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With an accurate Map of that County.

RESH IS hire owes its 35,309 inhabitants.

name to its Welsh It is a very mountainous coun. To appellation Brychei- try, except on the north-fide; but

nog, or Breckiniaue, intermixed with many pleasant and and is bounded on fruitful valleys and plains, which

the north by Radnor- produce plenty of corn; and with Thire; on the east by that of Here- regard to cattle, prodigious berds ford; on the south-east by Mon- are sent every year to England from mouthshire ; on the south and the mountains. The air is very south-west by Glamorganshire; and mild, except upon the hills, where on the west by part of the fires of it is sharp, but wholesome. Caermarthen and Cardigan. Mr. The principal rivers are the Ulk, Templeman extends it to thirty- the Wye, and the Yrvon. The five miles in length, and thirty-four Usk comes from the Black-mounin breadth, and gives it an area of tains, on the south-west side of the seven hundred and seventy square county, and thence runs , northmiles. It is divided into fix hun- ward, till it reaches Tre-castle, dreds, containing four market. after which it winds towards the towns, about 6000 houses, and eatt, passing by the town of BreckJune, 1763,



nack, and leaves the county a little aldermen, two chamberlains, two below Crick-Howel. The Usk runs constables, a town-clerk, two serthrough the middle of the shire ; jeants, and other inferior officers; but the Wye only waters the north- is pretty well inhabited, has some side of it, and enters Herefordshire fare of the woollen manufacture, at Hay. The Yrvon rises among the ruins of its cattle, with some the hills on the north-west-side of towers, and three churches. the county, whence it runs fouth Bealt is a pleasant town, situated towards Llangamauh, where it in a woody part of the county on turns to the north west, and falls the river Wye, over which it has a into the Wye at Bealt. These, as large wooden bridge, leading into well as the lefser rivulets, are all Radnorshire. It has two weekly well stored with fith, particularly markets, on Monday for cattle, and the Ulk and the Wye, which on Saturday for corn, &c.

It was abound with salmon and trout. fortified with a castle, built by

In this county is a famous pool, Rice ap Griffith, and rebuilt by the or meer, about two miles east of Breoses and the Mortimers. In the Brecknock-town, called Brecknock- year 16yo, a considerable part of meer, which is two miles long, the town was totally destroyed by and nearly the same in breadth, an accidental fire. It has a conwhich, tho' full of otters, abounds fiderable manufacture of stockings: with perch, tench, and eels.

Hay is a good town, situated on The capital of this county is the banks of the Wye, on the borBrecknock, situated almost in the ders of Herefordshire. It is supcentre, and a compact well-built posed to have been well known to town; with good markets on Wed- the Romans, from their coins being nesdays and Saturdays. It itands often found here, and some ruins at the confluence of the rivers of walls built by that people, still Hondhy and Usk, over which is a remaining. It was burnt by the good stone-bridge. That this place rebel Owen Glendour, in his pafwas inhabited at the time of the fage through these parts. It once Romans, is plain from several coins had a castle, which, with those of of their emperors that have been Brecknock and Radnor, were mors. found, and from Roman bricks gaged by William de Breos, lord of often turned up by the plough in Brecknock, to king John. a square camp near it, with this The most remarkable antiquity inscription, Leg. II. Aug. Bernard in this county, is that noted monuNewmarch, who conquered this ment called the Maiden-stone, in county in the time of William British Maen y Morynnion. It is Rufus, built a stately castle here, a rude pillar erected in the middle which was afterwards repaired by of the road near Brecknock, fix the Breoses and Bohuns: and king feet high, two broad, and fix inches Henry Eighth founded a collegiate thick. On one fide are the figures church of fourteen prebendaries, of a man and woman, drest in anwhich he translated hither from cient habits. The antiquity of it is not Abergwily, in Caermarthen fire. It doubted; but whether it be a British is governed by two bailifs, fifteen or a Roman work is uncertain.


THE Normans, notwithstand- people were equally pleased, and he

ing their repeated treaties, consented that the county of Conand the vast sums of money which tentein, kould be incorporated, and they had received, continued to for ever annexed to Bretagne. make descents perpetually in the It had been happy for him 867 territories of France, sometimes in and his subjects, if all his deone place, sometimes in another, signs had been as just in their nawhich gave the king inexpreffible ture, and as fortunate in their iffue, trouble. Sometimes he repelled as these ; for both the kings reforce by force; at others he was mained perfe&tly satisfied with these constrained to procure their de- concessions, and engaged, whenever parture, by paying them large sums the circumstances of his affairs of money, which differed little from should require it, to second him tribute, by which the kingdom was against his enemies, each of them at length lo exhausted; that, having with a certain corps of troops, which engaged to pay them four thousand was a point of great consequence to pounds in filver, he was compelled his government, and contributed to have recourse to a capitation not a little to the repose of France. in order to levy it. What was stiil The case of the king of Lorrain a heavier misfortune both to him was by this time become of the last and to the nation, was the death of importance. Lothaire flattered Robert le Fort, who, with two himself, that Pope Adrian would other generals, fell in an engage- treat him with more tenderness

ment with the Danes. The king than his predecessor had done, · had married his second wife, by notwithstanding the discoveries that

whom he had several children, but had been made by the archbithops they died young. He was very de- of Cologne and Treves, who being firous to have her publicly crown. abandoned by the king, after all ed, from a superstitious opinion they had done, went to Rome, and that the children he might have by laid open all that scene of corrupher afterwards would survive. This tion and perjury in which they had ceremony was accordingly perfor- been partakers. It seems indeed to med; and the king being appre- have been the Pope's intention; hensive that it might increase the who, having commanded him to discontent of his eldest son, Lewis, put away his mistress, to take an whose continuai intrigues with the oath to have nothing more to do king of Bretagne had given him with her, and to engage twelve of exceffive trouble, he resolved, once his principal nobility to support this for all, to try if it was not posible oath by their own, encouraged him to content both. With this view to come to Rome, in order to rehe declared Lewis, king of Aqui- ceive absolution. This did not, by taine, in the room of his brother, any means, please his uncle, who, with which both the prince and the in case the sentence of excommuni

Nn 2

cation cation had been pronounced, would and Germany, and upon their reinfallibly have difpoffeffed him of port to a council which was to his dominions: and, in order to have been held at Rome, to have desettle the method of division among cided which was the king's lawful themselves, the two kings of Ger- spouse ; for, in the second

cause be. many and France had an interview fore the Pope's legates, Lothaire at Metz, where the matter was en- had affirmed, that he had married tirely settled between them. This Waldrade before he espoused Theutcoming to the ears of Lothaire, berg. But there was no occasion heightened his uneasiness exceed for these proceedings, fince, ingly. He applied himself, there in his return to his domi- 869 fore, with great affiduity to obtain nions, Lothaire died of a fever the good will of his uncle, Lewis at Placentia, on the 7th of August, the German, upon whose word he It was generally believed that he could better rely than upon that of was himself perjured, and that the Charles : and after several inter- lords who communicated with him views, and laying before him the knew it. They all died in a very difficulties he was under, he carried short space, and he did not survive his point, insomuch that he pro- them a full month. By the demised, not only to make no at- mise of this prince, without lawful tempts upon his dominions in his issue, the succession to his dominions absence, but likewise to protect his lay open ; but Charles of France; son Hugh, whom he had by Wald- who had an arıny ready to march, rade; and even restored to him the and withal a very strong party in county of Alsace, which he had Lorrain, entered and took posteryielded some years before, and fion inmediately: and having been agreed that it should be erected in- folemnly crowned at Metz, looked to a dutchy, in favour of that young upon this realm as his own, notprince. In confidence that his uncle withstanding the Pope interfered in would perform his promise, Lothaire favour of the emperor, who, as the proceeded in his voyage to Italy, brother of the deceased, seemed to where his brother the emperor de- have the best right; and, notwithclined seeing him ; but he sent his ftanding, the king of Gerinany inconfort to meet him, who accom- fifted on his claim. But, when the panied him to his interview with the latter had prepared to assert it by Pope. Adrian gave him hopes, arms, Charles consented to a divi. celebrated mass in his presence; fion, which took place in the sucand, when they came to communi- ceeding year, by which the flames cate, purged him and the lords who of war were kept from breaking were with him, as to the cath they out. had formerly taken. Lothaire, and It was judged necessary, in order the greatest part of his attendants, to this, that the two kings should communicated; though some, upon have an interview; and with this hearing the Pope's exhortation, view Charles went to Herstal, and grew back.

Adrian intended to Lewis came to Mersen, and from have had the whole affair examined thence each advanced to a royal over again by the bishops of Lorrain palace, at an equal distance from

both both places, and, after a month's Carloman's being in orders, retime spent in conferences, the bufi. folved to prosecute him by church ness was amicably settled. Lewis censures, but firft procured the obtained by this partition, the cities bishops in his dominions to excomof Cologne, Utrecht, Strasburg, municate those who had seduced his Bahl, Treves, Metz, and their de- fon into rebellion, or who supportpendencies, with all the countries ed and allisted him therein; and between the rivers Ourt and Meuse, Hincinar, bishop of Laon, having together with Aix-la-Chapelle, and refused to sign the excommunicamost of the districts between the tion, was also proceeded against in Rhine and Meuse. On the other the fame way; and at length Carhand, Charles acquired Lyons, Be- loman himself, who thereupon apsancon, Vienne, Tongres, Toul, plied to the Pope; and he writing Verdun, Cambray, Viviers, and Usez, in a very rough stile to Charles, together with Hainhault, Zealand, gave him an opportunity of thewand Holland. The Pope ftill in- ing him in a very contemptible light terposed very warmly, and left no to pofterity. The circumstances of method untried to have procured at the French monarch were very least something for the emperor, if much changed. In the beginning it had been in his power; but it of his reign he courted equally the was to no purpose, at least with nobility and the bishops; afterregard to Charles, who, when he wards, being abandoned by the found the Ponriff grew very angry, former, he cajoled the latter, and and treated him but very coarsely it was chiefly by the help of their in his letters, laid them afide, with- authority that he had emerged from out giving the Pope any answer. his troubles : but now his power His fon Carloman, whom he had and his experience being greater, put into orders, but whom, not he answered the Pope with great withstanding he had fuffered to fpirit and good-fense, reproached command his forces more than him for the indecent language he

once, having no inclination had used, and made him fo fensible 870 to that course of life to which of the rashness of his conduct, that

he had been destined by his he found it necessary to pen a refather, left the court; and putting cantation, which, no doubt, he himself at the head of a body of fattered himself would be kept a desperate thieves, committed horrid secret; and with which postedevastations in the country between rity being acquainted, is from the Meuse and the Seine, which thence enabled to form a 'right gave the king great disquiet, and judgment of the piety and policy the more, because all the promises of the court of Rome. He went of pardon he could make were farther : from affecting to dictate vain, and without effect.

to Charles he became his creature; Pope Adrian being misinformed, and, in hopes of railing his own or not having fagacity enough to family, promised all the ailistance make a right judgment of affairs, pollible in promoting his interposed in this business also: defign of affuming the impe- 871 fue the king, taking advantage of rial dignity, and taking por


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