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citizen ought to possess ; such are are entitled to important posts? the principals of morality, and the Are we ignorant that the virtues, laws of his country. Nothing more and particularly the learning of the is required, than the memory of a great, has an influence on the hapyoung man be principally filled pinefs or unhappiness of nations ? with ideas and objects relative to why do we then abandon to chance, the employment he will probably so effential, a part of the adminiembrace. Can any thing be more ftration ? To this it may be answered, absurd, than to give exactly the that it is not from a want of learned fame education to three different men in colleges, who are sufficiently men, one of whom is to enjoy a sensible of the faults in education, small place in the revenue, and the and acquainted with the methods two others the first places in the of connecting them : but what can army, the magistracy or the admi- they do without the aflittance of the nistration? Can we, without aitonishi- government ? the administration ment, see them employed in the should take care of the public edufame ftudies, till they are of age to cation. But great empires must not, enter into the world, and apply in this respect, be compared with themselves to their respe&ive em- little republics. Great kingdoms ployments
support themselves by their own Whoever examines the ideas im- magnitude : but that is not the case printed in the minds of young men, with a republic like that of Sparta, and compares their education with which, with a handful of citizens, the station in which they are to be was obliged to fupport the enormous placed, will find it as foolish as it weight of the Asian armies. Sparta would have been for the Greeks to therefore' owed her preservation have appointed only a master of the wholly to the great men who fuccefflute to teach thofe who were to be fively arose in her defence ; and Sent to the Olympic games, to dif- being then constantly employed in pute the prize of running or wrest. forming new defenders, the principal ling.
attention of the government was But it may be asked, why we do not fixed on the public education, attempt to make a better use of the Great kingdoms are feldom extime spent in education, if a better pofed to such dangers, and thence the use of it can be made? To what same precautions are seldom taken cause can we attribute our indiffe- for their security. But it may be rence in this respect ? why do we said, that there is no ftate fo powerput the pencil in the hand of an in- ful, but it will sometimes feel a fant designed for a painter ? why do want of great men. This is doubtwe place the fingers of youth, in- less true ; but no care is taken' to tended for a musician, on the keys prevent this want, because it is not of the harplicord ? why do both re- habitual. Foresight is not the virceive an education suitable to the tue of powerful states : persons in arts they are to profess, while we so great posts have too much business much negle&t the education of upon their hands, to superiotend the princes, of great men, and in gene- public education ; and thence it beFaļ all those who, by their birith, comes neglected. Betides, how
many many obstacles oppose the produc- be proposed is to render fubjects tion of men of genius in great king. more enlightened, more virtuous, doms? Yet men might even there and, in short, more capable of con-. become well instructed; for nothing tributing to the bappiness of that prevents our taking advantage of fociety in which they live. Now, early youth, to plant in the memory in arbitrary governments, the opsuch ideas as relate to the posts they position despotic princes think they may bappen to pollefs; but they perceive between their interest and will never form men of genius, be- the general interest, does not percause these ideas are barren, if not mit them to adopt a system so con fertilized by the love of glory. In formable to the public utility. . ln order to kindle this flame in our these countries there is no obje&t; minds, it is neceffary that glory, consequently 'no education. It would like money, fhould procure an in- be in vain to consider the sole means, finite number of pleasures, and that of pleasing the sovereign, as the ob honours should be the reward of ject of education; for what species merit. Now the interest of the of education would that be, where : powerful does not permit them to the plan is to be formed by the make fo just a distribution ; they ever imperfect knowledge of the will not accuftom the citizens to". manners of a prince, wbo may either consider favours, as a debt due to die, or changé his dispostion, before abilities, and therefore seldom be- the education is complcated. In ftow them on merit ; they perceive these countries it would be in vain they shall obrain the more gratitude to i labour for the reformation of from those they oblige, in propor-: public education, till that of the sotion as they are less worthy of their vereign's was compleated. ..., favours. Injustice then must often The vizirs, too jealous of reignreside in the distribution of favours, ing under the name of their mafters, and the love of glory be extinguished always kept the sultan's in a shames in all hearts.
ful, and almost invincible ignorance ; Such are, in great empires, the and take care that no person cecause of the scarcity of great men ; pable of instructing them fhall apof the indifference with whicn-chey proach the throne. But where the are considered, and of the little education of princes is thus aban. care taken of the public educationdoned to chance, what care can be But however great these obstacles taken of that of private persons ? may be, which, in these countries, A father desires to raise his fons to oppose the public education; yet, in posts of honour: he knows that monarchies; such as most of these in neither knowledge, abilities, nor Europe, they are not unsurmounta- virtues, will ever open them a way ble. They, indeed, become really to fortune; and that princes never so, and absolutely despotic, such as believe they have occasion for men those of the east; because there are, of genius and learning; he wilb no means, in those couptries, of therefore neither desire knowledge improving education. Without an or abilities for his fons: he will pbject in view, there can be na cdu- even have a confused idea, that in Eation; and the only object that can such governments a person cannot
be be virtuous with impunity. All the Atroy thee : think therefore of treatprecepts will be then reduced to ing them with respect.” some vague maximns, which, having Shall I refpe&t injustice ! No, but little connexion with each other, my father. The sublime porte frecannot give his children clear ideas quently requires a too búrthensome of virtue ; for he will be afraid of tribute from the people : 1 fhall giving them precepts too severe, not listen to such commands. I and too determinate. He would know a man is under obligations to have a glimpfe, that a rigid virtue the state, only in proportion to the would be injurious to their fortunes, interest it takes in his preservation; and therefore endeavours to supprets that the unfortunate owe it nothing; instead of encouraging it.
and the affluence itself, which fupLet us illustrate this truthi by an ports the taxes, requires a wise ecoexample ; let us suppofe, that a fa- nomy, and not prodigality. It ther designs his "fon for a balhaw, will therefore be my duty to enor governor of a province, and that, lighten the divan."ready to take poffeffion of that pott, “ Abandon this project my son, the son fays to him, “O'my fathet! thy representation would be in vain, the principles of virtue 1 have acits commands must be always quired in my infancy have budded obeyed.”in my soul. I depart to govern "Obeyed! No rather let me remen; their happiness shall be my fign to the Soltan the place with only care. I fall not lead'a more which he honours me." favourable ear to the rich than to "O, my son, a foolish enthusiam the poor. Deaf to the menacés of for virtue leads thee astray. Thou the powerful opprefibr, 1 fall als wilt ruin thyfulf, and the miseries of ways hear the complaints of the thy people will not be removed : weak under oppreffion, and impar- the divan will nominate in thy tial justice fhall always prefide at place a person of less humanity, my tribunal:»;
who will discharge thine office in a "O my fon; how amiable toes' more fevere manner.” the entholafin' of virtue tender “Yes, injustice will doubtless be youth L. but age and prudence will committed, but I fall not be the teach thee to moderate it. We inftrument. The virtuous man; enought doubtless to be juft : yet to trusted with the administration, eiwhat requests art thou going to be ther does well, or retires: the man expofedt to how many little aets more virtuous still, and more fenfiof injustice must thou be blind! ble of the miseries of his fellow If thou art forced to refuse the great, subjeêts, snatches himself from the what graces, my for, ought to ac- converse of cities, into deserts, focompany thy refusal! elevated as refts, and even' among the favages; thou art, a word from the sultan flies from the cdious aspect of tycan reduce thee to nothing, and ranny, and the too affiding light confound thee in the throng of the of the misfortunes of his' equals, vileft flaves. The frown of an Such is the conduct of virtue. I Iman may shake thy throne,' and should, thou fayest, have no imitathe hatred of an eunuch may de tors; I hope the contrary. Thy
fecret Secret ambition makes thee think what power wilt thou recal to my fo, and my virtue makes me doubt mind those aystere maxims of virit. But suffer me to examine thee tue I learned in my youth? Why in my turn: if I associate myself is thine ardent zeal grown cool, with the Arabs, who plunder our when I am required to sacrifice this caravans, may I not say to myself, virtue to the orders of a sultan, or a whether I live with these robbers, vizir ? I dare to answer this queror separate myself from their com- tion: it is because the lustre of my pany, the caravans will be still at- grandeur, the unworthy price of a tacked: by living with the Arab I base obedience, would be reflected Mall soften his manners; I shall op- on thyself: thou wouldst then overpose at least the useless cruelties he look the crime; but if thou, didst commits on travellers: I shall do discover it, thou wouldst change its my duty without adding to the pub- name, and call it duty.” lic misery. This reasoning is thine, Thus we see it would be the and if neither thy nature nor thy- highest absurdity to fill the mind self can approve it, why then with magnanimons ideas, in counfhouldest thou permit, under the tries where vice is rewarded and virname of bashaw, what thou forbid. tue punished. But this is not the delt under that of Arab? O, my. cafe in monarchies ; reformation father! mine eyes are at length there, though difficult, is not imopened, I see that virtue does not possible. inhabit despotic states, and that in But I am wandering from my thy breast ambition stifles the cry subje&; discussions of this kind reof equity! I cannot proceed to gran- quire a volume: and shall therefore deur by trampling justice under my conclude with observing, that the, feet, my virtue defeats thy hopes : whole plan of an excellent educamy virtue becomes odious to thee, tion is reduced to this, first to fix in and thy hopes being deceived, thou the minds of young men such ideas, givest it the name of folly. It is as have a relation to their state and ftill to thee that I must refer it; fa- fortune; and, secondly, to use the thom the abyss of my soul, and an- most certain means of inflaming swer me.
If I sacrifice juftice to them with the love of glory, and pleasure and wanton caprice, by the public esteem.
Transation of a Letter wrote by Prince Ferdinand to General Sporcken, on re.
fgning to him the Command of the Allied Army in Germany,
longer necessary; his Majesty was '
had , my arrival at Neuhaus, to favourable answer, in the following write to the King to congratulate letter; which I send you, General, him on the Peace he had made with to be communicated to the army. France and Spain, and at the same “ COUSIN, time to ask his permission to quit "I thank you for the obliging his army, where my presence is yo congratulations in your letter of the 23d paft, on the happy conclufion the most grateful sense of the favours of the peace, to which your good with which you honoured me duconduct at the head of my army ring the time that I commanded hath so greatly contributed. I readily the army. I shall never forget with consent to your demand, and am how great and happy success I fought very glad that, after so much fatigue, at the head of the brave troops that you will enjoy, in the bosom of composed the army, for liberty, and peace, that glory which you have so for their country and mine. This juftly acquired. Being, moreover, I fall always remember, and it will convinced how much I owe to your make me think continually on the great merit, you may be assured of obligations I owe to the generals, my persevering in these sentiments, and officers in particular, who, by being, with much esteem and devo- affifting me with their experience tion, cousin, your devoted cousin, and good advice, enabled me to St. James's,
serve my country, and to discharge, Dec. 3, 1762. GEORGE R.” at the same time, the trust with
which I was honoured by the king. “ In consequence of this permil- I therefore desire, general, that you Lon, which his majesty has gracious- will return them my sincere thanks, ly given me, I resign to general and that you will also thank, in my Sporcken the command of the ar- name, the whole army, for the obemy, which I shall leave to-morrow dience, they paid to me whilst I had the 24th of Dec. I am the better the honour to command them. satisfied, as his majesty has conde- Neuhaus,
FERDINAND scended to repeat to me his appro- Dec. 23, 1762. Duke of Brunfwic." bation of my conduct : and I have
Tbe Hiftory of Quacks, or stroling Vagrants, called Mountebanks, Water. Cafiers,
Grig, a poulterer in Surry, was limbs or lives of his majesty's subset in the pillory at Croydon, and jects. again in the Borough, Southwark, Dr. Lamb, a most noted quack, during the time of the fair, for and one who had acquired a large cheating people out of their money, fortune by his pretended medicines, by pretending to cure them by was at last obliged to confess he charms, by only looking at the pa- knew nothing of phyfic. tient, or by casting his water. Read and Woodhouse, two other
In the reign of king James the cotemporary quacks, were likewise First, the council dispatched a war- brought to justice, and acknowledge rant to the magiftrates of the city ed the same. of London, to take up all reputed In Stowe's Chroncile we meet with empiricks, and bring them before a relation of a Water-Cafter being the censors of the college, to exa- set on horseback, his face to the mine how properly qualified they horse's tail, which he held in his