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March 5. The Grenades subjected to 24. The French defeated at Grathe English.

benstein. 16. A cessation of hostilities between 28. The prince of Mecklenburgh Russia and Prussia signed.

failed from Plymouth, and the 17. The Brest Aleet arrived at Cape count of Lippe from Falmouth, François.

for Lisbon. - The Ventura, a Spanish frigate, July 7, The English land on Cuba. taken.

9. Catherine II. ascended the throne April 5. The Dragon, a French ship of Russia.

of 64 guns, loft at San Do- 17. The deposed emperor of Russia mingo.

died. 27. The Spanish and French mini- Aug. 12. The prince of Wales born. sters left Lisbon.

12. Havannah taken by the English. May 5. A peace between Russia and 23. A Dutch Lip of war taken by Prussia figned.

the English. 6. English forces arrived at Lisbon. 25. Almeyda surrenders to the Spa9. Miranda, in Portugal, taken by niards. the Spaniards.

27. Valencia de Alcantara, taken by 13. The Portuguese minister left Paris. the English and Portuguese. 15. Braganza, in Portugal, taken Sept. u. The duke of Bedford arby the Spaniards.

rives at Paris. 21. The Hermione, a Spanish re- 13. The duke of Nivernois arrives gifter ship, taken.

at London. 23. War declared by Portugal 18. Newfoundland retaken. against Spain.

18. The Humber man of war loft 24. Chaves, in Portugal, taken by off Yarmouth. the Spaniards.

08. 9. Schweidnitz taken by the 25. The Spaniards repulsed at the king of Prullia. river Douro.

Three French frigates, and a June 15. War declared by Spain fleet of merchant-thips, taken against Portugal.

by commodore Keppel. 18. The Danes invested Hamburg. Nov. 1. Caffel taken by the Hano20. War declared by France against verians. Portugal.

3. Preliminaries of peace signed at 22. The Danes withdrew from Fontainbleau.

Hamburgh, after receiving a 22. Preliminaries of peace ratified. sum of money.

25. The session of parliament 24. The French landed on New- opened.


To the Authors of the British MAGAZINE. GENTLEMEN, OME paffages in the papers, following, taken from Villaret's hif

published by the champions on tory of France. The reader will both sides of the present political naturally observe that both nations conteft, induce me to send you the were then of the fame religion, conJanuary, 1763.



fequently one great cause of animo- and gentry to acquiesce in the exfity did not subfift.

change. “ At the intreaties of the “When the English were to be king and his beloved cousin, says put in possession of the places and Froifart, they complied, but it was territories specified in the conven- forely against the grain.” The cities, tions between Edward III. and towns, and villages, universally John II. both nobles and com- breathed a like spirit of inseparable mons openly shewed an equal aver- attachment and devotednefs to the fion. The La Marches, the Com- crown of France; it was above minges, the Perigords, the Chatil- a year before the inhabitants of lons, the Curmines, the Piccornets, Rochelle could be brought to subthe Foix, the Armagnacs, the Al mit; they would not so much as brets, all these heads of our most allow an Englishman to come withillustrious families, together with in their walls. To all the king's the lords and gentlemen connected solicitations they answered with the with them, flew into a flame, on most animated protestations of zeal notification that they were now to and fidelity ; they conjured him for change masters; they one and all God's fake, not to discharge them temonstrated that the king was the from their allegiance, not to cut only fovereign they owned, that them off from his domain, not to they were infeparably united to the give them up to strangers, vowing French monarchy; they pleaded they had rather pay every year one their charters, patents, and privi- half of their incomes than to be leges, confirmed by all our kings transferred to the king of England. lince Charlemain ; fubmission to John, charmed with such worthy any other dominion than that of subjects, but at the same time tortheir lawful prince they execrated, tured by a keen sense of the loss of with one mouth, as the most insup- them, affe&tionately made answer, portable hardship, the most infa- That the peace, and the very safety mous abafement.

of the kingdom, required this facri• This generous reluctance filled, fice, not less painful to him than to the king's heart with a correspon-' them. At length, seeing their defdent grief, which, however, was tiny fixed, by the king's unmoveable combated by an inviolable regard adherence to the convention; they to his word, and thereby the fate of submitted, and their final answer to fuch loyal vassals was determined; him was this, “ With our lips we this defalcation was, indeed, the will obey the English, but they malt forced purchase of the national se. not have the least Mare in ons curity and welfare. He sent James hearts." de Bourbon to bring the nobility

An ESSAY on Ingratitude and Gratitude.

HERE are some ungrateful their benefactors. 'Tis with gra

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blamed for their ingratitude, than men, it keeps up commerce, and we do not pay because 'tis just to juries, as often as they befought discharge our debts, but to engage' him. people the more eafily to lend us Let every man who receives a another time. To be halty to re. benefit, repay it in an exact pro. turn an obligation is one sort of in- portion : whoever does this Mall be gratitude. There is more danger greatly rewarded in both worlds. in doing some men too much good, He will enjoy the conversation of than in using them ill. When we his friends and acquaintance thro magnify the tenderness that our life with the greatest satisfaction, friends have for us, 'tis often not who estimates their good offices to so much out of gratitude, as a defire him at a higher rate than they to give others an opinion of our themfelves set on them, and in the merit. The gratitude of most men same proportion under-values his is only a desire of receiving greater own good offices to them. favours. We seldom find people Anaxilaus, king of Rhegium, ungrateful as long as we are in a whose justice was equal (says Juftin) condition to oblige them. 'Tis to the cruelty of the tyrants in those no great misfortune to oblige un- days, reaped no small advantage grateful people, but it is an intole from his moderation ; for at his de. rable one to be obliged to a brutal cease having left his little sons unman. We take more pleasure to der the tuition of Mycitus his ferfee the persons we have done good vant, so great was the universal to, than those that have done good love which the people preserved to to us. Gratitude is the mother of his memory, that they chose rather virtue. It is the blackett ingrati- to obey a servant, than to desert tude to accept the best of any one's the sons of their fate king; and the endeavours to please you, and pay great men of the city, forgetting it with indifference. Trifling gifts their dignity, permitted the exercife receive a value, when they are the of royal power to be in servile offerings of respect, esteem and gra. hands. titude. Men are grateful accord Injuries are never obliterated, but ing as they are refentful. He that benefits are consumed in the very is grateful would be generous if he fruition ; for freedom doth not dehad it in his power. The error of light even in the same degree as the giver oft-tines excuses the in- Navery hurts us; no man confiders gratitude of the receiver, for a fa- the free power of enjoying his own, pour ill-placed is rather a profufion as a favour-for to this he thinks than a benefit. We are apt enough he has a right; but if he be once to acknowledge, that such a man deprived of this right, he is fure has been the making of us. never to forget the injury.

Osway king of Northumber When Cæsar was upbraided for land was murdered by the confpi- preferring mean fellows to great racy of two earls, who being asked honours, he anficered, if he had what moved them to a crime lo risen to power by such men, he heinous, answered, that it was be- vould be grateful to them when in cause he was so genrle to his ene- power. mies, as to forgive them their in Julius Cæsar had got the better

or of Bibulus by means of Cæpio, for The man who confers a favour which he soon afterwards rewarded becomes a firmer friend than he him by taking away his wife Julia, who receives it; for the former who was Cæsar's daughter, and thinks only of preserving the benegiving her to Pompey.

volence he hath acquired in the When Arbaus was become mal- mind of his friend, whereas the ter of Babylon, principally by the other sees the obligation with a means of Belesis, he was, by his for- colder and diinmer eye, considering mer benefactor, deceived into grant himself rather as paying a debt ing him all the pleasures of Sar- than conferring a favour in whatdanapalus, which he imagined had ever he doth. perished with their professor; this Machiavel says, injuries are to irick being discovered, Belesis was be committed all at once, that the by the principal officers of the last being the less, the diftafte may army condemned to die: but Ar- likewise be less; but benefits should baus not only reprieved him, but be distilled by drops; that the relish suffered him to enjoy all the trea- may be the greater. sures he brought off, saying that his Men receiving good offices where former merits were much greater they expected ill, are indeared by than his later demerits had been; the surprize, and become better af. an action, says Diodorus, which was fected to their benefactor, than per. no sooner publicly known, than it haps they would have been, had procured him universal glory, and he been made prince by their im. love over all the Babylonian pro- mediate favour. vinces.

A Letter to the Duke d’Aiguillon from Sir Edward Hawke, written foon after

the GLÒRIOUS 20th of Nov. 1759; which shews the Honour and Spirit of the brave English Commander in so true a Light, that we are perfuaded there is no British Bojom, but will be fired with the Sentiments of Loyalty and Patriotism on the Perujal.

ROYAL George, Dec. 12, 1759.

need only have recourse to my I of

letter of the 11th inst. in answer November, by lord Howe, with reto which, I beg leave to acquaint gard to the Heroe. - - My words you, that captain Oury has acted are: “I therefore claim these of entirely by my orders, and that I ficers and men as prisoners, and approve of what he has done. His expect from your Grace's known manifeft

, of which your Grace has honour, that they be immediately transmitted me a copy, is a fufti- delivered up to me.” The hull and cient proof of his humanity, and guns were not mentioned; for the the tenderness of my orders, which first I had set on fire, and the fewere not to fire unless he should be cond I looked on

as in my own fired upon.

Let me further Without further recollection, I beg your Grace to look over the agreement you signed with lord mercy: the delivery of the officers Howe: is the artillery so much as and men, is all that depends at mentioned in it? No. Every article present on the honour of your court, of it I have strictly observed ; ex- the artillery are within our reach; changed seamen, released oficers, our endeavours to take them away soldiers and miliria, on the terms of being justifiable, I was in hopes the cartel, and sent the guardes ma- would not have been intercepted; rines a-shore on parole. I could but since your Grace, and the marnot help being furprised, that no quis de Broc, have thought fit to potice was taken in that agreement fire upon my ships, I shall take as of my claims of the Heroe's officers severe a revenge as I can, along and men; and was answered your coasts, as soon as I receive that matter belonged to another supplies from Britain. department, not to your Grace's; For I came out near eight months which occafioned my writing to ago, only furnished with orders to you again upon that subject. I can decide the fate of the two nations only further assure your Grace, that with M. de Conflans in the open had a captain of a British ship of fea; but when we met, as he did war, under my command, begged not choose to stay for me, he has quarter, and surrendered to the thereby changed the nature of my French, and afterwards run away military operations, and reduced with the thip, in the open breach me to the necessity (entirely reof the rules of war ; I would have pugnant to my natural disposition) immediately delivered up the ship, of lending fire and fword into that with the commander, to have country, from whence your Grace, been treated as the forfeiture with forty battalions under your of his honour deserved. The command, by the authenticated infame I should have expected from structions of marDial de Belleisle, the duke d’Aiguillon, if I did not was to have spread the most dread. consider him as the subject of a ful calamities of war in Great Briftate, in which the will of the tain or Ireland. I cannot permonarch constitutes

power to recover.


constitutes right and fuade myself your Grace could be wrong.

serious, when you termed my enI assure your Grace, upon my terprises irregular; it was merrihonour, that I never heard of any ment: and I shall not hereafter be memorial to be presented to the ad- surprised, if, in the same Gaiete de miralty of England, who have no Coeur, I hould be accused of acting concern in matters of this kind. By irregularly in attacking M. de the bounty of their king, British Conflans (after a chace of twenty feamen are entitled to every thing leagues in the open seas) within surrendered by, and taken from, an your islands, and on your coast, enemy in war. In their names, and setting fire to the Soleil Royal, and for their benefit, 1 Mall endea- &c. vour to recover the Heroe's guns, As an individual, I honour and and also those of the Soleil Royal, respect the duke d’Aiguillon : as a which was deserted and left to our commander of a British squadron


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