France; the spire, having three bells, une of which sarcophagus, not formed upon the is said to have been brought by Sir model, but merely adopting the idea Francis Drake. of the antique, with its sides sculp “Sir John Vanburgh, so well known tured in bas relief, or with the figure, by his particular style of architecture, in repose, upon its top t. M. Angelo bought some land in the parish of Esher, first added, to the representation of and built a low brick house for his own the individual, others, to demonstrate habitation. The spot he chose was in by allegory, his moral virtues I. low ground, without the advantage of Cromwell
gave no encouragement prospect. Thomas Holles Pelham, Earl to artists of any kind, excepting to
of Clare, bought it of Sir John, and was Simon, who engraved his money; and
created Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Walker, who painted his portrait. No
the 2nd of August, 1715. He made it monument of any consequence, as a
bis habitation, and added a magnificent work of art, was erected during his
room for the entertainment of large
companies, when he was in administragovernment of these realms.
tion. He increased the grounds by far[To be continued.]
ther purchases, and by inclosing parts
of the adjoining heath; and it now con.. Mr. URBAN,
tains about 420 acres. The other part "HE Village of Esher, and its of the estate contains 1600 acres, in
Princely Palace, having from several farms. The Duke adorned the a late melancholy circumstance, be. park by many plantations, under the
* At Exton, in Rutlandshire, Anne Lady Bruce is pourtrayed in a shroud and coffin. Ob. in puerperio, 1627. And at Cranford, Middlesex, Lady Berkeley is so represented in an alto-relievo of white marble.
+ Edward Marshall was the sculptor of a tomb at Tottenham, Middlesex, in 1644, on which were placed the busts of Sir Robert Barkham and his lady, surrounded by the kneeling figures of their eight children as men and women. At Chilham, in Kent, for Sir Dudley Digges, who died in 1688, there is a single Ionic column supporting an urn, and at the sides, the four cardinal Virtues, represented by females, size of Jife, weeping. The works of the Marshalls are: W. Earl of Devonshire and his Countess, 1628, at Derby; and Anne Lady Cutts at Swavesey, Cambridgeshire.
+ See Millin's Mon. Franc. tom. jii, where several specimens of this particular idea are given, chiefly from the designs and works of Germain Pilon, Jean Gougeon, and their School.
I Duppa's Life of M. Angelo, pp. 245, 247, and the splendid series of the Popes' monuments, in the Church of St. Peter at Rome.